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XLhc IbaMuiPt Society. 





1608 — 1667. 

Vol. I. 
TRAVELS IN EUROPE, 1608— 1628. 

No. XVII. 

Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 





1608 — 1667. 

Vol. I. 
TRAVELS IN EUROPE, 1608— 1628. 









• Ms- 

24 O'U 





Sir Clements Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., President. 

The Right Hon. The Earl of Liverpool, Vice-President. 

The Right Hon. The Lord Amherst of Hackney, Vice-President. 

The Right Hon. The Lord Belhaven and Stenton. 

Thomas B. Bowring. 

Colonel George Earl Church. 

Sir William Martin Conway, M.A., F.S.A. 

The Rev. Canon John Neale Dalton, C.M.G., C.V.O. 

George William Forrest, CLE. 

William Foster, B.A. 

The Right Hon. Sir George Taubman Goldie, K.C.M.G., D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S., Pres. R.G.S. 
Albert Gray, K.C. 
Edward Heawood, M.A. 
Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.S.L, 

C.B., R.E. 
John Scott Keltie, LL.D. 

Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, K.C.B. 
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Frederick William Richards, G.C.B. 
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Hobart Seymour, G.C.B., O.M. 
Lieut. -Col. Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Bart., CLE. 
Roland Venables Vernon, B.A. 
Basil Harrington Soulsby, B.A., F.S.A., Honorary Secretary. 



Introduction . 
Author's Title 

Author's Preface . 
Author's Contents 



Relation 1 13 — 40 

Mundy goes to France, 13. Early voyages in Spain and 
Portugal, 14. Sails to Constantinople, 14. His voyage 
down the Mediterranean, 15 — -18. His description 
of Scanderoon, 19. Arrives at Constantinople, 21. 
"Computation" of miles travelled, 24. Author's "Sup- 
plement," 24 — 40. 

Relation II 41 — 136 

The journey from Constantinople to Belgrade, 41 — 72. 
Description of Belgrade, 72—75. Description of the 
Bulgarians, 76 — 78. The journey from Belgrade to 
Sarajevo, 78 — 81. The journey to Spalato, 82 — 86. 
In quarantine, 86 — 88. The voyage to Venice, 88 — 90. 
Description of Venice, 91 — 98. The journey from 
Venice to Turin, 98 — 109. Pindar's reception at 
Turin, 109 — 11 1. The journey over Mt. Cenis to 
Lyons, iii — 119. On the Loire, to Orleans, 120 — 122. 
The journey from Orleans to Paris, 123 — 124. Descrip- 
tion of Paris, 124 — 130. The journey from Paris to 
Calais, 130 — 133. The passage to Dover, 134. The 
journey to Islington, 135 — 136. "Computation" of 
miles, 136. 

Relation III 137 — 145 

Mundy goes to Seville, 137. Becomes servant to Richard 
Wyche, 137. Journeys to Spain, 138 — 142. Visits 
St Malo and Jersey, 143 — 144. Enters the East India 
Company's Service, 144. "Computation" of miles, 145. 




A. Extracts from Blount's Voyage into the Levant . 146 

B. Account of the Wyche Family 158 

C. The Roy all Merchant and Captain Joshua Downing. 166 

D. The Levant Company and its agents at Constantinople 

in Mundy's time . . . . . . .171 

E. Constantinople in the seventeenth century (Extracts 

from the Writings of Grimston, Gainsford, and 

Sandys) 183 

F. Extracts from Des Hayes' Voiage de Levant and 

Bargave's Voyages and Journeys . . . .199 

G. Extracts from the Note-Books of Richard Symonds . 217 

Bibliography 236 

Index 245 

Errata . . . . 285 


Author's Title-Page To face p. i 

"Stakeing, Gaunching and Drubbinge" . . „ 55 

" Severall Sorts of Swinginge " . . . . „ 58 


Mundy's Route in Turkey „ 41 

Mundy's Route in Italy „ 88 

Mundy's Route in France . . . . . „ 113 


ETER MUNDY began writing an account 
of his many travels in Europe and Asia as 
early as 1620, and continued his narrative 
at intervals thereafter up to 1667, compiling 
a huge MS. volume full of valuable matter 
of all sorts, and of exceptional interest to students of 
geography and history. It is therefore a matter of con- 
siderable surprise that his MS. should have remained 
practically buried from that time to this. It was known 
to Tonkin, the early i8th century Cornish historian, and 
to Thomas Fisher, "Searcher of Records" at the India 
Office in the early 19th century, but I have found only 
three references to it in works written during the last 
sixty-five years. In J. S. Courtney's Guide to Penzance, 
1845, there is a short extract from the first Appendix and 
a brief notice of the work. In Boase and Courtney's 
Bibliotheca Cornubiensis (1874), vol. i. p. 379, there is a para- 
graph on Peter. Mundy's Travels, and, in W. P. Courtney's 
article on Mundy in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. (1894), attention 
is drawn to the value of his MS., which is commended 
to the notice of the Hakluyt Society. 

My own acquaintance with Peter Mundy and his work 
is, however, primarily due to Mr William Foster of the 
India Office, who inspected the MS. at the Bodleian 
Library some five years ago, and furnished me with an 
abstract of its contents. Its scope is very wide, as it 


comprises 17th century accounts of practically the whole 
of Continental Europe, parts of England and Wales, 
Western India, China and Japan, besides containing his- 
torical notes of no little value. It covers a period of sixty 
years, and it is doubtful if any other contemporary work 
of equal merit exists. The value of such a MS. to the 
student can therefore be hardly over-estimated, especially 
as a careful examination has shown that the author was 
an educated man, who, unlike most writers of his day, does 
not indulge in "travellers' tales," unless he qualifies them 
by the saving clause, " This by Relation." 

The length of the MS. has necessitated its division 
into several parts for the purposes of this Society and, 
in order to keep the early European travels distinct from 
the Indian voyages, I have thought it best to confine this 
volume to Mundy's first three Relations and to supplement 
his information as far as possible from unpublished or 
little-known works dealing with his various journeys. 
For this reason, I have drawn largely on the MSS. of 
Richard Symonds and Robert Bargrave and also on the 
almost forgotten books of Des Hayes, Gainsford, Grim- 
ston, etc. The bibliography attached to this volume will 
show the extent to which the MSS. of the period, both 
at the British Museum and Bodleian Libraries, have been 
searched to find contemporary support for Mundy's 

The present transcript of the MS. forming the text of 
this volume has been made from the only complete copy 
known of Mundy's work, Rawl. MS. A. 315, in the Bodleian 
Library. It has been carefully collated with Harl MS. 2286 
in the British Museum, which contains a duplicate of the 
early travels only. The method of transcribing adopted 
is the same as that employed by myself in the case of the 
Bowrey MS. (Hakluyt Soc. Pub. 2nd series, vol. 12). That 
is, the author's spelling, with his capitals, is strictly adhered 


to, but contractions have been written out in full and the 
punctuation has been altered where necessary for clear- 
ness. Marginal notes, when repeated in the text, have 
been omitted, and those of importance have been re- 
produced as footnotes. Such illustrations as appear in this 
part are exact reproductions of Mundy's own drawings, 
and on the three maps supplied are indicated the most 
important of his early European journeys. 

As other volumes are to follow, the introduction to 
this volume contains only a brief summary of Mundy's 
career. A detailed account is, however, given of his 
actions during the years 1608 — 1628, the period covered 
by his iirst three Relations. 

I have had many helpers in the task of preparing this 
first instalment of Mundy's Travels for the press. To 
Mr William Foster I am especially indebted both for 
calling my attention to the MS. and for much generous 
assistance in the work of editing. I have, besides, re- 
ceived assistance from many other scholars. In most 
cases my acknowledgements have been expressed in the 
notes to the text, but I beg here also to tender my hearty 
thanks to Professors Blumhardt and Wilson, to Mr Edwin 
Pears of Constantinople, Mr Donald Ferguson, Mr W. 
Irvine, Mr W. P. Courtney, Mr F. Cordeux-Rhys and to 
Dr Rudolf Sanzin of Vienna, for help on various points. 

I have again to express my acknowledgements to 
Miss L. M. Anstey who has been continuously at work 
with me on this volume for the last two years. Without 
her assistance and powers of accurate research it is no 
exaggeration to say that the notes would have lost the 
greater part of their value. I also wish to record my 
appreciation of the services of Miss Alice J. Mayes, 
especially in connection with the references to the Levant 

I must further record my thanks to the Cambridge 


University Press and Mr John Clay for excellence of 
printing and saving of trouble in proof-correction. 

I have thought it best to attach a full Bibliography 
and Index to each volume as it is produced, in view of the 
length and scope of the whole work and of the number of 
years which must elapse before the final volume can be 


The Nash, 


June^ 1907. 


HOUGH Peter Mundy was one of the most 
remarkable travellers that the West of 
England has ever produced, hardly anything 
is known of his parentage and family. The 
following facts are all that we can learn 
from his own writings. He was born at 
Penryn in Cornwall ; his grandfather Peter Mundy was 
" Chanoon or Chantor" of Glasney College, Cornwall, about 
1530; his parents resided at Penryn until about 1634; his 
father was, in his youth, apprenticed at Totnes ; both 
his father and his uncle were engaged in the " pilchard 
business"; his paternal aunt married the Rev. John Jack- 
son, rector of North Petherwin, Devonshire ; he had at 
least one brother ; and he himself went to Rouen with 
his father in 1608, when he was presumably about twelve 
years old. These meagre particulars are practically all 
that have so far come to light from any quarter, though 
it is hoped that, before the issue of the last volume of 
the Travels, additional information will have been un- 

According to Tonkin, the Cornish historian, Peter 
Mundy was the son of Richard Mundy, Senior, Merchant, 
but apart from Mundy's own references to his " father," no 
other mention has been found of him. Richard Mundy 
and his brother were both alive in 1621, when Peter 
travelled to Seville with pilchards on their behalf. His 
mother was alive up to 161 1, after which date he makes 
no mention of his " parents." His father was alive in 
1635, as is shown by reference to him in Mundy's Preface, 
but he was probably dead before 1645, the date of the 


commencement of the St Gluvias burial registers at Penryn, 
as there is no mention of him there up to 1650, when my 
search ceased. A Robert Mundy was buried at Penryn on 
the 1 6th October, 1646, and was apparently the "Robert 
Mundy of Penrin, Merchant," on the marriage of whose 
daughter, Joan, with George Kest, circ. 1625, a settlement 
was drawn up between the fathers of the bride and bride- 
groom^, but there is no clue as to whether he was the 
brother or son of Richard Mundy. Peter Mundy's parent- 
age must thus for the present rest on conjecture. 

The Penryn Mundys were most probably connected 
with the Mundys of Rialton Manor, in St Columb Minor, 
twelve miles north of Truro. These Mundys were the 
younger branch of the important family of Mundy of 
Marketon, Derbyshire, and Osbaston Hall, Leicestershire^ 
The founder of this family, John Mundy, flourished in the 
time of Edward I., and the eighth of the line became 
Sir John Mundy in 1495. Sir John's son and namesake 
was Lord Mayor of London in 1522-3 and died in 1538. 
He was the father of a numerous family, two of whom, 
Thomas and John, his fourth and fifth sons, made their way 
to Cornwall and founded the Rialton family. Thomas was 
Prior of Bodmin in the reign of Henry VHI. and died in 
1554. John settled at Rialton Manor, a former appanage 
of Bodmin Priory. Perhaps the Prior's influence procured 
the appointment of " Chantor at Glasney College" for 
Peter Mundy, the traveller's grandfather. John Mundy's 
third son was Richard and, it may be, the father of 
Richard Mundy of Penryn, but there is no real proof 
of this. The only other Richard among the Mundys of 
Rialton, up to the middle of the 17th century, was Richard, 
tenth child of John Mundy and great-grandson of the first 
owner of Rialton. This Richard appears by his will to 
have died unmarried in 1647 and to have had no im- 

1 Harl. MS. 6243. 

2 See Nichols, History and Afitiquities of the Coimty of Leicester, 
vol. iv. p. 525. 


mediate connection with our author. Richard's sister, 
however, married Hannibal Vivian, whose brothers were 
Peter Mundy's travelling companions on his voyage to 
Constantinople, as will be told later on. 

Of Mundys of Penryn, besides Robert, mentioned 
above, the only two that have come to light are Anthony 
Mundy, living in 1599, and another Anthony Mundy who 
was buried in 1677. They were presumably father and 
son and are both described as " of Penrin," the elder 
being a "merchant" and Member of Parliament for the 
borough. Unfortunately, the facts connected with these 
individuals throw no light on their parentage, nor on Peter 
Mundy and his family. A search among the Mundy willsy 
proved in the P. C. C, has been equally fruitless. Still, by 
prosecuting enquiries in every likely direction, I trust that, 
with the issue of vol. ii. I shall be able to furnish some 
accurate information as to the origin of so unique a 
character as Peter Mundy. 

As the scope of Mundy's work and the amount of 
matter that yet remains to be published are so large, I pro- 
pose to give here but a brief chronological table of his 
whole career as gathered from his MS., and to follow him 
in detail only during the years 1608 — 1628, with the story 
of which this volume is concerned. 

Brief chronological account of Peter Mundy s 

1596 {circ.) Born at Penryn. 
1608 Goes to Rouen with his father. 
1610 At Bayonne learning French. 
161 3 At San Lucar with Mr Parker. 
161 5 At Seville with Mr Weaver. 

1617 Goes to Constantinople with James Wyche in the 
Royall Merchant. 

1620 Journeys to England overland from Constantinople. 

1 62 1 Goes to Penryn. 

1 62 1 Goes to Seville on the "pilchard business," 


1622 Returns to England. 

1625 Goes to Valladolid about the "Copper Contract." 

1626 Goes to St Malo and Jersey. 

1627 Returns to Penryn. 

1628 Goes to Surat in the Expedition in the East India 

Company's service. 
1634 Returns from India in the Royall Mary. Goes to 
Penryn, and is " welcomed home" by his friends. 

1634 Makes a trading voyage to London in a "Lobster 

boate," and returns to Penryn via Basing House 
and Winchester. 

1635 Goes with Sir William Courten's fleet to India and 


1638 Returns to England. Arrives in London, 15th 


1639 Makes a "Petty Progresse" in England and Wales. 

1640 Goes to Holland, Russia, Prussia and Poland on 

a trading voyage on his own account. 
1647 Returns to Falmouth. 
1650 At Penryn. Writes his first Appendix to his MS. 

1654 In London. Writes notes on his early voyages. 

1655 Makes his third voyage to India in the Alleppo 


1656 Returns to England. Arrives in London, 3rd 


1658 In London. Writes an Appendix of contemporary 

1663 Returns to Penryn. 

1663 — 1667 At Penryn. Continues the chronicle of con- 
temporary events, including news from India, 
the appearance of comets, etc. Concludes with 
a copy of the Proclamation after the Treaty of 
Breda, read in Penryn the nth September, 1667. 

Peter Mundy passed his childhood in his native town 
of Penryn in the south of Cornwall, a fitting nursery for 
a lad whose natural bent was travel and adventure, for it 
lies at the head of a creek, only two miles north-west 


of the then important seaport of Falmouth, which took 
a prominent part in the EngHsh achievements against the 
Spaniards in 1588. If, as is probable, he was born in or 
about the year 1596, it is possible that Peter Mundy's 
youthful mind was filled with stories of the doings of the 
Cornish folk in those days. No doubt, also, he was well 
acquainted with the circumstances attending the catch 
of pilchards, " our Countrey Comoditie^" and had perhaps, 
from this source, acquired a knowledge of the sea and 

His early instruction was most likely received at the 
"free Schoole" at Penryn, one of the three then existing 
in Cornwall, and also at North Petherwin, where he " liv'd 
awhile"with his uncle, the Reverend John Jackson, "Preacher 
and Pastor of that Parish^" In 1608, his father, Richard 
Mundy, took him, while still a lad, to Rouen, the capital 
of Normandy, on account of his education and perhaps 
in connection with the pilchard business®. At Rouen, 
Peter Mundy remained one month and was then sent to 
Bayonne to " learne the French Tongue*." There he 
stayed two years, returning to Falmouth in 1610. 

In May, 1611, he commenced the work of a life that 
proved to be an exceptionally busy one, and left his home 
to serve with Captain John Davis as a " cabin-boy^," 
a position which was then apparently quite different from 
that occupied by the cabin-boys of to-day. The term 
seems to have signified a trade-apprentice rather than 
a menial servant. By the beginning of 161 3, he is found 
to be in the care of Mr George Weaver, who lived with 
a Spaniard at Sanlucar de Barrameda at the mouth of 
the Guadalquivir, and who may have been engaged in the 
flourishing pilchard" and tin trade of Cornwall with Spain. 

1 See p. 137. ^ Mundy's first Appendix. 

^ " In France they utter their pickled Pilchardes." Norden, A 
Topographical Description of Cornwall., p. 23. 

* See p. 13. ^ See p. 13 f. 

^ "The dryed ware (Pilchardes) theycarrye into Spayne." Norden, 
A Topographical Description of Cornwall, p. 23. 

M. b 


Peter Mundy stayed with him about two years, until he 
went, at the end of 1614, to Seville under the orders of 
Mr Charles Parker. In this service he visited, for the 
purposes of trade, the ports at the mouth of the Guadiana. 
He had probably picked up some knowledge of Spanish 
from Senor Patinno at Sanlucar, and in the two years he 
spent at Seville he " attained 1" that language. After an 
absence of five years and seven months, he returned to 
London with Captain Davis. He was now a young man 
of about twenty, well-equipped for that life of incessant 
travel which he subsequently led. A full record of his 
proceedings at this period does not appear to have come 
down to us, as he says that Relation I. refers only to 
" some Voyages etts. recalled to memory since my first 
settinge forth-." 

On the 1 6th December, 1654, thirty years after he 
wrote Relation I., Mundy added to his earlier Remarks 
on France and Spain as follows^: — ''London^ the i6th 
December, Anno 1654. My intention is, if God spare mee 
life and leisure, to Copy outt this booke over againe, as 
well to rectifie whatt is amisse according to my abilitie, 
as allsoe to insert many things omitted by mee, amongst 
the rest some thatt follow, Vizt. 

Roan, 1608. My first voiage was over to Roane in 
Normandy with my Father. The Citty lieth on the 
bancks of Seine, a River thatt runneth through the Citty 
of Paris, passeth by this, and att Newhaven^ runneth into 

^ See p. 14. ^ See p. 24. 

3 The extracts quoted are taken from fol. 220 of Mundy's MS. and 
are entitled "The Appendix Somwhat concerning severall Citties, 
Places, etts." The length of the MS. is so great that these remarks 
were overlooked until it was ransacked for evidences of Mundy's life. 
Since they were discovered too late to print as the Author's Appendix 
to Relation I., I have thought it best to reproduce them here. 

* I can find no record at this period of any other name but Havre 
de Grace for the port at the mouth of the Seine. Still, as the town 
was not a century old when Mundy visited it, having been founded by 
Francis I. in 15 16, it is just possible that, in his day, it was known to 
Englishmen as the New Haven. The Sussex port, now called New- 
haven, was then the village of Meeching, and possessed no harbour. 


the narrow Seas, the Contention betweene which and the 
River produceth a strange effect, called by us the Bore, 
especially att Spring tide, for the River keeping his course 
against the tide of floud, which rising att length over- 
maistreth the River, in such manner that the streame 
which ran Downeward is in an instanc forced backe 
againe with exceeding swiftnesse and fearful 1 Noise heard 
A greatt way off^ This bore or tide head comes sodainely 
many foote high like great rouling feathering Waves, over- 
turning smalle vessells, boates, etts. what it meetes in its 
way, making others fleete thatt are aground, and all this 
as I said on a sodaine appearing for a while like a tem- 
pestuous Sea thus only as it passeth by, and soe runneth 

farre up in to the Country^ 

There is att Roan a greatt bell (which I allso saw not) 
through forgetfulnesse, butt heard much therof by others. 
There is written about it this verse : — 



I heard a Dutch Captaine say that hee measured the 
Circumference, and that it was nine fathom and one span 
of his about the brymme ; hee beeing a tall Man, it could 
not bee lesse then fifty-five foote in circumference, which 
is aboutt eighteen foote Diameter, and, as aforesaid, 60000 
waightt* 600 quintalles-' or 30 tonne. 

There are allsoe many poore people, both men and 

1 The bore on the Seine extends as high as Caudebec, rises from 
one to three feet, and is similar to the bore at the mouth of the Severn 
to v/hich Mundy compares it. 

2 Here Mundy adds a short paragraph about " The Tide head in 

3 A mistake. This famous bell was called George d^Amboise. It 
was cast by order of George, Cardinal d'Amboise, the favourite 
minister of Louis XII., and was hung in the Tour de Beurre, the 
loftier of the two towers of Notre-Dame at Rouen. The bell was 
melted down at the Revolution. 

* i.e.^ pounds. ^ A quintal of 100 lbs. 


weomen ; sometimes a man and his wife in stead of horses 
Drawing small Carrs, transporting of goods from place to 
place in thatt Citty. 

Bayofi, 1610. Bayon in Gascony lieth on the borders 
of France, betweene it and Spaine. There the Artisans 
wives wear an attire on their heads like unto Morions or 
head peeces, made of lynnen, stuft with Cotton, coullored 
with saffron, stucke with pinns\ I was told they wear it 
for a remembrance of their courage and resolution in 
assisting to expell the English from thence aboutt Anno 
1453, wee holding thatt place and all Gascony besides 
many years-. (Search the Chronicles^'.) Servant Maides 
goe in their haire, which hangueth displayed and Dispersed 
over their backes and Shoulders, having the Crowne of 
their heads shaven Just as friers. 

San Lucar, 161 3. Att this place an Englishman 
married a Spanish woman (who Dwelled next Dore to 
us)'* Killed his wife and one of the Kings Commissaries 
finding them together, who^ after some trouble, was 
freed according to the lawes of the Country. Here lived 
DE MEDINA SIDONIA, who was generall in 88«, 
and Died before my comming from Spaine, aboutt Anno 


Sevill, 161 5. Of this Citty much might bee said, it 
beeing large, populous, Ritche, and a place of greatt 
trafificke. I will only relate a word or two of some par- 
ticularities therin. The Bridge over which they passe to 

^ In the MS. there are two small drawings of male and female 
heads with the " attire " described. 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, "31th year Henry 6 
[z>. 1453] ; wee held it 300 years." The dates are correct. 

2 This is probably a memorandum intended by Mundy for himself. 

* i.e., Mundy and Mr George Weaver. See ante, p. xvii. 

^ i.e., the Englishman. 

** Alonso Perez de Guzman, Due de Medina Sidonia, who com- 
manded the Spanish Armada in 1588, retired to San Lucar circ. 1595 
and died there in 161 5. 

'■ Mundy left Spain and returned to England at the end of 1616. 


TRIANA is built on greatt Lighters and mored att both 
ends, rising and FaUing with the tide^ 

La GIRALDA DE SEVILLA or tower of Sevill. 
LA IGLESIA MAYOR or greatt Churche. The Steeple 
or tower of the greatt Church is exceeding high, very 
artificially built, soe thatt all the bells may bee seene 
from withoutt side, in number aboutt twenty-six. The 
great bell the best thatt ever I heard I It may bee 
ascended on horsebacke untill you come to the said belles. 
On the top of all is the Image of a Woman standing on 
a globe, holding a banner in her hand, which serves as 
a fane to shew the winde. The said Image is called 
LA GIRALDA, from which the whole tower takes its 
namel From the said tower I saw the high hills of 
GRANADA, accompted 40 leagues off; they are allwaies 
covered with snow. The Churche beelonging to the said 
tower is very large, faire and ritche, it having 500,000 
Ducattes of yearly rent, admirably graced with rare and 
costly Images, pictures, etts. ornamentes within. And I 
conceave with the best musicke both for Instrumentts 
and voices thatt is in all Spaine. 

EL ALCAC^AR, or King's house, att Sevilla. The 
Alcacar (or as wee pronounce it Alcasar) or Kings house 
is allsoe an Elaborate Structure*. 

LA VEGA DE SEVILLA^ or vally of Sevill, for 
proffitt and Delight nott to bee parallelled in the whole 
world for plentie, variety and excellency of Productions, 
take one with another. It lyeth in the best part of 

^ The Moorish bridge of boats over the Guadalquivir, connecting- 
Seville with the suburb of Triana, existed until the middle of the 19th 
century. In 1845-52 an iron bridge was erected a little below the site 
of the ancient bridge. 

^ The Santa Maria, set up in 1588. 

^ The Giraldillo, or vane, is a bronze female figure, representing 
Faith, cast by Bartolome Morel, in 1568. It stands on a small dome 
and holds the banner of Constantine. 

* The palace of the Moorish Kings and a Spanish royal residence 
after the capture of Seville by the Christians in 1248. 

^ Ve^a, an open plain, a tract of level and fruitful ground. The 
district south-east of Seville is extremely fertile. 


ANDALUZIA, which province is accounted the most 
fertill in all Spaine. 

I had forgotten LA XARALL^ DE SEVILLA, which 
is a large forrest of Olive trees round about the cittie, 
1 8 leagues in compasse, somwhatt Distant from it, having 
many townes, villages, pasture, tillage, gardeins, etts. in 
and outt among itt. I was att Las dos HERMAN AS 
(the two sisters), a towne soe called^, filling oile in pipes 
at the oile Mills, lying aboutt two leagues off. 

A Strange Ceremony. I was told thatt when the King 
of Spaine cometh thatt way and is to enter the Citty, they 
make a bridge for him thatt hee may com over the walls 
and not through any of the gates ; for, through which 
gate so ever the King enters, all goods, Merchandize, etts., 
which shall either bee imported or exported through the 
same, shall bee Custom free, which would bee a greatt 
losse and hinderance to the Citty : soe the King is pleased 
to com over the walls as aforementioned. 

AYAMONTE. I can say butt little of this place, only 
the Harbour or inlett Devideth Spaine from Portugall, on 
the Spanish side Ayamonte, on the other Castromarin. 
Into this Inlett or Creeke runneth the river GUADIANA, 
which, aboutt 40 leagues up in the country runneth into 
the ground, and aboutt 20 miles from thence, riseth outt 
of the earth againe^ This by relation and Description 
in mapps. I saw it not. I came from Sevill to this 
place*, where I remained butt a little while. From hence 
I went over to Castro Marin Speto T A VI LA in the 
Algarves^ aperteyning to the Kingdome of Portugall. 

^ Xaral or Jardl, a place planted with the cistus or labdanum 
shrub (see Stevens' and Neuman and ]3aretti's Spanish dicfwnaries). 
Hence, probably, any plantation. 

- Dos Hermanas is g miles from Seville. 

^ The Guadiana disappears 12 miles from its source (at Lugar- 
Nuevo) and for 15 miles is lost in a bed of reeds and rushes. 

* i.e., Ayamonte. 

^ Tavila or Tavira, in Algarve. Mr Donald Ferguson suggests that 
' Speto' may be Mundy's mistake for perto, near. As it stands, the 
passage is unintelligible. 


From these places are transported great store of figs, 
oile, etts." 

Whether Mundy went to his home in Cornwall on his 
return to England after his absence in Spain is doubtful, 
as, within a fortnight, he was off again on his travels. 
This time to Constantinople, whence we know that he 
returned to Cornwall in 162 1. His new master was Mr 
James Wyche, one of the numerous sons of Richard 
Wyche, a London merchants James Wyche went to 
Constantinople in the interests of his father, a member 
of the Levant Company, and Mundy seems to have been 
engaged as a mercantile clerk, an office for which his pre- 
vious experience would render him well fitted. He sailed, 
in 1617, on the Royall Alerchant, under the command of 
Captain Joshua Downingl 

The Royall Merchant carried several passengers, all 
interested in the Levant trade. Mr James Garraway (or 
Garway), whose kinsman Thomas founded the famous 
coffee-house, and Mr Bartholomew Abbot, whose relative 
Sir Morris Abbot owned the ship, were on board. There 
were besides, two Cornishmen, Roger and Charles Vivian, 
sons of Hannibal Vivian " of Trelewarrein." The Vivians 
were connected by marriage with the Mundys of St Colomb 
Minor* and were probably no strangers to Peter Mundy*. 

To a man of Mundy's power of observation, the 
voyage through the Mediterranean was " full of various 
Novelties and delights'," and he tells us of several matters 
characteristic of sea travel in his day, including a story 
of a " terrible broyle^" off Cape St Vincent, which nearly 
occurred from mistaking a friendly fleet for pirates in the 

1 See Appendix B. ^ gee Appendix C. ^ See cmte^ p. xv. 

* Charles Vivian, at the time of his voyage to Constantinople, was 
apprenticed to Sir Morris Abbot, " Cittizen and Draper of London." 
He obtained ''his freedome" in July, 1622, and was admitted a 
member of the Levant Company, instate Papers, Foreign Archives, 
vol. 148, p. 74 b.) Roger Vivian was Sir Thomas Abdy's companion 
in his travels in France in 1633. He died in 1653. 

'" See p. 16. 


darkness. He also remarks on the hospitality that English 
merchants settled abroad always extended to their fellow- 
countrymen at that time. 

Of the various observations he records may be noted 
those on the cleanliness and decorative beauty of Leghorn, 
where he gained his first experience of quarantine. Off 
Stromboli he saw a volcano in active eruption — also a first 
experience. At Zante he noticed the cultivation of " cur- 
rence" to the exclusion of corn. He gives an unpleasing 
description of Scanderoon (Iskanderun or Alexandretta), 
with its " boggs, foggs and froggs^" It was then the port 
of Aleppo, and there he tasted roast porcupine and wild 
boar and found them " Savourie meate^" He made the 
usual guess of his day at the site of Troy on passing that 
neighbourhood, and finally he reached " the famous Port 
and Imperiall Cittie of Constantinople^" where he at once 
became engrossed in business. 

During the time that he spent in the Turkish capital 
he must have heard and seen much of interest. Un- 
fortunately he kept no record of this period of his life, 
and his account, which was written circ. 1634, and revised 
in 1650 and 1654, consists only of "passages recollected 
by Memory"*." Among these " passages" are the revolutions 
that occurred during his stay and the turmoil occasioned 
by them. He arrived a short time before the death of 
Ahmad I. and witnessed the accession of the hapless 
Mustafa, who was taken from a prison to a throne. Three 
months later, in February, 16 18, he heard of the revolt 
in favour of Osman and of the imprisonment of Mustafa 
for the second time. His summary of these events, " Three 
grand Signiors in three monethes'," is brief and to the 
point. Mundy also remarks on three events which occurred 
during his sojourn in Constantinople and terrified him, 
namely, a slight earthquake, an extensive fire causing 
heavy loss of life, and a visitation of the plague when the 

^ See p. 19. ^ See p. 20. ^ See p. 21. 

* See p. 3. ^ See p. 21, ;/. 5. 


mortality was said to have risen to a thousand a day. 
The contemplation of these horrors causes him to close 
Relation I. with the ejaculation, " From which evills and 
all others, good Lord deliver us, Amen\" 

Mundy gives practically no description of the life of 
his day in Constantinople, but it does not seem to have 
pressed heavily on the Europeans, for he tells us that 
" the English Merchants pass very Commodiouseley with 
pleasure, love and Amitye among themselves^." This last 
remark seems to show that James Wyche and his im- 
mediate friends did not personally suffer from the many 
obstacles to English trade, of which the ambassador, after- 
wards the well-known Sir Paul Pindar, was sending home 
so many and bitter complaints while Mundy was living 
in Constantinople. 

Among recreations, Mundy mentions that he joined 
a party of his countrymen in an excursion to Pompey's 
Pillar, on the eastern shore of the Black Sea. 

Mundy is curiously careful to give, at the end of each 
Relation, " computations " of the miles he travelled during 
his journeys, and he reckons the total distance traversed 
from the time he set out for Rouen till his arrival at 
Constantinople, including his visit to Pompey's Pillar, as 
175394- He was obviously proud of these tables of dis- 
tances and with reason, considering that his only means 
of transit were sailing vessels, horses or wheeled vehicles 
drawn by animals. 

In i6i8, James Wyche succumbed to small-pox, which 
was epidemic in that year at Constantinople. After his 
master's death, Mundy " remained with Mr. Lawrence 
Greene," Junior, a merchant, who, we may reasonably infer 
from this fact, had been in some way connected with James 
Wyche. This Lawrence Greene subsequently became the 
Levant Company's Consul at Smyrna, and was one of the 
many merchants then residing at Pera, a suburb of Con- 
stantinople. From this new association, Mundy doubtless 

^ See p. 39 f. ^ See p. 22. 


gained further insight into mercantile affairs. He "re- 
mained" with Lawrence Greene for nearly two years, but 
whether he was acting in the interests of the Wyche 
family or as clerk to Greene, or in both capacities, it is 
difficult to determine. 

Mundy's account of Constantinople is very meagre. 
With his usual strict adherence to truth, he owns that 
the memory of his early years is somewhat indistinct, and 
he therefore contents himself with referring his readers 
to "the relation of others^" and only comments on those 
things of which he took " particuler notice." Between 
i6io and the time when Mundy revised his MS. in 1650, 
many travellers had visited Constantinople and had re- 
corded their impressions in print. With some of these 
works Mundy had made himself familiar, and they prob- 
ably served to refresh his memory as to the scenes in which 
he had passed his early manhood. 

Of the objects which had remained imprinted on his 
memory, the "haven^" at Constantinople holds the chief 
place. As is natural in one bred up in sight of Falmouth 
Harbour, it draws forth more commendation than do all 
the great buildings of Constantinople. The saving of 
labour in the lading and unlading of vessels and the 
extent and safety of the sheltered basin also appealed 
to one trained from boyhood to estimate the possibilities 
of trade in English commodities with European ports. 
Mundy's other remarks on the chief points of interest 
in the city where he spent nearly four years are, as he 
says himself, but " course and Coursary^." 

On the arrival of Sir John Eyre to succeed Paul 
Pindar as the Levant Company's representative at Con- 
stantinople, Mundy obtained permission to return to 
England in the train of the retiring ambassador. He was 
present at the ceremonial reception of Sir John Eyre by 
the Grand Signior, at which time Pindar bade his official 
farewell to the Turkish monarch. 

1 See p. 30. ^ See p. 37 f. ^ See p. 25. 


In his Relation II. Mundy gives an account of his 
journey overland from Constantinople to London. In this 
story, he chronicles, in the form of a diary, the events of 
each day and the various stages of the route from the 6th 
May until the i8th September, i620\ 

Pindar's reason for travelling across Europe instead of 
returning to England by sea is not known. It is possible 
that he had instructions from the Levant Company to 
enquire into the state of their trade in the inland cities 
with a view to creating additional mercantile centres, as 
he visited all the important places with which the Company 
had established relations. 

The ex-ambassador's cavalcade was such as befitted 
his position. He left his house at Pera, accompanied by 
his nephew, several members of the Levant Company, an 
interpreter and seventeen servants of various nationalities. 
The ambassador and the merchants rode, and twelve 
waggons carried the baggage and the servants. A guard 
of twenty-one Janissaries was told off by the Grand 
Signior as a protection during the first stages of the 
journey. Six Frenchmen, who had accompanied Monsieur 
de Cesy, Louis XIII.'s ambassador, to Constantinople, 
joined Pindar's party with thirty-one carts for " themselves 
and their Lumbermentl" The cavalcade thus consisted of 
fifty-six persons, and it was further augmented at the 
outset by the resident merchants of Galata, twelve in 
number^ who escorted Pindar from his house at Pera to 

1 He probably kept a rough record of events and put it into shape 
on the return voyage from India in 1634, when he wrote the account 
of his early travels comprised in Relation I. 

2 See p. 44. 

3 Since the text of Relation II. was printed, information has come 
to hght regarding Messrs Hunt, Guilliams and Lowe. (See note 2 on 
p. 44, and notes 2 and 3 on p. 45.) In 1623, Henry Hunt, "late 
apprentice of Mr Roger Harvey, having been employed in the Com- 
pany's privileges for three years beyond the seas and upwards," was 
admitted to the freedom of the Levant Company. In February, 1624, 
Abell Guilliams, " Apprentice to John Williams haveing served three 
yeares and upwards in the priveledges and payed the usual fyne of xxj." 
was admitted to the freedom of the Company. On the 6th July, 1626, 



the " Fresh Waters," two miles distant. Here, five of the 
merchants took their leave, the other seven remaining two 
days with the party and turning back to Pera on the 
morning of the 8th May. 

The first halt was on the 6th May, 1620, at Kuchuk 
Chekmeje, the Little Bridge, seven miles from the walls 
of Constantinople, where Mundy spent the night in a kJidn 
or posting-inn, a place which must have struck him as 
being widely different from an English hostelry. From 
this point, as far as Belgrade, the route followed was for 
the most part that now used by the Orient Express, as 
will be seen from the table g-iven below. 

Constantinople to Belgrade. 

Mundy's halting-places 
in 1620. 


The Fresh Rivers. 

Kuchuk Chekmeje. 

Biyuk Chekmeje. 









Mustafa Pasha. 





Stations of the Orient 
Express in 1907. 

Kijchuk Chekmeje. 


Mustafa Pasha. 


Francis Lowe, " son of Sir Thomas Lowe deceased," demanded his 
freedom and was admitted by patrimony on paying the usual fine and 
taking the oath. State Papers, Foreign Archives, Levant Conipaiiy, 
pp. 79 b, 109 a, 148 a. 

^ Mundy apparently put these two places in the wrong order. 





Tatar Bazarjik. 

Tatar Bazarjik, 

Novi Khan. 









Pirot (Sharkoi). 


Qurut chesme. 

Bela Palanka. 

Bela Palanka. 




Para tj in. 












Time occupied by Mundy 
on the journey — 25 

Time occupied by the Orient 
Express on the journey 
— 24 hours. 

The route, shown above and on the map facing p. 41, 
was the old post road, which was still the chief means of 
communication from Constantinople to Belgrade up to the 
middle of the nineteenth century. A German Route map 
of 1819^ marks all the halting-places given in Mundy's 
list with the exception of three small villages. The 
mileage between each place was estimated by Mundy 
according to his " whole dayes and halfe dayes Journeys^" 
and is by no means exact, though the distances corre- 
spond roughly with those on the German map. The 

1 Nouvelle Carte des Pastes de rAlleinagiie on des pays situes aic 
centre de PEtcrope divisee dans ses Etats dapres le Congres de Vienne 
et les derniers Traites de Paris, &c., &c. Par A. P. H. Nordniann, 
Vienne, 1821. 

^ See p. 136. 


present editor, who travelled from Constantinople to 
Belgrade in December of 1906, was able to trace the old 
post road, either as a road or a track, alongside the rail- 
way for miles. 

From Kuchuk Chekmeje, the cavalcade kept along the 
sea-shore for five miles to Biyuk Chekmeje, the Great 
Bridge. In both of these towns Mundy remarked the 
bridges spanning the creeks, erected during the reign of 
Sulaiman the Magnificent. At Biyuk Chekmeje the party 
encamped for the night in the open, Pindar having first set 
a guard and arranged for its relief every two hours. Still 
skirting the coast for fifteen miles farther, the next halt was 
at Silivri, the ancient Selymbria, where again a camp was 
pitched in the open. The road now turns northward, and, 
abandoning the coast, passes through a ravine, and Mundy 
very aptly describes this portion of the route as "a plaine 
Champion Countrie without either Tree or bush exceptinge 
att Townes or Villages^" At Chorlu, on the 9th May, two 
members of the train and an Armenian servant, who had 
left at Kuchuk Chekmeje, rejoined the party. The following 
day a distance of thirty miles, among open plateaus, was 
traversed as far as Lule-Burgas, where a welcome supply 
of fresh water was found. Between Baba-eski, some 
sixteen miles from Burgas, and Adrianople, there is a 
long stretch of country, over which the baggage waggons 
could travel without any hindrance. 

In six days Pindar and his party reached Adrianople, a 
journey that nowadays occupies but eight hours. Here the 
usual open-air encampment was impracticable owing to 
a heavy thunderstorm, and the party sought shelter in " a 
better harbour, which was profered us, beinge a great howse 
to lodge the Gran Signiors trayne and horses, when he 
cometh thither-." Mundy has a short description of the 
Grand Signior's Seraglio at Adrianople, the first building 
of importance that he had seen since he left the Turkish 
capital. At Adrianople " Stamo the Greeke " quitted the 

^ See p. 60 '^ See p. 49. 


Englishmen in order to enter the service of Caspar 
Gratiani, VoiVode of Moldavia, at one time Pindar's 

The travellers now proceeded towards Philippopolis, a 
distance of ninety-five miles. The road lies between the 
spurs of the Rhodope and Balkan mountains, and offers a 
strong contrast to the flat marshy land encountered at the 
commencement of the journey. Mundy remarks that "from 
Adrianople hither (Philippopolis), although the like plaine 
ground, yett over growne with woods and Bushes of Oake 
for the most part\" 

A halt was made at Mustafa Pasha, of which place 
Mundy tells a story relating to the bridge over the 
Maritza. Thence the party proceeded to Hermanli, 
thirty-six miles from Adrianople, where they pitched 
near a large khan. Like the emissary of Louis XIII., 
Des Hayes, who travelled over the same ground in the 
following year, Pindar avoided sleeping in a Turkish inn 
whenever practicable. Keeping near the left bank of the 
Maritza, the party reached Uzunjova in the valley of the 
Usundji. Thence they made their way to Kialik, "a poore 
Towne of Christians " where there were only " poore 
howsesV' in one of which Pindar was compelled to lodge. 

Mundy makes no particular comments on his halting- 
places between Constantinople and Kialik, the first 
" Christian village." He only remarks generally that all 
the " Townes " were " somewhat hansome with their 
Churches, Canes and Bathes fairely builtl" He is, how- 
ever, careful to note the " fresh rivers " and " stone bridges," 
such as that at Khafsa, near which the party encamped on 
the nth May I 

Between Kialik and Papasli, " another poore Towne of 
Christians 2," the road runs north-west, closer to the moun- 
tains, leaving the Maritza gradually to the south. Pindar 
only stayed to dine at Papasli and proceeded on the same 
day, the 17th May, fifteen miles farther, to Philippopolis or 

1 See p. 60. 2 See p. 54. ^ See p. 49. 


Filibe. Finding that the plague was raging in the city, the 
ambassador caused his followers to cross the long wooden 
bridge over the Maritza and to encamp on the opposite side 
of the river, at the same time issuing strict orders forbidding 
any member of his train to enter the infected district. In 
close proximity to the travellers' camp were the gruesome 
remains of two highwaymen who had been staked alive a 
week previously. Of Philippopolis, Mundy has not much 
to say beyond a remark as to its founder and its position 
" in a greate plaine with high hills on either side, hard by a 
River, over which was a tymber bridged" 

From Philippopolis to Sophia the road traverses the 
woods and valleys stretching up the slopes of the Rhodope 
mountains, a more picturesque, but at the same time more 
perilous part of the journey than that hitherto passed. 
Having dined at Tatar Bazarjik, sixteen miles beyond 
Philippopolis, the party proceeded a few miles further to 
Novi Khan, " a Christian villageV' where they remained for 
the night. On the 19th May they came to the Pass of 
Kaprulov Derbend. By Pindar's orders, each of his 
followers went through on foot, fully armed, in order to 
be ready to resist the attacks of robbers, but, says Mundy, 
" God bee praised, there was none I" 

Passing two villages of " poore Christians^" there were 
more perils to encounter. At one point was a place so 
infested with robbers that there " wee mett a man beatinge 
on a drumme, sett there of purpose to advise travellers 
whether there bee theeves or noe, hee abideinge in the most 
daungerous place of alP." At last the " woodie moun- 
taines " were left behind and a valley of "inhabited places" 
was perceived. Ikhtiman, " where are ten other Townes in 
sight'*," was the halting-place on the night of the 19th May. 
Between Ikhtiman and Sophia was another lurking place of 
robbers, and here again a drummer was posted to give the 
alarm to travellers. On nearing Sophia, the extensive view 
of the enclosed plateau in which the city lies greatly 

1 See p. 55. 2 See p. 60. ^ See p. 61. * See p. 61 f. 


impressed Mundy, as he came upon it after several days 
of wandering among devious mountain paths. But the 
traveller should not be misled by this description, as, after 
it is entered, the plateau is in reality distinctly dreary. 
Mundy calls the table-land a "plaine" and notes "about 
twenty Townes and villages in the said plaine all in sight 
togeather^" The cavalcade halted for a whole day at 
Sophia. During this time, Pindar paid a ceremonial 
visit to the Viceroy of Rumelia, who was on his way to 
the shores of the Black Sea to repress a Cossack raid. 

On the 22nd May, two miles beyond Sophia, the party 
was augmented by two soldiers, sent by the Viceroy as 
a special guard for Pindar, and by a chawiish (important 
official) with an escort of Janissaries in charge of treasure 
for Buda. Mundy does not mention when the first guard 
of Janissaries, who escorted the ambassador from Constan- 
tinople, left the party, but it is hardly probable that they 
proceeded farther than Adrianople. 

A halt was made for dinner in the plain of the Isker. 
Thence, to Zaribrod, the travellers had an unpleasant 
experience, "entringe among Rockie Hills, wee were over- 
taken with rayne, where wee had not only a dangerous 
passage by reason of Theeves, but very troublesome and 
wearisome by reason of the rocky stony way and durtie 
weather-." When at last Zaribrod was reached, "Lodginge" 
was found to be "very scarse," and Pindar himself had 
to put up with cottage accommodation. The next day 
matters were little better, and the horses so weary " by 
reason of the dirtie way " that a halt was made at midday 
at Pirot, where the jaded animals rested until the next 
morning. The Janissaries and the chazviisJi, however, pushed 
on, " their busines requiring more hastl" Their place as 
protectors was taken by fourteen cavalry soldiers {sipdhi) 
furnished to Pindar in accordance with an order from the 
Grand Signior. The ambassador had also full licence to 
impound provisions in the various stopping places on his 

1 See p. 63. ^ See p. 66. 

M. c 


way to Belgrade. Of this latter privilege he did not avail 
himself, as he would be " wronging the poore Christians 

Passing along the valley of the Morava, the travellers 
came upon a deserted Christian village and made their way 
to Bela Palanka, where they found a stockade, in which 
Turkish soldiers were intrenched to repel any incursion 
of marauding Christians^ An additional body-guard of 
thirty-one soldiers from this fortification accompanied 
Pindar half way through the rugged steeps and defiles 
to Nisch, the district being especially notorious for robbers. 
When the most dangerous part of the route was accom- 
plished in safety, the escort was dismissed with a reward 
and a certificate of efficiency. The remainder of the road 
to Nisch is described as "although not soe dangerous and 
mountainous, yett altogeather soe stonie and dirtied" 
At Nisch Mundy noted the bridge over the Nissava, " a 
Castle none of the best" and some ruined walls'. 

On the 26th May, a few miles on the road towards 
Belgrade, Pindar's party overtook the chawush and Janis- 
saries who had left them at Pirot^ Travelling was now 
easier, " the way beinge faire and plaine, although desert 
{i.e., deserted) and full of woods^" At Rashan their lodging 
was for once in a khan. 

The next day the travellers passed through the small 
village of Paratjin and came to the banks of the Morava, 
where the lack of a bridge caused a loss of " four howres at 
least in passinge our selves and necessaries I" The halting- 
place that night was Yagodin, where there was another of 
the palangJias or fortified stockades. Winding next day 
along the mountain slopes, the party halted at Batotschina 
for dinner, probably about midday, reaching later on Hassan 
Pasha's Palanka, " the fairest wee savve hetherto." Again 
they spent the night in '• a large CaneV 

On the 29th May, the cavalcade passed through Kolar, 

1 See p. 67. 

2 See p. 68. 

^ See p. 69. 

* See p. 66. 

^ See p. 'JO. 

6 See p. 71. 


amid the dense forests bordering the Danube. Grotzka, 
situated on this " the most famous river in Europe," was 
the next halting-place. Both at Kolar and at Grotzka, 
Mundy noi&d palanghas, and at the latter place "two great 
stone Canes " also, Pindar, however, avoided the khans 
and " pitched neere the Towne^" where, as at Philippopolis, 
his camp was in the neighbourhood of the remains of a 
man staked for robbery. 

On the 30th May, the twenty-fifth day after the 
departure from Constantinople, the ex-ambassador and 
his followers arrived at Belgrade. " Heere my Lord hired 
a howse being determined to stay some few daies^." As a 
matter of fact, Pindar spent eight days in Belgrade, and 
Mundy had an ample opportunity of exercising his powers 
of observation. He was greatly struck by the " thirty-five 
floating milles" on the river near the city, "makeinge as 
faire a shewe afarr of[f] as they were handsome within-." 
It is interesting to note that now, nearly three hundred 
years after this account was written, there are still water- 
mills of the same kind at Belgrade. The abundance, 
variety, and cheapness of the fish to be obtained from 
the Danube also attracted Mundy's attention. In the city 
itself he remarked that the buildings, "Churches, Besistenes, 
bathes and Canes excepted," were " generally made of 
Boards," but that " howsoever, those wooden buildings 
make a faire shewe, beinge very handsomely contrived -V 
The castle and fortifications are described at some length, 
with special reference to the " Clocke which is heard 
over all the Cittie''." Other objects in Belgrade which 
appealed to Mundy were the " Ferrie boats of one peece," 
the " greate boates for carrieing too and froe Corne, wood, 
salt etts.," the "Artillery howse^" with its trophies from the 
siege of Kaniza, and the rivers Danube and Save with their 
unequal currents. He was also interested in the various 
nationalities dwelling in the city. 

^ See p. 71. ^ See p. 72. ^ See p. 73 f. 

* See p. 74. 5 See p. 75. 


At Belgrade Pindar discharged the baggage waggons in 
view of the "mountainous waie^" to be traversed before 
reaching Spalato. He paid a state visit to the kdzl during 
his stay, which was apparently prolonged by the difficulty 
of procuring horses " for our farther proceede, there being 
none in Towne, only those newely arrived from other 
partsV At Belgrade the travellers lost the services of 
Thaddeus Murad, the Armenian engaged " to dresse vic- 
tualls^" This man, who was the servant of Mr Wilson, 
was permitted to return to Constantinople, taking with him 
a Bulgarian woman whom he had secured as a bride for his 

On the 7th June, Pindar and his party left Belgrade 
and entered on a more toilsome stage of their journey. 
The heat was intense for the first three days, and the 
cavalcade only covered thirty miles. A compulsory halt 
was made at noon, and at night the camp was pitched " in 
the feilds." On the 9th June, Valjevo was reached. Pindar's 
tent was set up beside the Kolubara river and the party 
refreshed themselves with "Cherries at a farthinge a pound." 
At night the ordinary watch was augmented by a guard of 
twenty men sent by the kdzl for protection, "the place being 
somewhat dangerous for Theeves^." On entering Valjevo, 
Mundy noted the remains of two of these gentry who had 
been staked as a warning to their fellows. 

On the lOth June, travelling was more pleasant both as 
regards way and weather, the day " not very hott of it selfe " 
and "our waie beinge through shadie woods... ascendinge 
and descendinge pleasant mountains'." The travellers now 
entered the mountain system, of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
They seem to have followed the valley of the Jablanitza, 
crossed the Medvednjik Planina or mountain pasture and 
descended into the valley of the Ljubowija. Mundy was 
much impressed with the truly Alpine scenery, the 
" mountains which exceeded all others that ever I sawe for 
height and beautie, not steeple, but gentlie riseinge by 

1 See p. 72. 2 See p. 75. ^ gee p. 76. * See p. 78. ^ See p. 78 f. 


degrees, the Topps being as good ground as the bottome 
and as firtill^" He marvelled that "this pleasant peece of 
Countrey " should be allowed to lie " in a manner waste, 
and growen with weeds and woods of exceeding high 
trees\" The descent to the valley of the Ljubowija was 
steep and the " quantitie of good ripe Strawburryes^" found 
near the river must have been welcome. 

On the iith June, the party was ferried over the river 
Drina, and, six miles farther, they halted, apparently near 
the Jadar river, where they " dined and past the heat of the 
day-." Here Mundy noted the site of the ancient silver 
mines of Srebreniza, and a khan in the neighbourhood, by 
which the camp was pitched. 

On the 1 2th June, the toilsome ascent of the Romanja 
Planina was accomplished. It was found to be " much 
higher than wee expected ^" At the foot of the mountain 
the travellers probably looked for civilization, but their road 
lay for " twelve miles farther through a plaine where were 
only six or seven villages and many scatteringe dwellings, 
all made of wood, where was neither bread nor wyne, nor 
any thinge els to bee had butt att very dear ratesl" 

On the 13th June, after a fifteen miles journey, "for 
eight miles the way reasonable plaine, but from thence... 
very mountainous and rocky^," Sarajevo was reached. 
Since the 7th June the party had only traversed 93^ miles, 
or about thirteen miles per day, as against the average of 
twenty-one miles per day between Constantinople and 
Belgrade. The bad roads, mountainous country and great 
heat all contributed to delay their progress. 

Two clear days were spent in Sarajevo in order to 
procure fresh horses for the remaining distance to Spalato. 
The cost of hire from Belgrade to Sarajevo was about 
V2S. 6d., and thence to Spalato about lOi". 6d. per horse. 
A long halt at Sarajevo was undesirable, as, owing to the 
piratical acts of the Uscocs, who were believed to have 
been encouraged by the Venetians, all Europeans were in 

^ See p. 79. ^ See p. 80. ^ See p. 80 f. * See p. 81. 


ill-odour in the city, and the people "very bigg and tall... 
very discourteous to Francks^" Pindar, therefore, "haveing 
taken a howse," in order to avoid altercations, " forbadd 
anie to stirr out of doores\" In spite of this prohibition, 
Mundy seems to have seen the chief objects of interest in 
the Bosnian capital. He tells us that it " lyeth among the 
Hills," and that "the howses heere in generall have theire 
walls of Clay\" He notes the castle built by Cotroman, 
the large number of mosques and the equally large number 
of water-mills on the Miljacka, "lyeinge one lower then 
another, each haveinge but one little wheele, which the 
water turneth-." 

On the 1 6th June, the party set out for the last and 
most difficult part of their journey, namely over the 
mountains to Spalato. As far as Lisicici they took the 
route now followed by the Sarajevo-Mostar railway. Their 
first stage was Pazaric^. Thence, to the village of Ivan on 
the ridge of the Ivan Planina, the way was " mountainous 
and rocky 2." On the 17th June, they came to Konjica, 
"a goode Towne" on the Narenta, "a prettie river... cleire, 
greenish and verye swifts" Following the river for seven 
miles, they reached Lisicici, where they dined. 

From this point the travellers went by local roads, and 
it is difficult to follow them, especially as Mundy's account 
of this part of the journey is somewhat confused. It is 
clear that, after leaving Lisicici, the party followed the 
Narenta as far as its junction with the Rama. Then they 
left the Narenta and kept beside the Rama for some few 
miles when they crossed it "by a bridged" After this, the 
route is very indistinct. The party ascended " an ex- 
ceedinge high Mountaine and steepy^" and found them- 
selves on an elevated plateau with another mountain facing 
them, " altogether soe high but much more steepy^^." On 
the i8th June, they were confronted by a third "high 
mountaine which had little descent to bee perceived*." 
This proved to be the last of the fearsome heights to 

1 See p. 81. 2 See p. 82. ^ See p. 83. * See p. 84. 


be surmounted before the travellers reached the plateau 
of Borovaglava on the Prologh mountains. Here their 
eyes were gladdened by the sight of civilization, for, in 
the plateau, though " environed with stonie barren hills," 
there " were store of villages and other dwellings " with 
clearings " to prevent Theeves that usually lurked amonge 
(the Forrests of Pine trees) \" Crossing the plateau in a 
southerly direction, the party encamped for the night near 
a spring. 

On the 19th June, the dining place was by "a great 
Lake^ " which is not named by Mundy, and may be either 
the Semaroromo Blato or the Rusko Blato. From either 
of these the way is "stony and rockey" as far as the river 
Cettina. When the Cettina, the " river of a marvelous slowe 
motion 2," was reached, the travellers' troubles were prac- 
tically over. They spent the night in a khan and crossed 
the river " by boate " on the 20th June, 1620. Their dining- 
place was beneath the famous castle of Clyssa, " built on a 
high cragked Rock-," whence, a mile farther, the party 
entered Venetian territory. Once over the boundary, a 
startling change was apparent. " Wee entred into Christen- 
dome, then seeminge to bee in a new World, such was the 
alteration wee found, not only in the Inhabitants, but also 
in the Soylel" Mundy grows quite enthusiastic in his 
description of the three miles of country between the 
Turkish territory and the gates of Spalato. He remarks 
that even the stones were turned to a useful purpose and 
served instead of hedges, and that, in the cornfields " they 
being then reapinge, were rancks in the Furrowes of Olive 
trees, Pomgranett Trees, Pines and figg trees ^" The 
" watch Towers " erected as places of refuge by the 
Venetians "on the hills alongst the sea Coast^" are also 

At Spalato the travellers were immediately placed in 
quarantine, but were treated with great consideration, 
special rooms being allotted to Pindar and his company 

1 See p. 84. 2 See p. 85. 3 See p. 85 f. * See p. 87. 


and "beddinge, lynnen, Tables, Chaires and necessaries" 
being sent in to him, also " fresh Victualls soe that wee 
wanted nothing but liberties" As soon as he was esta- 
blished in the Lazaretto, Pindar received a visit from the 
Venetian governor of Spalato, " th' one sittinge without 
the gate, and thother within, a good way a sunder^" 
Two days later the Governor paid another visit, when 
Pindar obtained the release of John Clarke, one of his 
servants. After being disinfected, Clarke "was licensed^" 
and proceeded to Venice to prepare for the reception of his 
master. Instead of the usual " forty, thirty, twenty, fifteen" 
days' detention in quarantine, Pindar and his followers had 
"Prattick" on the tenth day, "but herein his Lordshipp 
was greatly favoured"." 

While Mr Lane was making arrangements for trans- 
porting the party to Venice, Pindar, " with the Gentlemen^" 
dined at the Governor's house. Meanwhile, Mundy had a 
cursory glance at the town of Spalato, which he found 
" strongly built, furnished with many soldiers and many 
brave, stout edifices, although auntientl" 

On the night of the 29th June, being furnished with 
their certificate of health, the party set out in a " barke of 
Tenn Tonnes," together with the " Frenchmen," who had 
"hired another for themselves^" Skirting the Dalmatian 
coast, the boats passed the garrison town of Zara, where 
Sir Henry Peyton's detachment of soldiers, sent for the 
assistance of the Venetian Republic, was then stationed. 
The wind was favourable, and the ships made good pro- 
gress, " alwaies among small Islands, verie stoney and barren 
as the Mayne seemed to beeV On the ist July they passed 
through the narrow Canal d'Ossero, between Cherso and 
Lussin. Sailing across the Gulf of Quarnero to the Punta 
di Promontore on the 2nd July, the vessels steered through 
the Canale di Fasana between the island of Brioni and "the 
Mayne," where Mundy noted the " prettie harbour^" of 
Pola, then an insignificant town. Owing to the presence of 

1 See p. 87. 2 See p. 87 f. ^ See p. 88. " See p. 89. 


a galleass off Pola, it was thought that "provision would bee 
scarse," and Pindar's party went on to Rovigno. Here the 
*' Captaine of the place invited his Lordshipp and Gentle- 
men home to his howse\" 

On the evening of the following day, the 3rd July, 1620, 
*' the wynde coming faire^" the party again set sail, and, 
crossing the Gulf of Venice entered the ' Queen of the 
Adriatic' through the channel of S. Andrea del Lido, 
having spent four days at sea. The short voyage was 
probably a welcome change after the toilsome journey 
from Sarajevo and the ten days' confinement at Spalato. 
At S. Andrea, the boat was stopped by the sanitary officer, 
who inspected the travellers' health certificate and gave 
them " leave to goe whether wee would-." The boat pro- 
ceeded to " the verie faire howse^ " on the Cannaregio, which 
John Clarke had taken for the ex-ambassador during his 
stay in Venice. The house belonged to a Venetian noble- 
man and was rented at ;^20 per month, while the fur- 
niture, plate, etc., were hired of Jews at the rate of i^io 
per month. Mundy was much impressed with the interior 
decorations of this house, which was " as curious within as 
it was faire without^" 

Pindar remained a month in Venice, during which he 
paid and received ceremonial visits from the ambassadors 
of Spain and Savoy, and also had constant intercourse with 
Sir Henry Peyton and his officers^ While he was thus 
employed, his followers were free to explore the city. Of 
all the sights of Venice, Mundy considered the arsenal "the 
most worthy notice'." The extent of the place and the 
variety and completeness of the work carried on within its 
precincts aroused his wonder and admiration*'. He was 
shown the famous Bucentaur and heard an account of the 
ceremony in which she took part each Ascensiontide". 
Other objects of interest in Venice, such as St Mark's, the 

^ See p. 89. The Capitano of Istria is still the chief ofificial of the 
Peninsula, having his Head Quarters at Parenzo, north of Rovigno. 
'■^ See p. 90. ^ See p. gr. * See p. 92 f. 

^ See p. 97. " See pp. 93, 94, 96. " See p. 95. 


Campanile, the canals, the Rialto, etc. are only lightly- 
touched on, but the gondolas receive more attention \ On 
the whole, Mundy opined that, in Venice are " wayes tO' 
gett, but many more to spend"." 

On the 4th August, 1620, Pindar and his train set out 
for Turin, travelling by boat up the Brenta to Padua^ 
"which boates, after our comeinge into the River, are drawne 
with horses^." On the way Mundy noted the "pleasant 
Country howses of the Nobillitie and gentlemen of Venice."' 
At Padua the party lodged for three nights at The Golden 
Star. While there, Pindar exchanged visits with the young- 
Lord Maltravers and his brother, who were studying at the 
University^ In the city Mundy remarked the " many 
voyd places and ruynes''." He has no comment on any of 
the public buildings except the Hall "to heere lawe suites^"" 

From Padua to Verona the party travelled by 
" Caroches^." It was now augmented by three followers, 
but lost Thomas Humes "the ScottishmanV' who remained 
at Padua. Randolph Symes, the Levant Company's agent 
for the transmission of letters at Venice and the neighbour- 
hood, accompanied Pindar as far as Vicenza and stayed 
with him at The Three Kings. On the 7th August, the 
travellers dined at Villa Nuova and reached The Cavaletta 
at Verona on the same day. The " Amphitheater" in this 
"famous and auntienf^" city claimed Mundy's attention. 
In 1655, while on his third voyage to India on the Alleppo 
Alejxhajit, he added to his earlier description a further 
account from the Travels of George Sandys ^ 

The cavalcade was now following the post road tO' 
Milan. On the 8th August, the travellers passed through 
Cavalcaselle and went thence to Peschiera, " a stronge 
Castle" at the end of "Lago de Garda... wherein are vessells 
both for fishinge and transportation ^" The resting place 
that night was at The Venetian Arms in Lonato. 

^ See p. 97 f. 2 See p. 98. ^ See p. 100. 

* See p. 99. '' See p. 43. " See p. loi. 

'' See p. 102 f. ^ See p. 104. 


On the 9th August, Brescia was reached and the party 
dined at " the signe of the Tower, a very faire Hosteria or 
Inne\" Here Mundy noted the fortifications and the 
"good Castle which is noe more then needs, it standing soe 
neare the Spanish Dominions^" At Brescia, too, he first 
observed sufferers from goitre, a malady to which he makes 
frequent allusions. Late in the evening of the 9th August, 
the travellers arrived at The Spread Eagle at Orzi Vecchi. 
Passing Orzi Nuovi, "a very strong walled and well kept 
Town-,'' the road led to the river Oglio, M^hich was crossed 
by boat. Since leaving Venice the party had had " extra- 
ordinary pleasaunt travellinge^" through cultivated country. 
The vineyards and the method of training the vines 
especially excited Mundy's admiration. From Soncino, "a 
walled Towne," then under the Duchy of Milan, Pindar 
and his train passed on to Crema, also a " walled TowneV' 
but in Venetian territory. Four miles beyond Crema, the 
boundary proper of the Duchy of Milan was reached, and 
thence the party pushed on to Lodi, where the wooden 
bridge over the Adda was broken, " soe past it over by 
boate, and dyned at the Catt and the bell." The night 
was spent at The Eagle and Horn at Malegnano. On the 
evening of the following day, the iith August, 1620, "wee 
came to the greate Cittie of Millan and dyned att the 
Three Kings^" On his way out of Milan, Pindar met the 
Duke of Feria, the Governor, and went " back to our 
lodging with him, where hee stayed a quarter of aw hower 
and departeds" In the evening Pindar returned the visit. 
While this interchange of civilities was taking place, Mundy 
seized the opportunity to visit the Cathedral, where he saw 
the tomb of the celebrated Cardinal Boromeo, " with lights 
continually burninge." In the morning, on the way out of 
the city, Mundy noted the castle of Milan, " accounted one 
of the strongest in Christendome'*." 

The Naviglio-Grande Canal, on which Mundy remarked 
the " great flatt bottomed BoatesV' laden with country 

1 See p. 104. 2 See p. 105. ^ See p. 106. 

* See p. 107. ^ See p. 108. 


produce for Milan, was crossed by a bridge. Two miles 
farther, the party came to the Ticino, " verye great and 
swifteV over which boats conveyed them to the other side, 
where there was no further hindrance to their progress, 
and nearly forty miles were covered in the day. Between 
Novara and Vercelli the boundary of the Duchy of Milan 
was passed, and the travellers entered the territory of the 
Duke of Savoy. At Vercelli were many evidences of the 
siege of 1617, "a great number of dwellings, etts. buildings, 
battered downe and levelled with the grounds" Here the 
night was spent at The Cardinal's Hat. On the 13th 
August they dined at The Angel at Sian, and reached The 
Golden Lion at Chivasso the same evening. 

The next day the party arrived at Turin, " the principall 
seate of the Duke of Savoy-," where Pindar, as an ex- 
ambassador, had a grand reception both from Sir Isaac 
Wake, the English ambassador, and from representatives of 
the Duke of Savoy ; "himselfe was now absent^." He was 
lodged in " a very faire howse of the Dukes ready 
furnished^" and had a suite of servants appointed to attend 
him ; "Also the provisions att the Dukes charged" During 
his two days' stay in Turin, Pindar paid formal visits to the 
various members of the family of the Duke of Savoy. He 
also went to see "the Dukes great Gallerye^" with its 
" Curious statues and Pictures, with 48 presses of bookes 
and great store of Armour^" 

For the next portion of the journey fresh horses were 
hired to go as far as Lyons, at about £4. each, and on the 
afternoon of the i6th August, 1620, the party was escorted 
out of the city with great pomp, the two ambassadors 
riding " both in one Coach^ " as far as the " Three flowre de 
Luces " at Avigliana, where Sir Isaac Wake remained 
until the following morning. The travellers then proceeded 
to The Three Pigeons at Bussolena and prepared to "enter 
the Alpesl" From Bussolena they went on to Novalese, 
where they put up for the night. On the i8th August, 

^ See p. 108. 2 5gg p_ jQg 3 See p. no. 

* See p. III. ^ See p. 112. 


they began the ascent of Mt. Cenis " which wee found to 
be steepie and Rockey^" Having passed the boundary 
between Savoy and Piedmont, they continued the ascent to 
the " faire, cleire Lake" on the top\ near which was the 
building erected for the reception of Princess Christine, 
when, a year previously, she had journeyed from France to 
Savoy as the affianced bride of Victor-Amadeus, the Duke's 
eldest son. At this "howse" the Duke himself was in 
waiting for Pindar's party, and " his Lordshipp went to 
visitt and thanck his highnes for the great honour and 
loveinge entertainement which hee had received att Turing" 
Now began the "discent of the mountaine^" which was 
" wonderfull Steepie, soe that every man allighted, my Lord 
beinge carried downe in a chaire betweene Two men I" At 
Lanslebourg the travellers dined at The Three Kings. On 
the Piedmont side of the mountain Mundy found the patois 
" hard for us to understands" 

From Lanslebourg, the road lay along the valley of the 
Arc, " there beinge all the way great falls of WaterV' 
thence to St Michel and St Jean de Maurienne, " a Stronge 
walled Towne^" and the only one (except Chambery) 
" among the Alpes " commended by Mundy. All the rest 
"were very poorely built and as poorely inhabited','' the 
people, too, were, many of them, sufferers from goitre, some 
of them having "greate Wenns under their 
bigg as a mans heads" At Aiguebelle, on the 29th 
August, the party split up, Pindar and his immediate 
entourage going on to Montmelian, while the " Servants 
and stuffe remained heereS" On the arrival of the baggage 
at Chambery, the servants heard that their master had 
" passed forward " to Aiguebelette. At Chambery, Mundy 
and his companions enjoyed the comforts provided at The 
Golden Apple, "a Compleat howse and very good enter- 
tainementS" The town, "the laste... within the Alpes," is 
described as " the fairest " with " handsome comely buildings 
tiled with slates S" 

1 See p. 113. ^Seep. ii3f. ^ See p. 114. 

* Seep. 115. ■ 5 Seep. 117. " Seep. 116. 


There yet remained the peak of Aiguebelette, which 
though "very steepy upp and downed" was crossed on the 
22nd August, 1620. At Pont de Beauvoisin, the boundary 
between France and Savoy, Pindar awaited his servants 
and baggage. The united party proceeded to Bourgoin 
and thence to the " Posthowse^" at La Verpilliere. On the 
24th August, they reached Lyons, where Mundy noted the 
floating-mills on the Rhone and Saone, but found them 
" much inferior in Beautie and bignes " to " those of 
Belgrade-." He had no time to examine the buildings at 
Lyons on account of his short stay there, and he only 
remarks of the city that it was "great and populous. ..of 
great Traffique, aboundinge with Merchants and Shopp- 

On the 25 th August, the party again divided. This 
time the " Attendants " went on with fresh horses to Tarare, 
" my Lord etts. being to come after^." Being unimpeded 
with baggage, the gentlemen had no difficulty in overtaking 
the servants and pack-horses at Roanne on the following 
day. Here fresh transport arrangements were made. The 
horses were dismissed and two boats were hired, at a cost 
of about £4. los., to convey the party down the Loire to 
Orleans. Owing to the shallowness of the river, the boats 
were " aground twenty or thirty tymes every day^" and 
Orleans was not reached until the eighth day after leaving 
Roanne. Mundy found " all the Countrey downe the River 
very pleasant and full of Citties, Townes, villages and build- 
ings, meadowes, gardens, etts.'*" St Aubin-sur-Loire and 
La Charite were the halting-places on the 29th and 30th 
August. At Decize, the party arrived too late to enter the 
city so " lodged without the walls •\" Between Decize and 
La Charite they passed Nevers, " a faire and stronge Cittie 
with a stone bridged" Mundy was struck by the " great 
store of protestants and whole Townes of them " on the 
Loire^ and he especially remarked the Huguenot strong- 
hold at Sancerre, which he saw in the distance after 

1 Seep. 118. ^ Seep. 119. ^ See pp. 120 and 122. 

* See p. 123. ^ See p. 120. "^ See p. 122. 


passing La Charite^ On the Loire, too, were "att least 
one hundred and fifty floatinge Mills'-." 

On the 31st August, after passing several villages, 
the boats reached Gien, " a stronge Towne. Here wee 
lodged att a Protestants howse^" The party arrived at 
Orleans late on the ist September, 1620, and, as the 
journey was continued early on the following morning 
Mundy had no time to see "perticulers worth notice in this 
famous placeV' except the " very faire stone bridge with 
shopps and buildings on itl" 

The distance between Orleans and Paris was covered 
by coach. Soon after they set out, the travellers came 
upon the bodies of " two men executed, one hanged on a 
Tree, and the other layd on a wheeled" The road led 
through Artenay and thence to Toury, the route now 
followed by the railway. Mundy, however, drove along 
"a Cawsye " through " plaine and level P " country. On 
the 3rd September, the coaches passed through Angerville, 
Etampes and Arpajon, the latter part of the way "a little 
Hillie, though pleasant, fruitefull, and full of TownesV 
From the " three Black moores " at Arpajon, the cavalcade 
went direct to Paris, by Longjumeau and Bourg-la-Reine, 
■" all the way wonderfully peopled and Inhabited"*." Just 
outside the city were the remains of four poor wretches 
who had been broken on the wheel. 

In Paris, Pindar's party lodged at the Iron Cross in the 
Rue St Martin. Mundy made good use of the two days 
he spent in the French capitals With Messrs Davis and 
Wilson he visited the Louvre, Notre Dame, the unfinished 
Luxembourg palace, the Exchange, and St Innocents' 
Church. The bridges over the Seine, especially the Pont 
Neuf, with its clock and statues of Jean d'Arc and Henri 
IV., excited his admiration. In the Louvre he noted the 
most important sculptures and paintings, especially the 
portrait of Marie de Medici by Pourbus. The " Store- 

^ See p. 121. 2 See p. 122. ^ See p. 123. 

* See p. 124. ^ See pp. 124 — 130. 


howses full of Deadmens bones^" in St Innocents' church- 
yard astonished him. Of the Bourse he thought but little^ 
but was highly pleased with " the prospect of the whole 
Cittie-" which he beheld from one of the towers of Notre 

On the 6th September, 1620, the travellers again set 
out, having hired fresh coaches from Paris to Calais. Two 
of their number were left behind, " Signor Dominico with a 
feavour and Vincentio to attend him I" Passing through 
St Denis, Pierrefitte, St Price, Moisselles, and Beaumont, 
" a faire Towne^" the party reached Pisieux in the evening. 
Next day they dined at Beauvais and slept at Le Hamel, 
" a poore Towne where wee had as poore entertainement^" 
Thence they went on through Poix to Pont Remy, "a 
walled Towne, and lay att the Crowned" On the 9th 
September, they breakfasted at Abbeville, dined at Bernay, 
"a poore TowneV' and, passing through Montreuil and 
Neufchatel, reached Boulogne on the loth September, 
1620. Here Mundy's eyes were gladdened by the sight of 
the English Channel, " haveing seene noe Sea att all since 
our departure from Venice'." At Boulogne the party 
lodged " att the Grayhound in the lower Tovvnel" Thence 
they followed the coast, "and in sight of England''," to 
Marquise and Calais. The large settlement outside the 
walls of this "stronge Towne*'" attracted Mundy's attention. 
At the gates the travellers were disarmed and were warned 
not to approach the walls or bulwarks. Within the fortifi- 
cations, Mundy noted the church built by the English and 
a "faire Markett place**." 

At Calais the coaches were dismissed and a " Catche 
hired... to carry us to Dover"." Preparations were made to 
cross to England on the 12th September, but "the Wynde 
overbloweing " the boat " durst not adventure over the 
Barr'." The next day the weather improved and the 

1 See p. 129. - See p. 130. ^ See pp. 42, 43 and 130. 

^ Seep. 131. * Seep. 132. ^ Seep. 133. 

' See p. 134. 


passage was made in three hours and a half. The "Catche" 
was anchored off Dover and the passengers were landed in 
small boats, while "the Stuffe went about into the Haven^" 
That night, the 13th September, 1620, the first that Mundy 
had spent on English soil since January, 1618, he slept at 
the " Grayhound." Meanwhile, Pindar was welcomed home 
by his brother Ralph and his kinsman, Mr Spike. At 
Dover, Mr Lane, who seems to have been Pindar's purveyor 
and paymaster, hired "a great Waggon^" to convey the 
baggage to Gravesend, and sent it off in charge of seven 
servants. The remainder of the party left Dover on the 
14th September and reached the Chequer's Inn at Canter- 
bury the same evening. Mundy found the " Cathedrall 
Church " with its " multitude of windowes of coloured 
glasse" very "goodly to behold I" The city, too, he 
describes as having " faire streets and Shopps well fur- 

On the 15th September, the party proceeded, via 
Sittingbourne and Rochester, to Gravesend, where Pindar, 
who had been "deteyned and entertained^" by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, overtook them. Thence, they went 
up the Thames in two gigs. At Blackwall, five coaches 
were in readiness to convey the travellers to Pindar's house 
at Islington, where Mundy slept on the i6th and 17th 
September. On the i8th, he took leave of the ex-ambas- 
sador, " humbly thancking him for divers favours received 
of him^" 

Whether Mundy had any intercourse with Pindar during 
his sojourn at Constantinople, or whether he only obtained 
permission to travel in Pindar's suite through the influence 
of Lawrence Greene, is uncertain. It is clear, however, 
that his relations with the ambassador must have been 
sufficiently intimate for Pindar to form an estimate of 
his ability and for Mundy to have cause to regard his 
patron with affection as well as gratitude. To Pindar was 
entrusted, fourteen years later, the account of Mundy's 

^ See p. 134. 2 See p. 135. ^ See p. 136. 

M. ■ d 


early voyages, and it was also Sir Paul Pindar who 
" seriously recommended " him and his affairs to the favour 
of the East India Company in 1634. Mundy himself tells 
us nothing of his connection with his patron in the years 
following the journey from Constantinople. It is, howeven 
likely that, when in London, he paid his respects at Pindar's 
mansion in Bishopsgate Street Without. 

With his usual and justifiable pride in the extent of his 
journeys, Mundy states, at the end of Relation II., that the 
distance from London to Constantinople amounts " by my 
Computation^" to 1838 miles. His rate of travelling was, 
therefore, 22^^ miles per day, exclusive of the time spent in 
Belgrade, Spalato, Venice, etc. 

Of the seven years following the "Journey Overland 
from Constantinople to London " Mundy has but a scanty 
record. He tells us that his Third Relation is, like the First, 
"recollected by memorie-." In March, 1621, he revisited his 
native town and, in the summer of that year, he went to 
Seville with a cargo of pilchards on behalf of his father, 
his uncle and Mr Richard Wyche. In 1622, he was back 
in England, for he tells us that, in April, he " covenanted " 
to serve Richard Wyche for " five yeares on certaine Con- 
ditions V one of which, as we learn later, was that of keeping 
accounts. His salary, i^20 per annum, was exclusive of 
board and lodging. Mundy is silent as to his employment 
during the first three years of his contract, and we have no 
hint as to whether he spent the time in England or abroad. 
At the beginning of the fourth year of his service, he was 
sent by a syndicate of copper-contractors (of whom Richard 
Wyche was one) to Spain, in connection with their busi- 
ness. He and "one Henry Davis"*" crossed from Dover to 
" Deepe " and, travelling " post," arrived at Irun a week 
later. They travelled by short stages, changing horses as 
many as twenty times a day, " a very painfull imployment 
to one not accoustomed"*." From Irun, Mundy and Davis 
went to St Sebastian and thence to Vittoria. Here, George 

^ Seep. 136. 2 Seep. 145. ^ Seep. 137. * Seep. 138. 


Wyche, one of Richard's younger brothers, was " Prisoner 
about the Contracte aforesaid^" How or why the luckless 
George was imprisoned does not appear, nor has a search 
among contemporary records produced any independent 
mention of this Copper Contract. Mundy went on to 
Valladolid, where a suit in connection with his employers' 
business was "dependinge in the Chauncery," but he says 
nothing with regard to the result of his investigations. 
From other sources, we learn that George Wyche was still 
a prisoner three years later. If Mundy's own immediate 
relatives were interested in these proceedings, the fall in 
the fortunes of his family, alluded to by him in 1638 and 
1655, may have dated from this unfortunate venture. 

Mundy has a description of Valladolid, " one of the 
delightsomest seats in the Kingdome of Spaine^ " with 
" the fairest Place or Placa that I have yett seene-." He 
also notes the tomb of the Cardinal Duke of Lerma, who 
was buried there just before his arrival. During the four 
months that he remained in Valladolid, Mundy witnessed 
bull-baiting and other public sports, but, though he is 
discursive as to places and things of interest in Spain, he is 
curiously reticent about the business which had brought 
him into the country. After nearly half a year's absence, 
he returned to England. 

Between Vittoria and St Sebastian, Mundy crossed the 
Puerto de St Adrian, and he describes minutely the Saint's 
grotto, which he saw " by the light of Candells^" but he 
does not tell us if he made any stay in Vittoria or paid 
any further visit to the imprisoned George Wyche. At 
St Sebastian, Mundy took his passage for England in 
the Margett, commanded by Captain Molton. On his 
return he found his master " dangerously sick of the 

Mundy's next journey was to Colchester " about some 
occasions'*." Shortly after he came back to London, his 
"Master left this life'*" and Peter Mundy was once more 

1 See p. 139. ^ See p. 140. ^ See p. 142. * See p. 143. 

d 2 


thrown on his own resources. Having nothing to detain 
him in the capital, he " went downe " to his " freinds in 
Cornewall by Land\" He "remained a while att Home," 
and next "made a voyage" to St Malo and Jersey, but 
whether on business or for his own pleasure is uncertain. 
It is not improbable, however, that he was sent to Brittany 
by his relatives in connection with the pilchard business. 
At St Malo, he admired the harbour, and the " very great 
Strength and traffique'" of the place. He was also im- 
pressed by the fierce watch-dogs that guarded the town at 
night. Thence, he went to Jersey and again " returned to 
St. Maloes and soe horned" 

Mundy's active nature would not allow him to settle 
down to a quiet life. He pined for regular occupation and 
was also anxious to "see forraigne Countries-." In October, 
1627, he addressed a petition to the Directors of the East 
India Company, praying for employment in India as a 
factor, and " to proceed thither on their next shippsl" 
Unfortunately, the petition itself does not exist, but the 
substance of it is given in the Proceedings of the Court of 
Directors* on the 31st October, 1627, as follows: — "Peter 
Mundy late servant to Mr Richard Wich having kept his 
masters books petitioned for imployment as a Factor, and 
shewed by his petition that hee lived three yeares at 
Constantinople, and hath in some good measure gayned 
the French, Spanish and Italian tongues, besides hee was 
well commended to bee of Civill conversation. The Court 
called him in and demaunded what allowance hee had 
from his Master. Hee answeared 20 li. per annum. They 
therefore resolved of his intertaynement for five yeare, and 
to allowe him 20 li. per annum, which hee Conceived to 
bee too small sallary. The Court left it to his Considera- 
tion and election to accept or refuse as hee shall thinck 

It was natural that Mundy should consider his five 

1 See p. 143. '^ See p. 144. 

2 Court Minutes., vol. x. p. 1 34. 


years' experience under Richard Wyche as of some 
monetary value, and that he would be loth to start at 
the same salary as before. Whether his own arguments 
prevailed, or whether, as is more likely, his influential 
friends put in a word in his favour, it is clear that the 
Directors were induced to alter their decision of the 31st 
October, 1627. On the 22nd February, 1628, Mundy's 
entertainment as an " Under Factor " is noted in the 
Minutes, his salary being £2^ per annum^. Moreover, an 
advance of £^ was made to him for "his better accomoda- 
tion and setting out to sea." 

The Court of the East India Company at this time 
consisted, among others, of four members, the Garraways 
and the Harbys, who had direct or indirect knowledge 
of Mundy's abilities. The two Garways (or Garraways), 
Sir Henry and his brother William, were both also con- 
nected with the Levant Company and would know of 
Mundy's relations with the Wyche family and of his 
voyage to Constantinople on the Royall Merchant in 
company with their brother James, in 1617I These two 
Directors probably supported Mundy's petition, but the 
Harbys, Job and Clement, could speak from personal 
experience of the applicant's character and capacity. Job 
(afterwards Sir Job) Harby was cousin and brother-in-law 
of Mundy's late masters, James and Richard Wyche, and 
was one of the executors to the will of Richard Wyche, 
senior^ The fact that, while in India, Mundy specially 
requested a friend to convey a letter home to Job Harby 
seems to show that, in some degree, he owed his appoint- 
ment to the Harby influence. His connection with the 
Wyche family, and, through them, with the Harbys, must 
have lasted for many years. In his "Occurrences, Passages, 
observations" etc. at the end of his MS., Mundy has a 
paragraph about his old friends and also a reference to 
William Garraway*: — 

1 See note i on p. 145. ^ See p. 14. ^ See Appendix B. 

* This extract explains Mundy's remark quoted in note 7 on p. 156, 
also pp. 162 and 165. It is unfortunate that the paragraph was not 
unearthed in time to add to Appendix B. 


" 1659 and 1660. Mr. NatJianiel Wiche dead in East 
India and Mr. Wm. Garraivay in Persia. About this 
tyme newes by letters from India overland from Surat 
to Agra, and soe to Aleppo, of the Death of Mr. Nathaniell 
Wyche, who died at Surat about this time twelve month. 
I have known the father old Mr. Richard Wyche, nine of 
his sonnes and three of his Daughters, viz. Richard, Thomas, 
Peter, George, James, Julius, Edward and Nathaniel, all 
dead, the last within eight monthes of his arrivall in India, 
being President at Surat. They were twelve brethren, 
only Henry remaining, and six sisters, three alive\ Allso 
the Death of Mr William Garraway Agent in Persia, who 
went from England about the same tyme." 

Between October, 1627, when he applied for a post 
under the East India Company, and February, 1628, when 
his appointment was confirmed, Mundy "went downe into 
the Countrie to take leave-" of his friends and spent the 
Christmas of 1627 at Penryn. In the New Year, he once 
more journeyed to London " to attend my honourable 
Imployers will and pleasure-l" 

Following his usual custom, Mundy gives a table of 
distances traversed in the various short journeys recounted 
in Relation III. and states that "theis several! Traverses... 
amounteth in all to the some of Miles 6o8o^" so that, 
before he set out on his first voyage to India, at the age 
of about thirty, he had covered, according to his own 
reckoning, 25,312 miles. 

With his voyage to India in the Expedition, another 
period of Mundy's life begins, and the story of his ex- 
periences in the East will be told at length in volume II. 
of his Travels. 

I have now followed Mundy's career up to the end 
of his early European journeys, and it will be of interest 
to remark on his personality as shown in his MS. His 
prominent characteristics in boyhood and early manhood 
were love of travel, acute observation, and an insatiable 
appetite for information of all kinds. He was interested 

1 Stt Appendix B. ^ Seep. 144. ^ Seep. 145. 


in everything he saw, and recounts details regarding the 
habits, clothes and customs of the people with whom he 
came in contact, with the same vigour and picturesqueness 
as he describes the scenery of the countries through which 
he travelled and the architectural features that attracted his 
notice. Thus, he pauses in his story of the journey across 
Turkey to descant on " Bathes, Besistenes and Canes," 
all of them strange to an English eye, and digresses to 
explain the various kinds of punishments adopted by the 
Turks. And then, to "divert" his readers' minds from 
such horrors, he passes on to what appears to be the only 
early seventeenth century account of the " severall sorts 
of Swinging used in their Publique rejoycings." At 
Belgrade, he took special notice of the " Bulgarians " 
[Servians], describing their appearance and clothes, and 
remarking on their food and marriage customs. At Sara- 
jevo, too, he is struck with the muscular strength of the 
inhabitants. Later on, he gives us details of a lazaretto 
and rules as to quarantine, comments on the disease of 
goitre, and so forth. 

His historical facts are, for the most part, as accurate 
as his geographical descriptions. He tells us of the revo- 
lutions at Constantinople in 1617/8, of the rise and downfall 
of Caspar Gratiani, Voivode of Moldavia, and of the visit 
of Biirun Kasim, the Persian ambassador to Constantinople 
in 161 8. The death of Cardinal Boromeo, the siege of 
Vercelli, the marriage of Victor-Amadeus of Savoy, the 
exploits of Joan of Arc, the loss of Gascony by the English, 
the death of the Duke of Medina Sidonia and the Cardinal 
Duke of Lerma, the murders of Henri IV. and the Marechal 
d'Ancre, and many other happenings both before and after 
his journeys are all remarked upon by Mundy with more 
or less detail. 

There are very few allusions to personal experiences in 
this volume, and, beyond the facts that he contracted an 
ague in the journey down the Loire, escaped a trick with 
a copper chain, and found posting across France a "very 
painefuU employment," Mundy tells us little of himself. 


His library, as far as can be gathered from his MS., was 
a considerable one for a man of no fixed abode. At the 
time he wrote his earlier Relations, he had probably had 
but little leisure for reading, but, by 1650 and 1655 when 
he revised the earlier accounts of his travels, he had ac- 
quired a thorough knowledge of Ralegh, Knolles, Holyoke, 
Blount, Purchas, Gainsford, Grimston and Sandys, whose 
works he would seem to have possessed as he quotes largel}^ 
from some of them. 

Living at a time of strong religious feeling in England, 
and probably brought up by his uncle, the Rev. John 
Jackson of North Petherwin, on the borderland between 
Cornwall and Devonshire, Mundy frequently exhibits a 
deeply religious habit of thought, and expresses it after 
the fashion of his day. At the end of almost every story 
of his voyages and journeys, he records his thankfulness to 
the Almighty for preservation from dangers and a safe 
home-coming; and on his return to England in 1647, 
he calculates that, in the thirty-six years from 1611, he 
has travelled upwards of 100,833 miles, and remarks that 
he has been " preserved from 2000 Dangers." At the same 
time, Mundy abundantly shows himself by his observations 
to have been a man of remarkably broad views, and, though 
apparently a Royalist and an Anglican, he has no gibes 
against Puritanism, nor, indeed, does he ever indulge in 
any bitter references to creeds other than his own. 

Mundy's energy, perseverance and capacity for work 
were enormous. Idleness seems to have been abhorrent 
to him, nor does he appear to have had any expensive 
tastes or any great love of pleasure and amusement. It 
troubled him to remain at home " waisting of meanes." 
His chief delight was to follow his "habitual Disposition 
of travelling," and certainly he must have gratified his 
taste almost to the full; the one bitter drop in his cup 
being his inability to carry out his desire of circumnavi- 
gating the globe. In disposition, Mundy comes before us 
genial and tender-hearted, a lover of his fellow-men and a 
partisan of the oppressed. He has many mentions of his 


*' friends," even in these early voyages, and his champion- 
ship of the weak is shown by the warmth with which he 
speaks of the oppressions endured by the Christians at the 
hands of the Turks. 

The great charm, however, of this original man is his 
transparent naturalness. In his writings, there is no self- 
consciousness, no striving after effect. He tells his story 
throughout with unaffected candour, avoiding alike the 
verbosity of Coryat and the stilted style of Gainsford. 
The later volumes will reveal him as a man worthy both of 
respect and admiration. 

The Mundy MSS. 

Only one complete copy of Mundy's work is known to 
exist, viz. the MS. volume now in the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford, catalogued as Raivlinson MS. A. 315. From this 
volume the present transcript has been taken. 

Mundy would seem to have made no notes of his early 
voyages before the year 1620. In that year he kept a 
diary of his journey from Constantinople to London. 
From 162 1 to 1627 he again kept no regular chronicle 
of his journeys. In 1628, however, while on his first 
voyage to India in the Expedition, and in 1634, on the 
return voyage to England in the Royall Mary, he occupied 
his enforced idleness on board ship in writing from memory 
the story of his early years, in putting into shape his diary 
of the events in 1620, and in amplifying his notes on all 
that had happened during the six years he had spent in 
India. These various stories he split up into nineteen 
Relations^, of which three only deal with his early European 

On Mundy's return to England, he had a copy made 
of his book and gave it into the care of Sir Paul Pindar. 
The original he carried with him to Cornwall, where it was 
doubtless received with wonder and delight by his friends 
at Penryn. In the following year, when Mundy went to 

1 See pp. 7, 8. 


London to make arrangements for his voyage to China, he 
left his MS. with his father, " who promised to send itt 
after mee, Butt lending itt to one or other, itt came not to 
hand, Soe went to Sea without itt\" No trace of this first 
MS. has been discovered and Mundy evidently considered 
it irretrievably lost. The copy left with Sir Paul Pindar 
happily escaped a similar fate and is now among the 
Harleian MSS. at the British Museum. 

During the voyage to China, Mundy kept a journal 
" in the Nature off the former^" and on his return to 
England, finding his original MS. "not to bee procured" 
he had Pindar's copy " coppied outt againe into this booke, 
adding and Joyning thereto- " the narrative of the events 
of the succeeding years. Thus much Mundy tells us in his 
Preface, which appears to have been written in 1639 or 
quite early in 1640. The re-copying oi Relations I. to XIX. 
was probably done under Mundy's own eye as there are 
additions in the Razvl. MS., not found in the Harl. MS., 
such as the accounts of staking, gaunching, etc. which he 
may have dictated to the copyist as the work was proceed- 
ing. The Hai'l. MS., too, bears traces of careful revision 
by Mundy. There are corrections in his waiting, but no 
great additions such as those in the Rawl. MS. The 
corrections were most likely made either in 1634, from the 
original MS., or in 1639 when the second copy, Rawl. MS. 
A. 315, was begun. 

In 1640, when Mundy set out on his trading voyage to 
Holland, Prussia, etc., it is most probable that he took his 
MS. with him and continued the narrative of his travels in 
his spare time, unless indeed he only kept rough notes, 
which he amplified after his return to England in 1647. 
At any rate, we know that, while at Penryn, early in 1650, 
he revised the whole of his MS., adding to his title the 
names of the European countries visited after 1639, ^"^^ 
inserting, besides many scattered notes, the Supplement to 
Relation I.^ At Penryn, too, in the same year, he wrote 

^ See p. 2. 2 See p. 2 f. ^ See pp. 24 — 40. 


his first Appendix which contains notes on the following 
subjects : — " The Courten Voyage ; The Paradox of the 
Earth's Motion ; The Changes in Ringing of Bells ; The 
County of Cornewall and Towne of Penrin ; Occurrences 
at Penrin in 1649." 

Four years later, when in London, Mundy was again 
bent on revising his MS., for, as will have been already 
seen\ he wrote, on the i6th December, 1654, "My intention 
is, if God spare mee life and leisure, to Copy outt this booke 
over againe, as well to rectifie whatt is amisse according to 
my abilitie, as allsoe to insert many things omitted by 
mee." This intention of re-copying his book seems never 
to have been carried out, for, owing to family misfortunes, 
Mundy was compelled, in 1655, to seek fresh employment, 
and, in March of that year, he made his third voyage to 
India. This time we are certain that he had his MS. with 
him, for the addition to his description of the amphitheatre 
at Verona, copied from Sandys' Travels, is in his own 
writing and is dated '' Alleppo Merchant" (the ship in which 
he sailed to India), '^August 2d, anno 165 5 1" During his 
voyage to and from India, Mundy probably once again 
revised his MS. and continued his life-story up to date. 

After his return to England, he began his last Appendix 
of " some Occurrences, Passages, etts. since my last coming 
home." From 1658 to 1663 he wrote in London, and from 
1663 to 1667 in Penryn. He prefaces this last portion of 
his MS. with the remark, " Having leisure and spare paper 
I thought it nott amisse to set downe some accidents that 
have hapned since my last arrivall from India to this 
Citty which I have either seen or hearde of" The second 
Appendix bears no evidence of revision and the writing, 
though still excellent, shows traces of age. The MS. 
concludes with a copy of the Royal Proclamation after the 
Treaty of Breda, which " was read in our town in Penrin 
the eleventh of September Anno 1667." 

The MS., a thick folio volume, has no title on the 

^ See p. xviii. ^ Seep. 102 f. 


cover, is bound in white vellum, and contains, inclusive of 
the Preface and some leaves inserted and not numbered, 
510 foolscap pages. The part done by the copyist, fols. 
I — III, is in a beautiful seventeenth century clerkly hand, 
while Peter Mundy's own writing is of an earlier style, 
more difficult to decipher, but regular and well formed. Of 
the 247 fols. as numbered by Mundy, 150 deal with India 
and the East. The MS., which is in excellent preserva- 
tion, contains 117 illustrations, all apparently executed 
by the author in and after the year 1639. I^ has besides 
six engravings and six double-page maps by Hondius. 
On these Mundy has marked his routes with red dotted 
lines. All the maps, except that of the World, indicate 
the journeys described in Relations I. to III. Though 
Mundy apologises for his illustrations, and says that he 
has " no skill in portraicture\" most of the spirited pen- 
and-ink drawings which adorn his work are quite worthy 
of their place therein. Those, however, which are repro- 
duced in the present volume are not among his best, and 
hardly give a fair idea of his skill as a draughtsman. 
Many of the pictures, as the author tells us, were not 
"taken att Sight. ..butt long after, by apprehension off 
such things seene," and were drawn on loose papers which 
could be replaced if he should " perchaunce cause them to 
bee better Don^" 

Harl. MS. 2286, which has been carefully collated 
with Raii'l. MS. A. 315, as far as was necessary for the 
present volume, was, as previously stated, copied from the 
original in 1634 and left with Sir Paul Pindar. It contains 
no illustrations, is in an excellent clerk's hand and in good 
preservation. It has been in the custody of the British 
Museum since 1759 and was catalogued by Humfrey 
Wanley for the Earl of Oxford some time before 1726. 
Wanley's remarks are worth quoting : — Harl. MS. 2286. 
" A Book in folio, not negligently written, rather seeming 
to be prepared for the press ; which at the beginning is 

^ See p. 4. 


thus entitled, ' A breife Relation of certaine Journies and 
Voyages into France, Spain, Turkey and East India ; 
passed and performed by Peter Mundy.' The Author or 
Traveller, who was of Penem^ in Cornwall, first went into 
France A.D. 1609, and the next year'-, served in a Merchants 
Ship as a Cabbin-boy ; from which Station, by degrees, 
he became employed in considerable business. He dis- 
covers a good Capacity joyn'd with Veracity ; and divides 
his Narration into several Chapters, the Contents of which 
do follow the Title ; of which I shall give the following 
Abstract, because I remember not that I have seen the 
Work itself in print." Here follows a Table of Contents 
of Relations I. — XIX. slightly enlarged from Mundy's 
" First Table." Wanley concludes his remarks on Mundy's 
work thus : " Although this Book be but a Copy, it is 
nevertheless corrected by the Author's hand." 

Besides the Raivl. and Harl. MSS. there are some 
late copies of portions of Mundy's work. The India 
Office copy, which consists of Relations IV. to XXX. or 
the account of Mundy's first and second voyages to India, 
in 1628 and 1635 respectively, was apparently made from 
the Rawl. MS., for it contains tracings of the illustra- 
tions found only in the complete work. It was presented 
to the India Office on the 5th October, 18 14, by Thomas 
fisher^, F.S.A. This copy will be fully dealt with in the 
succeeding volumes. 

Of the India voyages there are, too, early nineteenth 
century copies of events during Mundy's residence in India, 
1628 — 1634, as told in Relatiojis V., VI. and VII. There 
is also a copy of part of his voyage to China. These 
fragments were acquired by the British Museum in 1853 
and are catalogued as Add. MSS. 19278 — 19281. They 
also will be fully dealt with in vols. II. and III. 

^ i.e., Penryn. 

^ This is incorrect, Mundy went to France in 1608, and began life 
as a cabin-boy in 161 1. 

■^ Fisher was born in 1771 and died in 1836. 


The only other copy known to me of a part of Mundy's 
work is that contained in Add. MS. 33420, a volume of 
Collections for the History of Cornwall, made by Thomas 
Tonkin the Cornish historian (1678 — 1742). This MS. 
was, for some years, in the possession of the Ley family 
of Penzance, and was purchased by the authorities of the 
British Museum from the late Colonel H. H. Ley in 
December, 1888. Part 4 of the work consists of extracts 
made by Tonkin from Mundy's remarks on the " County 
of Cornewall and Towne of Penrin," together with a short 
note on the author and an abstract of the contents of his 
complete work. The portion of Tonkin's extract relating 
to the rising in Penzance in 1648 was reproduced by 
J. S. Courtney in his Guide to Penzance, and is the only 
piece of Mundy's writing, as far as can be discovered, that 
has so far ever been printed. Tonkin is responsible for 
the statement that Mundy intended to publish his work. 
He prefaces his extract from the MS. with the remark^ 
" Peter Mundy being bred up also to the Sea and Mer- 
chandise from his Youth and of A Rambling Genius has 
Compiled A Large thick Folio Book Adorn'd with cuts, 
both drawn and Printed. ...Which Book He intended for 
the Press had not Death prevented him." Tonkin may 
have had the authority of the Worths, who then owned 
the MS., for Mundy's intentions as to its ultimate fate 
and also for his information that Richard Mundy was the 
father of Peter. The author himself, however, gives no 
hint that he contemplated printing the account of his 
Travels. He tells us, in his Preface, that the diaries of 
his early voyages were only " cursary " and superficial and 
" nott soe puntuall as I oughtt or Mightt have Don, never 
Making accompt to make Much accompt off itt"-." His 
aim, when he first began his work, was to "keepe my owne 
remembraunce " and "to pleasure such Freinds Thatt are 
Desirous to understand somwhatt off Forraigne Countries^." 
Later, in 1639, he tells us that he intended to re-copy and 

1 Add. MS. 33420, fol. 104 b. - See p. 3. 


revise the whole book, but eventually he appears to have 
abandoned this idea and only to have added fresh matter 
in his declining years. 

How or when the Mundy MS. passed into the posses- 
sion of the Worths is, at present, not known. When 
Tonkin examined it, it was the property of Mrs Dorothy 
Worth, " Relict of John Worth Junr. of Tremogh\" Mabe, 
Cornwall. An examination of the wills of the Worth 
family has revealed no relationship with the Mundys, but, 
as Mabe is only two miles distant from Penryn, it is 
reasonable to suppose that the Worths were known to 
Peter Mundy. Indeed, since there is no entry of his 
burial in the Penryn registers, he may have ended his 
days at Mabe and bequeathed his life's work to his friends. 
As Peter Mundy apparently died intestate, his last wishes 
as to the disposal of his effects must perforce rest on 

From the Worths, the Mundy MS. passed into the 
hands of Thomas Rawlinson, collector and bibliophile 
(i68i — 1725), by whom it was probably purchased. 
When the Rawlinson MSS. were sold, in 1734, Mundy 's 
work was acquired by the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 
and there it has lain, practically forgotten for nearly 
175 years. 

1 Add. MS. 33420, fol. 104 b. 

I i IKERARll^Sl 





• uril,eWorlclf-Vo:n-1S6/i;^c..6-V * 

Pfiisiia.Polojiia • 

!'• rJicM'orlhsiJp oflKc 

.,jj^<; i .j-j y-- 



i^Atithors Title) 















ANNO 1639 TO 1648: 



^ Fol. I of the MS., which precedes the title, contains a double- 
page map of the World by Hondius, dated 1630. On it are traced in 
dotted red lines the routes of Mundy's Travels, with red ciphers to 
indicate the track of his intended Voyages. 

^ The second portion of the title is an addition, pi'obably made 
when the author revised his MS. in 1650. In the British Museum 
copy, Harl. MS., 2286, the title is, " A Breife Relation of Certaine- 
Journies and Voyages into Fraunce, Spaine, Turkey and East India,, 
passed and performed by Peter Mundy." 

M. I 

{Authors Preface^ 


Those voyages, Journeies, etts. Thatt befell mee From 
the tyme off my First Departure From my Parentts^ untill 
the tyme off my First arrivall from East India^ I did sett 
Downe together in one booked This Booke, att my 
comming home, I carried with mee in to the Country^ 
(The Coppy thereof beeing First taken and left in the 
Custody off the Right Honble. Sir Paul Pindar Knight"), 
and att my comming away againe lefft itt With my Father, 
who promised to send itt after mee. Butt, lending itt to 
one or other, itt came not to hand ; Soe Went to Sea 
Without itt, The voyage to China, etts.'' From whence, 
beeing returned^, having allsoe kept a Journall of thatt 
voyage in the Nature off the Former", and the Oreginall 
thereof not to bee procured, I have caused the Coppy 
afforesaid to bee coppied outt againe into this booke, 

^ There is no Preface in the British Museum copy, Harl. MS., 2286. 

^ In 1608. ^ In Sept. 1634. 

* i.e. Relations I., II., and III., which are reproduced in this 
volume. ^ To Penrhyn, in Cornwall. 

^ For the author's connection with Sir Paul Pindar, see Intro- 
duction and Relation II. 

"^ In 1636. s In December, 1638. 

9 This "Journall" is embodied in Relations XXL— XXX. The 
author's experiences during his first visit to India are described in 
Relations IV.— XIX. 

author's preface 3 

adding and Joyning thereto this last voyage and occur- 
rences \ In the reading whereof lett these FoUowing 
advertisementts bee observed, beeing Devided into three 
generall heads, and each off these again into three braunches 
as Followeth: — 

First. That itt consists of three Manner of Writing, viz., 

1. The Most and princopall is Journall Wise: — To 
say accidentts, passages off every Daies Journey by land, 
and each Daies sayling by Sea, off which I took butt a 
Cursary and superccall^ Notice as a Passenger, and. To say 
truth, nott soe puntuall as I oughtt or Mightt have Don, 
Never Making accomptt to make Much accomptt off itt. 
What I Did Was some Whatt aswell to keepe my owne 
remembraunce on occasion off Discourse concerning per- 
ticularities off thes voyages. As allsoe to pleasure such 
Freinds (who mightt come to the reading thereof) Thatt 
are Desirous to understand somwhatt off Forraigne Coun- 

2. Sundry passages recollected by Memory, as From 
my First setting Forth untill my arrivall att Constantinople^, 
and here and there some clause or other, butt Not Many, 
off Which I took nott presentt Notice. 

3. Here are in Divers places inserted the reports 
and Writings off others, as the tables off lattitude"*, longitude, 
etts. throughoutt this book. For Which I was beeholding 
unto my Freinds, Seamen, As allsoe Sundry relationes and 
reports off other Men according as the tymes and places 
gave some occasion to speak off^ 

1 This remark seems to refer to the " China Voyage." The 
author apparently wrote his Preface before making the voyages and 
journeys described in Relations XXXI. — XXXVI. 

2 i.e. superficial. ^ In 161 7. 

* The first of these " Tables" occurs in Relation IV. 
5 e.g. the extracts from Blount, Gainsford, Sandys, etc. in the 
author's Supplement to Relation I. 

4 author's preface 

Secondly, in the Designes or Figures^ there is to bee 
considered — 

1. Thatt they Were nott taken att Sight (Most of 
them) as they oughtt to have bin, butt long after, by 
aprehension off such things seene. 

2. Thatt I have no skill in portraicture, only I have 
endeavoured to expresse the Most Meteriall off the things 

3. They are all drawne on loose papers, slightly 
pasted in, Which may bee easily taken out againe, because 
I may hereafifter perchaunce cause them to bee better Don 
and inserted in the void spaces lefft off purpose, and in the 
places off the other papers Now there Fastened-. 

Thirdly. These three pointts are to bee observed as 
Well in the reading off this Memoriall as off all others off 
this kind : — 

I. Thatt India Comprehends (under thatt Name) a 
large extentt. The people Soe Farre Differing in Religion, 
Customes, habitts, etts., as they are Distantt in place. And 
the places so various in beasts, Fowle, Fruitts, plantts, etts. 
as they Differ in Scituation. Therefifore, to bee considered 
Whatt partt off India is spoken off or Meant, For India 
properly (as I conceave) is butt one province, Named 
Hindostan, Wherein (once Dilly) now Agra is the cheiffe 
seatt^, and From Whence I conceave the Word India is 
Derived, or From the River Indus^ Butt Now under this 
Name is encluded From Persia even to China by sea and 

1 There are 117 of these "designes or figures" in the Raw- 
linson MS. 

2 Some of the illustrations are gummed on to the text used, and 
others are interleaved. The " void spaces " are very few. 

3 Mundy was in India from 1628 to 1634, during the first year of 
Shah Jahan's reign, and before he had removed the Court from Agra 
back to Delhi. 

* The latter derivation is nearest the truth. The modern English 
'India' is from (Skr.) Smdim, through Persian Hi7idii., Greek 'IvSoi 
and 'ivdtKT], and Latin India. As also is ' Indus ' through Greek 'Iv86s. 

author's preface 5 

by land, there lying Many large vast kindomes beetweene, 
allso Inffinite Number off Hands small and greatt, as 
Sumatra, Java, the Mollucaes, etts. in the South Sea\ 
with others Dispersed in those Seas either to the North- 
ward or South Ward off the lyne. 

2. There may bee enquiry made off some thatt have 
bin in those parts and yett they know of Noe such Matter. 
Itt is to bee understood thatt either they have nott seene 
se [? so] not heard, or else have nott regarded. For 
example, a straunger May live in England Many yeares 
and perhapps nott know Whither there are any Otters or 
badgers in the Countrie or noe, because hee hath nott seene 
Nor enquired affter such, and soe consequently off some 
Customes, as pressing to Death-, etts. 

3. Lett any in the reading off Forraigne relationes 
(especially this) bee indulgentt and Deliberate in censuring, 
and not over hasty in reproach. I doe conffesse the Matter 
to bee Meane and the phrase and Decorum Suiteable, yett 
full off variety and such as Most part thereoff not (as I 
conceave) to bee Found in other Writings ; Allsoe, thatt 
itt is the Fruit off some vacantt houres in those long 
voyages by sea and on shoare, and the best end and 
purpose I know thereof is againe to serve to passe away 
tyme thatt may bee spared, Desiring No Farther estimation 
thereof thatt [? than] thatt it may bee reckoned among 
those recreationes Which are accompted honest and laud- 
able (off Which sort are Musicke, painting, histories, civill 

^ The trading places in the southern part of the Indian ocean, 
e.g. the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, etc., were, in the 17th century, 
commonly known as the " South Seas." 

^ An allusion to the punishment known as the peine forte et dt/re, 
the torture formerly applied to persons arraigned for felony, who 
refused to plead. Their prostrate bodies were pressed with heavy 
weights till they pleaded or died. The first Parliament of Edward I., 
1 275, is responsible for its introduction. The custom was not abolished 
till 1772, although it had been a 'dead letter' for many years pre- 

6 author's preface 

Discours, etts.). I Doe allsoe conffesse thatt Many things 
are Misplaced, as some First that should bee last, and soe 
to the Contrary ; allsoe some things therin mought bee 
better lefftt outt and others omitted Were better in there 
place. Thus For Matter and phrase. All this allsoe I 
could Mend, and When I had Don, even begin againe, 
butt, as I said, the phrase is sutable to the Matter. Yett, 
however, lett this one thing breed some better liking off itt, 
Thatt I have endeavoured to com as Near the truth off the 
Matters Discribed as possibly I could attain unto by my 
owne experience or the Most probablest- Relation off others. 
I have inserted sundry Mappes in severall places of 
this Booke^ in which you may observe redd pricked lines. 
Those Doe shew the Countries Wee passed through, the 
places Wee came unto, and the Way Wee went. Only 
Where the Way is traced with ciffres, Oes, or nulles, those 
voyages and Journies Were only intended and not per- 
formed for certaine reasons, and the way putt Down Which 
Wee should have gon, as from Macao in Chyna to the 
Manillas, from thence through the South Sea unto Aqua- 
pullco on the back side of America, soe overland to Mexico, 
St. John d'Ullooa etts., Fol. 148^, and the Mappe of the 
World att the beginning of the booke ; see there Allsoe 
from Arckangell in Russia upp the River Dweena to 
Vologda, thence to the Citty of Mosco, Smolensko, Vilna 
etts. and soe to Dantzigke in Prussia. See Fol. 198^ and 
the Mappe of Europe att the beginning of the booke allso. 

1 The maps inserted in the Rawlmson MS. are seven in number, 
viz. The World, Europe, Turkey and Arabia, Italy, Savoy, Gaul, and 

2 A spot situated on the east coast of Mexico, north of Vera Cruz, 
formerly well-known to mariners, but which has now disappeared from 
modern maps. There is no mention of St John d'Ulloa on fol. 148 of 
the MS. In the paragraph which explains why Mundy did not com- 
plete his voyage round the world, he says he intended to go from 
' Manilla " to " Aquapullco," and thence overland to " Pueblo de los 

^ i.e. of the Rawlinson MS. 

{Authors Contents.) 


Relation I. Of my First Departure From home about Anno 1608 : 
untill my arrivall att Constantinople in Anno 161 7 and Departure 
thence in Anno 1620^ 

Relation II. A Journey overland From Constantinople unto London 
beegun the 6th. of May Anno 1620. 

Relation III. Other voyages, Journeies, etts. occurring since my 
arrivall att London untill the tyme of my entertaynementt For 
East India. 

Relation IV. Journall of a voyage made in the good Shipp Expe- 
dition^ burthen 350 tonnes, Thomas Watts Master, in company 
off thejojiah, burthen 800 tonnes, both bound For Suratt in East 
India under the Commaund of Captaine Richard Swanley^. 

Relation V. Some passages att Suratt since my arrivall there in 
September 1628 untill my Departure thence For Agra in November 
1630 With a Discription of Sundry perticularities in and about 
Suratt aforesaid. 

Relation VI. A Journey offe from Suratt in Guzaratt to Agra in 
Hindostan, whither Peter Mundy and John Yard were enordered 
and sentt by the WorshipfuU Thomas Rastell President etts. 
Councell to assist Mr. William Fremlen, there residing, in the 
honourable Companies affaires. 

Relation VII. A Journey From Agra to Cole and Shawgurre beeing 
Dispeeded by Mr. William Fremlen aboutt the Companies affaires. 

Relation VIII. A Journey from Agra to Puttana on the borders off" 
Bengala with eight cartts laden With Quicksilver a smalle peece 

^ The titles of the Relations vary in the copies at the British Museum 
and at the India Office from those here given. The discrepancies will be 
noted under each separate Relation. 

^ The copy at the India Office begins with this Relation. 


of Vermillion and som English Cloath For accompt off the Honour- 
able Company to bee there sold and returnes made As allso to 
see the estate of the Country and Whatt hopes off Benefifitt by 
trading into those partts. 

delation IX. Reasons alleadged by Peter Mundy beefifore his 
Departure Agra thatt the sending him for Puttana With the 
Companies goods may nott only proove to theer losse but is 
playnely against the Presidentts and Counsells Meaning and 

Eelation X. The proceeding and Issue of the Imploymentt For 

Relation XL Of Puttana and off AbduUa Ckhaun governour thereofif. 

Relation XII. The Returne From Puttana to Agra. 

Relation XIII. Discription off the Greatt MogoU Shaw Jehan his 
comming from Brampore, Where hee lay Warring against Decan, 
unto his Gardein called Darree ca bag, and so to Agra. 

Relation XIV. The greatt MogoU his riding to Buckree Eede his 
Courtt, Marriage of his two sonnes Favourites etts. 

Relation XV. Of Agra : Whatt Notable there and thereaboutts, as 
the Castle, gardeins, tombes, Festivalls, Customes, etts. 

Relation XVI. A Journey from Agra to Suratt with a Caphila con- 
sisting of 268 Cammells and 109 Carts, Whereon Was laden 
1493 Fardles of Indico and 12 Fs. off Saltpeter etts. goodes, 
Dispeeded by Mr. William Fremlen under the Conduct off Peter 
Mundy with a Convoy off 170 Peones or Souldiers. 

Relation XVII. Some passages and troubles More perticulerly 
concerning the Caphila afforementioned occurring in the Conductt 

Relation XVIII. Off India in generall and off the Mareene att 

Relation XIX. Journall off a voyage from Suratt to England on 
the Shipp Royall Mary, Commaunder Captain James Slade, 
Wherin Went home passengers Mr. John Norris, Cape Merchant, 
Mr. Henry Glascock, Mr. Thomas Willbraham, and my selff 

Relation XX. Some observations since my arrivall home From 
India Anno 1634 untill my Departure thither againe on Sir 
William Courteenes shippes. 

Relation XXI. Journall off a voyage off a Fleet consisting off four 
shippes and two pinnaces sett Forth by the right Worshipfulle 
Sir William Courtene, Knight ; the Designe For India, China, 

" The Table" in the copy, Harl. MS.., 2286, ends here. 


Japan, etts. on a New Discovery ofif trafifique in those parts, 

Devided in to Sundry relationes allsoe Following the Number 

afforegoing, and First From England to Goa in East India^ 
Eelation XXII. Our Departure Goa and arrivall att Battacala, 

Where was setled a Factory. 
Relation XXIII. Since our Departure Battacala in East India untill 

our arrivall att Achem on the Hand of Sumatra : our selling off a 

Factory there allsoe. With other passages. 
Kelation XXIV. Our Departure from Achem on Sumatra, our 

toutching att Mallacca and arrivall att Macao in China, With 

our reception there by the Portuguees etts. passages. 
E,elation XXV. Our Departure From Macao : and arrivall att 

Fumahone, Taytfoo, etts., places att the Mouth off Cantan River 

With ourDaungers and troubles there undergon etts. occurrences. 
Eelation XXVI. From the tyme otf our Departure Tayffoo untill 

our arrivall att Macao againe and Whatt trafifick Wee obteyned 

there off the Portuguees att last ; etts. passages in the Interm. 
Relation XXVII. Our Departure From Macao in China, our 

toutching att Mallacca and arrivall att Achem on the Hand off 

Eelation XXVIII. Since our Departure from Achem on the Hand 

off Sumatra untill our arrivall att the Hand off Mauritius and' 

departure thence againe. 
Eelation XXIX. From the Hand off Mauritius unto the Hand ofif 

Madagascar or Saint Lawrence, Where Wee Wintred. 
Eelation XXX. Our Departure From the Hand of Madagascar or 

Saint Lawrence, our toutching and reffreshing att the Hand off 

Saint Hellena and our arrivall att last unto the Hand ofif Greatt 

Eelation XXXI. A Petty Progresse through som parts off England 

and Wales. 
Eelation XXXII. A passage From England over in to Holland 

With some perticularities off thatt Country. 
Eelation XXXIII. A voyage from Amsterdam unto Dantzigk in 

the Baltick Sea, With some whatt off Prussia etts. Countries 

Eelation XXXIV. A voyage from Dantzigk in the East or Baltick 
Sea unto Saint Michael Arckangell in Russia, lying on the White 
Sea, with the return From thence and some small observation ofif 

those Northerne Regions. 

^ The titles of Relations XXL — XXVL are given, with some variations, 
in the India Office copy and in the late copy at the British Museum, Add. 
MSS., 19281. 


Relation XXXV. Of Dantzigk, some particularities of thatt Citty 
Sett Downe, With my Departure thence and arrivall home to 
England once againe. 

Eelation XXXVI. My third voyage to East India on the Ship 
Alleppo Merchantt for Rajapore etts. 

An Appendix somwhatt Concerning the former Relations as allsoe 
Matter of exercise and recreation after the reading of soe many 
tedious voyages and Weary Journies. Penrin the fourth february 
Anno 1649^ 

Some Occurrences, Passages, etts. since my last comming home 
London 9th. August 16582. 

Some Occurrences of these Tymes etts.^ 


From my First going Forth With Capt: Davis, Anno 161 1, till my 
arrivall at Constantinople with Mr. James Wiche, 161 7, there 
hath bin gon in Sundry voyages Journeies etts. somme of 

Miles 17394 

From Constantinople home by Land with the Honorable Paul 
Pindar, late Embassador there with the Grand Signior, 

Anno 1620 1838 

Severall voiages, Journeies, etts. since my arrivall in England, 1620, 
till I Was bound outt and sett saile For East India, 1628 5880 
From London to Suratt in East India in Just six monthes tyme 13713 
From Suratt to Agra, the head citty of India by land. Anno 1630 551 

From Agra to certaine townes thereabouts and to the River 
Ganges .......... 180 

From Agra to Puttna in Bengala on the River Ganges, by land 400|^ 
From Puttana backe to Agra Anno 1632 .... 422f 

From Agra Downe to Suratt With a Caphila of Indico etts. 1632 598 

From Suratt home on the Roy all Mary, Capt. Jas. Slade, Anno 

1634 137181 

^ This Appendix was probably added by the author when he revised his 
MS. after the loss of the original of the first part, as stated on p. 2. The 
appendix is continued up to 1654. 

2 These " Occurrences" are continued up to 1660. 

3 i.e. from 1660 till 1667. 


From London Downe to Penrin and upp againe twice, Anno 
1635 880 

From England to Sundry ports and Hands in East India, As allso 
to Macao etts. places in the kingdom of China, August, Anno 
1637 17141 

From Tayffoo, Macao, etts. in China and East India home, beeing 
beaten back to Madagascar or St. Laurence there to Winter, 
Anno 1638 18923 

From England, viz. Falmouth, through some parts of England and 
Wales over to Holland, thence to Dantzigk on the East orBaltick 
Sea : Anno 1640 1944 

From Dantzigk on the Baltick Sea unto Arckeangell in Russia on the 
White Sea, aboutt by the North Cape alongst the Coasts and in 
sight of Norwey, Lapland, Fynland, by Way of Lubeck and 
Hambro : and back againe to Dantzigk, Anno 1641 . 5840 

From Dantzigk to London and Downe to Falmouth once again, 
1647 1410 

From Falmouth to London, from thence to East India, and backe 
againe to London, in August, Anno 1656 . . . 27900 


{Aut/i07'^s I?idex.) 

AN ALPHABETICALL TABLE 1 For the finding off sundry par- 
ticularities Dispersed throughoutt this book and Where 
this Mark * is you must looke over the leaffe. 

[Here follows the author's index of 418 entries, which is not printed. 
It occupies five foolscap pages in the MS.^] 

^ This Index is arranged under the letters of the alphabet, but the words 
are, nevertheless, not in alphabetical order. There are several additions in a 
different ink, evidently made at a later date. In many cases, a definition of 
the word indexed is given as well as its location in the MS. Where these 
definitions elucidate the text, they have been appended as footnotes. 

^ Immediately after the Index three prints ai-e inserted in the MS. The 
smallest contains the portrait of Thomas Candyssh, the navigator, at the age 
of twenty-eight. By his side is a portrait of Sir Francis Drake at the age of 
forty-three. Beneath these two is a picture of a three-masted ship in full sail, 
with flags and pennants flying. 

Following the three illustrations is a double-page map of Europe, by 
Hondius, dated 1631, with the route of Mundy's voyages and journeys marked 
in red dotted lines. The reverse of the map is covered with extracts from 
Blount's Voyage in the Levant and notes by the author, made in Febiiiary, 1650. 
These are intended to amplify and illustrate his early European travels, and 
are printed and treated in Appendix A. 





Of my first departttre from home about Anno 1608 nntill 

my arrivall at Constantinople in Anno 16 17 and 

departure thence in Anno 1620 as followeth. 

From Penrin^ in Cornewall, I passed with my father to 
the Cittie of Roane ^ in Normandie, where wee stayed one 
moneth, and then retourned home, from whence I was sent 
to Bayon* in Gascony to learne the French Tongue, where, 
haveinge remayned one yeare, I came home againe in the 
yeare 1610. 

The 1st. May, 161 1. I left my Parents, and went upp 
to London with Captaine John Davis^, whome I served as 

^ In the British Museum copy of Mundy's Travels, Harleian MS.^ 
2286, the title of Relation I. is, " Sundrie Relations of Certaine 
Journies and Voyages " etc., and the title in " The Table " is,^ 
" Imprimis my passage with my Father to the Cittie of Roane in 
Normandie, Anno 1610, and at my returne a Voyage from London 
to Constantinople." 

2 " Penrin, a pretty towne in Corne Wall." Authors Index. 

3 Rouen. * Bayonne. 

^ This man is neither Captain John Davis of Sandridge, the 
celebrated explorer, nor Captain John Davis of Limehouse, who was 
in the East India Company's service ; but it is possible that he may 
be the John Davis, "son of William Davis of Gracious Street, 
London, just come from Spain," who was imprisoned in March 1619 
for refusing to take the Oath of Allegiance and for affirming the Pope 
to be the sole authority in ecclesiastical matters in England. See 
Calendar of State Papers., Domestic Series., 1619 — 1623, under dates 
22 March 1619 and 29 July 1625. 


Cabbin boy three or four Voyages, vizt. to Sanlucar de 
Barrameda^, Cadiz^, Mallaga, etc., and att length was left 
by him att Sanlucar afore said with Mr. George Weaver^, 
dwellinge in the howse of Sr Pedro Patinno^ There I 
stayed some two yeares, from whence I was sent upp to 
the Cittie of Sevill to remaine with Mr. Charles Parker^*, 
and from thence I went to Ayamonte*, soe over to Castro 
Mareen and Tavila^ in Portugall, and back againe to 
CevilP, where I lived twoe yeares more, and in that tyme 
attained the Spanish Tongue. From Sevill I came to 
London againe'' with my first Master Captaine Davis^ 

I had not bene att home fifteen dayes, but I was sent 
away with Mr. James Wiche", bound for Constantinople in 
the Shipp the Royall Mmxhmtt, Captaine Josua Downinge^", 
with whome went passengers Mr. James Wiche aforesaid 
my then Master, Mr. James Garroway", Mr. Bartholomew 

^ At the mouth of the Guadalquiver, near Cadiz. Compare The 
Voyage to Cadiz hi 1625, by John Glanville, pp. 6, 35, "The Bay of 

Cadiz or St. Lucas St. Mary Port near the Bay of Cadiz was a 

lowe shore and more apt for landing of Men then anie place about 
St. Lucar." 

^ " Cadiz or Cales, a towne in Spayne." Author's Index. 

^ I have failed to find any contemporary mention of these in- 
dividuals. Parker's name is omitted in the IBritish Museum copy of 
Mundy's early Travels, Harl. MS., 2286. 

* A fortress at the mouth of the Guadiana. 

^ Castro Marin and Tavira are close to Ayamonte, on the Portu- 
guese side of the river. 

" Probably a copyist's error. The author has Sevill in his I?idex 
and elsewhere in the MS. 

'' In January, 1617. ^ See ante, p. 13, note 5. 

^ James Wyche was the sixth son of Richard Wyche, a prosperous 
London merchant, who had twelve sons and died in 162 1. For 
an account of the family, and the author's connection with Richard, 
George, James and Edward Wyche, see Appendix B. 

I'' For the Sailing Orders of the Royall Marchant, together with 
a short account of Captain Joshua Downing, see Appe?uiix C. 

11 The Garways or Garraways were well-known Levantine and 
East Indian traders, who gave their name to Garraway's Coffee-house 
in Change Alley, one of the most famous in the i8th century. James 
Garraway was probably one of the seventeen children of Sir William 
Garway or Garraway and brother to Anthony Garraway, who was 


Abbott^ Mr. Roger and Mr. Charles Vivian 2, with five or 
six other Merchants'^. In our Passage wee made sondry 
Ports, vizt. Gibraltare^ Mallaga^ Alicante", Majorca^ 

residing in Constantinople in 1617. It is likely, too, that James 
Garraway was sent to Constantinople in connection with the affairs 
of Arthur Garraway. This individual was imprisoned during the 
reign of Ahmad I., and the English ambassadors, Sir Paul Pindar 
and Sir Thomas Roe both made unsuccessful attempts to recover 
what had been extorted from him by the Turks. In July, 1617, 
Pindar wrote to the Levant Company, and "amplie related the ill 
successe he had had in the prosecuting the suite for the restitution of 
Mr. Arthur Garrawayes moneys obtaining nothing but delayes, and in 
the end no Performance." Sir Henry Garraway, the eldest son of 
Sir William Garraway, a Liveryman of the Drapers' Company, became 
Lord Mayor of London, and was a Director of the Levant, the East 
India and the Muscovy Companies. His career is given at length in 
the Dictionary of National Biography. Two other sons of Sir William 
Garraway, Thomas (who died in 1625) and WiUiam were among the 
earliest "Adventurers" in East India Stock. Thomas Garway was 
said to be the original proprietor of Garraway's Coffee-house, and, 
under the designation of "tobacconist and coffeeman," was the first 
retailer of tea. Garraway's Coffee-house, which was twice rebuilt, was 
demolished in 1873. See The Times 28 Jan. and 20 March 1873. 

^ Probably a relative of Mr (afterwards Sir) Morris Abbott, a 
member of the Levant Company and the owner of the Royall 
Marchant. Sir Morris Abbott was elected Governor of the East 
India Company in March 1624. He died in 1644. 

2 In July, 1620, Roger Vivian was made free of the Levant 
Company {State Papers., Foreign Archives^ vol. 148, p. 43 a), and 
in 1633 Charles Vivian was admitted a "sworn free brother of the 
East India Company, bound to Sir Morris Abbott" {Calendar of State 
Papers., Colonial., East Indies, 1630 — 1634, p. 506). 

^ All these were " Turkey merchants " trading under the Levant 

* "Gibraltar: a town at the straights Mouth." Author's Ittdex. 
In 1599, Gibraltar is called Jebbatore by Dallam. See Early Voyages 
in the Levant, p. 11. In the British Museum copy of Mundy's early 
Travels, Harl. MS., 2286, the head-line from this place until the 
arrival at Scanderoon is, " Sundry Ports and Places in the Straights." 

^ " Mallaga, a seaport, Within the straights mouth." Author's 
Index. Malaga is called "grand Malligan" by Dallam. See Early 
Voyages in the Levant, p. 12. 

^ " Alicante, a towne in the streights." Author's Index. 

'' "Mayorca, a Citty and an Hand." Author's Index. Compare 
The Journal of Richard Bell, Sloane MS., 811, fol. 45, "In our way to 
Messena...we past the iselands of Maj and Minyorke and by the 
Iseland of Sardna." 


Alcadia in Minorca^ Messena^ on Scicillia^, Zante, Scan- 
darone or Allexandretta, Scio'' neere Smirna, and soe to 
Constantinople, Att all which places (Alcadia excepted) 
were English Marchants^, by whome wee were joyfully 
receaved and welcomed, our passage being very pro- 
sperous, pleasant and full of various Novelties and delights. 
Only about Cape St. Vincent there was like to have bene 
a terrible broyle*^ by the Comeinge in of the Kinge of 
Spaines Armade amonge our fleete in the night tyme, 
Wee suspectinge them to be Turkish Pyratts'' as they did 
us, there being notice of twenty six saile lyeinge about 
the Straights mouth, the Spanish Fleete consistinge of 
about Twentie Galleons etc., and our Fleete of about thirty 
small and greate, bound for severall Ports. But, God bee 
praised, wee parted friends. Other matters of note in this 
our passage as I remember are, vizt. 

Leghorne is the neatest, cleanest and pleasantest place 
that I have seene, their houses painted without side in 
Stories, Landskipps^ etc., with various Coulors, makeing 

1 Alcadia is, however, in Majorca. 

2 For a description of Messina in 1669, see The Journal of Richard 
Bell, Sloane MS., 811, fol. 46. 

^ Dallam has " Sissillia." See Early Voyages in the Levaiit, p. 17. 

* " Scio, a towne and an Hand in the Archepielago." Author's 
Index. An English Consul was established at Scio (or Chios) as 
early as 1513. For a description of Scio in 1616, see Lithgow, 
Painefiill Peregrinations, ed. 1632, p. 102. 

^ Minorca is expressly noted in the Charter of 3 James I. to the 
Levant Company, as being one of the places included in their trading 
privileges, but there is no mention of Majorca. This would account 
for the absence of English merchants at Alcadia. The references to 
this place are omitted in the British Museum copy of Mundy's early 
Travels, HarL MS., 2286. 

^ Instead of "a terrible broyle" the passage in the Harl. MS., 
2286, reads, " a verie terrible and bloodie sea fight." 

'' The Turkish pirates, or Barbary Corsairs, as they were generally 
called, were the great obstacles to trade in the Mediterranean at this 

* The contemporary spelling of landscape, but lantskip and land- 
skip are more common than landskipp. See Murray, Oxford English 

UNTILL ANNO 1620 17 

a verie delightfull shewed There they observe a Custome 
called Prattick-, and is near two dayes journie from 

Strombolo, neare Scicillia, is a little round, high Hand, 
castinge forth continuall flames of fire and smoake, not soe 
well perceaved by day as in the night, with such violence 
that it carrieth aboundance of stones and ashes out with it^ 

Dictionary^ s.v. Landscape. The description of the " Landskipps " at 
Leghorn is omitted in the British Museum copy of Mundy's early 
Travels, Harl. MS., 2286. 

^ Compare Struys, Voyages and Travels, ed. 1684, p. 67, " Leg- 
horn... is one of the chief Havens in renowned Italy... The City on 
the out-side appears more magnificent than it is indeed inwardly : 
The Frontispieces, as well of Privat as Public Buildings being 
plaisterd, upon which are painted Sea-fights, Histories and Land- 
schap." Struys visited Leghorn in 1657. 

Compare also A JoiirnaU of a Voyage thro^ France and Italy 
(in 1658), Sloa7ie MS., 2142, fol. 4, " Livorne is a very fine and hand- 
some towne, though the ill lives of the Inhabitants doe some what 
defame it. It hath a very fine Port belonging to it, it being all the 
Port townes belonging to the great Duke of Florence, where reside 
many English Marchants and men of other Nations which is the 
cause that it is of the greatest repute for trade of any Port towne in 
Europe, It is a place of great strength wherein is alwayes a Governour 
and Garrison to defend the place." 

2 Pratique. Permission granted to the crew and passengers of a 
ship to enter a port, to land, trade, etc. See later on, in Relation II., 
where the custom is fully described by the author on his arrival at 
Spalato. Compare Dallam's account of "proticke," Early Voyages 
in the Levant, p. 19 In 1669, Richard Bell and John Campbell were 
detained in the Lazaretto at Leghorn for forty days ; The Jourtial 
of Richard Bell, Sloane MS., 811. 

^ Compare Lithgow, Painefull Peregrinations, ed. 1632, p. 398, 
"We fetched up the little He of Strombolo [in 1616]: This Isolet is 
a round Rocke, and a mile in Compasse, growing to the top like to a 
Pomo, or Pyramide, and not much unlike the Isolets of Basse and 
Elsey, through the toppe whereof, as through a Chimney, arriseth a 
continuall fire, and that so terrible, and furiously casting foorth great 
stones and flames, that neyther Galley nor Boate dare Coast or 
boord it." 

In 1628, the Rev. Charles Robson thus describes Stromboli, in 
his News fi'oni Aleppo, p. 10, "At last we passed by a litle Island 
some five Leagues before we come to Sicilia, which belcheth out 
continually huge flames of fire. I did see it vomit up eight times, 
while we sayled in sight of it : the name of this Island is Strumbola,"- 

Compare also The fournal of Richard Bell, Sloane MS., Srr, 
"We weere becalmed amonge the burninge Iselands for two dayes. 
They are calld, i Strumbelo, 2 Vulcan, 3 Vulcanello * * * within 

M. 2 


The Stones fallinge into the Sea fleete^ on the water 
and by us are called Pummice stones, of which there is a 
naturall reason. 

Zante a small Island from whence wee have Currence^ 
of which the Inhabitants reape such benefitt as that they 
will not affoard themselves so much ground as to Till 
theire Corne^ being supplyed from the Mayne. This 

three or four leagues six or seven little Iselands not Inhabbited, which 
smooke, but that cald Vulcan most, and now [in 1669] burnes more 
furiosi)' then Strumbeloe did, which at this day flames much most 
visible in the night." 

1 Old form of " float." 

2 Compare Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, iv. 3. 40, " Three pound of 
Sugar, four pound of Currence, Rice." Gainsford, Glo?y of Etiglattd, 
p. 40, has, "Xante, an Hand famous for Vallies yeelding 4000 tunne of 
Gorans every yeere." 

^ For Dallam's description of Zante in 1599, and for Covel's 
remarks (in 1670) on the prevalence of earthquakes in the island, 
see Early Voyages in the Levant, pp. 18 and 126. 

The quaint description of Lithgow, who visited Zante in 1610, 
is worth quoting, Painefull Peregrinations, p. 64, " Zante was called 
Zacinthus, because so was called the sonne of Dardanus, who reigned 
there * * * It hath a Gitty * * * subject yearely to fearefuU Earth- 
quakes, especially in the moneths of October and November, which 
oftentimes subvert their houses and themselves, bringing deadly 
destruction on all * * * This He produceth good store of Rasini de 
Gorintho, commonly called Gurrants * * » The llanders are Greekes, 
a kind of subtile people, and great dissemblers ; but the Signory 
thereof belongeth to Venice * * * And if it were not for that great 
provision of corne, which are dayly transported from the firme land of 
Peleponesus to them, the Inhabitants in short time would famish. It 
was credibly told me here by the better sort, that this little lie maketh 
yearely * * * onely of Gurrants 160000 Ghickins, paying yearely over 
and above for Gustome 22000 Piasters, every Ghicken of gold being 
nine shillings English, and every Piaster being white money sixe 
shillings. A rent or summe of mony which these silly llanders could 
never affoord * * * if it were not here in England of late for some 
Liquorous lips, who forsooth can hardly digest Bread, Pasties, Broth, 
and (verbi gratia) bag puddings without these currants * * * There 
is no other nation save this thus addicted to that miserable lie." 

George Sandys, who also visited Zante in 16 10, says, Travels, 
ed. 1673, p. 4, that the islanders traded especially with England and 
Holland, that they paid yearly " unto St. Mark 48000 Dollars for 
Gustoms and other Duties," besides " their private gettings, amounting 
to 150000 Zechins * * * They sow little Gorn, as imploying their 
grounds to better advantages, for which reason they sometimes suffer, 
being ready to starve, when the weather continueth for a season 
tempestuous, and that they cannot fetch their provision, which they 


place is much frequented with Earthquakes, Subject to 
the Venetians, for which they pay a Certaine Tribute to 
the Turke that hee would not molest them. 

Scandarone or Allexandretta is the Sea port of 
Alleppo\ some three dayes Journie distant. It is very 
unwholsome by reason of the huge high hills hindringe 
the approach of the Sunne Beames, untill nine or ten a 
Clocke in the morning, lyeinge in a great Marsh full of 
boggs, foggs and Froggs^ the Topps of the Mountaines 
continually covered with Snowe, aboundinge with wild 
beasts, as Lyons, Wylde Boares, Jacalls, Porcupines, etc. 
Of the latter, there was one killed, brought aboard, and 

have as well of Flesh as of Corn, from Morea, being ten leagues 

Struys, who visited Zante in 1658, remarks, Voyages and Travels, 
p. 98, " Sante or Xante * * * on this Island is a City containing about 
4000 Houses, or rather Cottages, without chimneys, that they say, is by 
reason of frequent Earthquakes, of which they are in daily jeopardy." 

1 Scanderoon, where the Levant Company had a Consul, was the 
outlet of the commerce of Aleppo. All the ships trading to the East 
touched at Scanderoon before going on to Constantinople. 

^ Compare Dallam's remarks on Scanderoon in 1599, Early 
Voyages in the Leva?it^ pp. 28, 30. Compare also News frotn 
Aleppo (in 1628), p. 11, "Wee arrived in safety at Alexandretta 
alias Scanderone, which we found full of the carcases of houses, not 
one house in it. It having been a litle before sackt by the Turkish 
Pyrats. The unwholesomest place in the world to live in, by reason 
of the grosse fogges that both discend from the high mountaines, 
and ascend from the moorish [marshy] valleys. The hills about it 
are so high, that till ten of the clocke in the morning the Sunne 
seldome or never peepeth over them." 

Among Mundy's notes on the extracts from Blount's Voyage into 
the Levant^ most of which are given in Appendix A, is the following 
in connection with Scanderoon : — " Within eight or ten leagues of 
Alexandretta Sir Weaker Rawleigh placeth the citty of Issus, where 
Darius King of Persia was overthrowne by Alexander Major, his 
great and pompous (although unwarlike) army routed, his Wife and 
Children taken prisoners; see the battaile of Issus, Sir W. R. p. 177: 
hb. 4 [p. 147 of ed. 1634]. In dicto Booke, lib. 4: p. 175 [p. 145 of 
ed. 1634], mention is made of the straights of Cilicia where Alexander 
passed into Persia, was questionless through some part of those 
mighty high hills near Alexandretta, continually covered with snow, 
and one overtopping another in height, being part of the Mountaine 
Taurus, which reckned to begin heere, and the ridge of hills running 
through divers countries, as India, are named Caucasus, beeing called 
diversly according to the countries it passeth through ; in the Scripture 
they are called Ararat." 


roasted, proveing very Savourie meate, haveing eaten part 
thereof myselfe, as also of a wild boare ; great store of 
Wild fowle, haveing seene a flight of wild Swanns ; 
aboundance of Fish. 

Betweene Scandarone and Constantinople^ wee passed 
among the fruitefull Islands of Archipielago, and soe upp 
the Hellespont, in which on the right hand, wee sawe the 
place Whereon once Troy^ stood. This Hellespont, now 
called the River of Constantinople-' (for any thinge I could 
gather), runneth continually one way, vizt. from the Blacke 
Sea into the Mediterraneum. The mouth of the Black Sea 
is about twenty miles above Constantinople, where is a 
small Island or Rocke, on which standeth a Marble 
Pillar, called Pompey's Pillar^ which, (Tradition saith), 
hee erected there as the bounds of his Conquest, seeinge 

1 In the British Museum copy of Mundy's early Travels, Harl. 
MS., 2286, the head-line from this point is, "Voyage from London 
unto Constantinople." 

2 All the 17th century travellers in the East write at length on the 
ruins of Troy. See Dallam, Early Voyages in the Levant, p. 49, 
Lithgovv's Painefiill Peregrinations, pp. 122 — 125, Delia Valle, Voyages, 
ed. 1664, vol. i. p. 12 f. 

Compare also Struys, Voyages and Travels, p. 78, " Wee sailed into 
the River of Constantinople, where we found the Sea-Armade of Venice 
at Troy, which is the place and remnant of the famous Troy so much 
read of in the Poets of old, although it is hard to judge where the 
Town has verily stood. All that is to be seen is a Gate which is built 
of marble, and seems to be exceeding ancient, and a small village with 
the Foundations of a wall that encompasse the Town seven times." 

^ i.e. the Dardanelles. Compare Sandys, Travels, ed. 1673, 
P- J9f- 

* Compare Lithgow's description of Pompey's Pillar, Pai7iefull Pere- 
grinations, p. 140, " I went to the blacke Sea... where I saw Pompeyes 
Pillar of Marble, standing neere the shoare, upon a rocky Hand ; and 
not far from thence, is a Lanthorne higher then any Steeple, whereon 
there is a panne full of liquor, that burneth every night to give warning 
unto ships how neare they come to the shore." 

For other descriptions of the pillar, see Sandys, Travels, p. 31^ 
Gainsford, Glory of England, pp. 181, 191, Delia Valle, Voyages, 
vol. i. p. 34 f, Tournefort, Voyage into the Levant, vol. ii. p. 113. 

When Hobhouse visited Constantinople in 1809 — 1810, there was 
nothing left of Pompey's Pillar but "a fragment of white marble a 
Httle more than five feet high and nine feet and a half in circum- 
ference." Hobhouse, Journey through Albania, vol. ii. pp. 869, 870. 


noe more land beyond it. To this place one day divers 
Merchants resorted for recreation, my selfe beinge alsoe 
there. The Sea is accompted 250 leagues long and 
70 leagues wide thereabouts. 

Lastly the famous Port and Imperiall Cittie of Con- 
stantinople, of which there beinge soe ample and elegant 
description else where^ (as in Mr. Sands travells", &c.), 
I forbeare reiteration, only thus much. Sultan Achmatt 
died att my beinge there^, and his brother Sultan Mustapha 
seated on his throne*, whoe within three monethes^ upon 
dislike of his Government, was displaced by the Bashaes®, 

1 Constantinople has received full attention from all the early 
travellers. See the various descriptions quoted by the author in his 
Supplement to this Relation, added in 1649 — 1650. See also Busbe- 
quius, Travels into Turkey (in 1555), ed. 1744, pp. 46 — 54; Lithgow, 
Painefiill Peregrinations, pp. 132 — 139; Delia Valle, Voyages, ed. 
1664, vol. i. pp. 24 — 45 ; Thevenot, Travels into the Levant, ed. 1687, 
Part i. pp. 19 — 28. 

^ Sandys, Travels containing... A Description of Constanti7iople, 
first published in 161 5. 

^ On the 22nd November, 1617. 

* Mustafa, Ahmad's weak-minded brother, whom he had kept in 
captivity for fourteen years. Compare Blount's account of this event, 
Voyage into the Levant, p. I25f, "Now as all bodyes, though never 
so strong, are subject to blowes from without, and diseases within : so 
is this Empyre obnoxious to the Persian abroad, and errors of Govern- 
ment at home; one hath hapned of late years, which hath had 
pernicious disorder ; that was the mercy of Achmat, to his brother 
Mustapha, whom he seeing a book-man, and weake, did not destroy; 
this was contrary to the Othoman custome ; and left a subject for 
ambition, and disgust, which rather then be without, would make one 
of waxe if it were possible ; much more dangerous was it to leave one 
of colourable pretext, where there was so insolent a faction as the 
Janyzaries : They forthwith served their turne hereof, who else had 
not beene provided of a King, and so forced to endure Osman, for 
feare of destroying that line, in whose defect, they fall under the 
petit Tartars, which they abhorre. This gave them occasion to 
taste the Blood Royall, whose reverence can never be restored, with- 
out abolishing the order of Janizaries, which hath been the Sword 
hand of the Empire." 

^ Here the author notes, "Three grand Signiors in three monethes." 

^ Turkish bdshd, a grandee. Mustafa was again imprisoned, after 
a reign of three months, by the Janissaries, who revolted in favour of 
Osman. In 1622, he was once more dragged from prison, and for 
fifteen months was the nominal ruler, when he was again deposed in 
favour of Amurath IV. (Murad IV.). 


and Ozman, eldest Sonne to Achmatt\ was established, 
whoe lived att my comeinge away. 

Heere the English Merchants passe verie Commo- 
diousley with pleasure, love and Amitye amonge them- 
selves, wearinge our owne Countrie habitt. Provision, 
fruite and Wyne very good varietye and plenties Heere 
I remained about three yeares. The second yeare after 

^ Compare Grimston's Translation of Baudier's History of the 
Iniperiall Estate of the Gra7id Seigneurs^ p. 168 f. "Achmat ended 
his life and Raigne in the yeare 161 7, he left two young sonnes, 
Osman and Amurath ; He knew by experience that the weight of 
such a Crowne could not be borne by a Childe, and that the absolute 
government of the Turkish Monarchie required a man : He called to 
the succession of his Scepter, his brother Mustapha who had beene 
fourteene yeares a Prisoner in his Serrail, and made him to taste this 
sweet change, to come from a Dungeon to a Throne, and from the 
fetters of tedious captivitie to that power to command the greatest 
Estate upon the Earth. But the great rigour of his command, and the 
extravagances of his inconstant humour, made him odious to the 
Captaine Bassa ; he gained the other three \^pashas\ who drew the 
Souldiers and some great men unto their party, they unthroned him, 
put him into his Prison, and set up Osman sonne to his brother 
Achmat, This example was in our daye : but that which followeth is 
so fresh, as the newes hereof came when I was labouring about this 
worke. Osman not well satisfied with the affection of the Janizaries 
(who are the sinewes of his Estate) and disliking some of the four 
Bassa's, had an intent to change the Seat of his Empire to Cairo, and 
to abandon Constantinople ; he prepares himselfe, gathers together as 
much Treasures as hee could, and covers his designe, with the pretext 
of a Pilgrimage to Meque, where he said his intent was to accomplish 
a vow, and to make as great a gift as ever Prince made unto a Temple 
of what Religion soever. When as he had managed his enterprize 
unto the day of his departure, when as his Galleyes were readie, and 
the Bassa of Caire come with an Armie to receive him; the Janizaries 
were advertised, they runne to the Serrail with the Consent of the 
Aga, the people are moved, the Captaine Bassa stirres them up, they 
take the Sultan in his Chamber, kill some great Men in his presence, 
dragge him into a prison, and there make him to suffer a shameful! 
death by the hands of an Executioner, having drawne Mustapha his 
Uncle out of Prison again, and crowned him the second time 
Soveraigne Sultan of the Turkish Empire." 

The news of the deposition of Mustafa and also "that Sultan 
Ossaman eldest sonne of Sultan Achomet Cham, the grand Signior 
deceased was elected in his stead " was forwarded to the Levant 
Company by Sir Paul Pindar and was read in Court on the 15th April, 
1618. State Papers^ Foreigft Archives, vol. 148, p. 11. 

^ The English merchants resided, for the most part, in Pera, 
a suburb of Constantinople, where was the house of the English 


our arrivalP, my Master^ died of the small pox, beinge in 
tyme of Pestilence, which Customarily visitts the Cittie 
once in fowre yeares, or five att the most I Soe remained 
with Mr. Lawrence Greene* untill the departure of the 
Honourable Paule Pindar^, being licensed by the Grand 
Signior, and Sir John Eyers^ arriving to supply his placed 

1 In 1618. ^ James Wyche. See p. 14. 

3 Compare Lithgow, Pai7iefull Peregrinations^ p. 138, " Constanti- 
nople. subject. divers Earth quakes. ..And commonly every 
third yeare the pestilence is exceeding great in that City." Compare 
also Delia Valle, Voyages^ vol. i. p. 49 f. 

* Lawrence Greene, Senior, was a director of the Levant Com- 
pany at this time, and is frequently mentioned in the Court Minutes. 
On the 2nd Aug., 1616, it was ordered that ^30 be advanced to 
Mr Greene, as agent for Mr King, the Company's chaplain at 
Constantinople. Again, on the 3rd May, 1621, "One Mr. Greene" 
undertakes to make good any loss to the Company in case the 
chaplain, Mr Cadwallader Salisbury, should die before the ^50 ad- 
vanced him should be due to him. Pearson, Chaplains of the Levant 
Company^ p. 47. 

In 1 62 1, Lawrence Greene and Richard James were elected 
members of a Committee of the East India Company. They "de- 
sired to be spared, but the Court would in no wise consent." They, 
however, only served for three months. Lawrence Greene died before 
1634. See Calendar of State Papers^ Colonial, East Indies, 161 7 — 
1621, pp. 435, 468; 1630 — 1634, p. 486. The Lawrence Greene whom 
Mundy served for two years, and whom he left at Constantinople 
in 1620 (see beginning of Relatio7t II.), was probably a son of the 
Director and identical with the Lawrence Greene, a merchant, who, in 
1 64 1, petitioned for a warrant for the transport of twenty passengers 
and provisions to Virginia, where he had twenty-four servants. 
Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, 1574 — 1660, p. 322. For further 
particulars of this man, see Relation II. 

^ Sir Paul Pindar had held the office of Ambassador at Con- 
stantinople since 161 1. In September, 1616, he had written to the 
Court of the Levant Company, desiring to be recalled on account 
of his health, but was urged to remain a year or two longer, with 
increased allowances. To this he agreed in a letter dated 21st March, 
161 7. For further particulars of Pindar, during his embassy, see 
Appendix D. 

^ Sir John Eyre was appointed to fill Pindar's place in 1619 and 
was recalled in 1621. For details of his appointment and his un- 
popularity, together with a short notice of the Levant Company at the 
time of Mundy's connection with it, see Appendix D. 

'' The British Museum copy of Mundy's early Travels, Harl. MS., 
2286, ends here, and has neither "Computation" of miles nor "Supple- 
ment" to Relation I. 


Computation of Miles travelled in the voyages aforegoeinge 
as also the distances of some places, one from the other. 


From Penrin to Roane in Normandie is accompted 

Miles 300 and backe againe is . . . . 600 
From Penrin to Bayon in Gascony is accompted 

Miles 480 and backe againe is . . . 960 
From Penrin to London by Sea is . . . 400 
From London to Cadiz miles 1450 and backe 

againe is 2900 

From London to Mallaga miles 1590 and backe 

againe is . . , . . . . .3180 
From London to Sanlucar is . . . , 1430 

From thence to Sevill is 60 

From Sevill to Ayamonte miles 78 from thence 

to Tavila in Portugall is 24 miles . . 102 

From Tavila backe to Sevill is . . . . 102 

From Sevill backe to London is . . . . 1490 
From London to Allexandretta the very bottome 

of the Straights is 1460 leagues and . . 4380 

From Allexandretta to Constantinople is ac- 
compted 450 leagues and amounts to , . 1350 
From Constantinople to Pompeus Pillar^ att the 
mouth of the Black Sea is accompted Miles 
20 and backe againe is .... . 40 

Summa totalis Miles 17394 

Author's Supplement'^ to Relation I. 

The aforegoinge Relation is only some Voyages etts. 
recalled to memorye since my first settinge forth, Anno 
1608, untill my departure, Anno 1620. 

1 See note 4 on p. 20. 

2 The " Supplement " to Relation I. was added by Mundy when 
he revised his MS. in 1649 — 1650. It is in his own writing and is on 
different paper from the rest of the Rawliiison copy. 


Concerning Constantinople, where I remayned three 
or four years, I tooke no notice of any thing untill my 
departure thence, and what I have don since is but course 
and Coursary. Therefore, for the satisfaction of those 
that desire better Information concerning that great 
Citty, the Serragho, with the Imperiall Seate of the 
grand Signeurs, their Habitations, hves, titles, quallities, 
exercises, worcks, revenues. Habit, discent, ceremonies, 
Wives, concubines, etts.. Judgements, officers, favourites, 
Religion, power, governement and tyranny — let them 
peruse the History of the Serraglio and court of the 
Gran Signeur, exactly and elaborately written in french 
by Signeur Michael Baudier of Languedock, translated 
by Mr. Edward Grymestone, printed in London Anno 
1635 ^ It mentions untill yong Amurath the 4th. who 
reigned A. 1626^. Among other matters thus in briefs 

Constantinople standeth on seven hills containing in 
circuit about fifteen miles, Galata, etts., on the other side 
of the water not reckoned ; two thousand Mosquees 
or turkish Churches ; the Greek Christians have forty. 
Churches ; the Jewes thirty eight sinagogues. The francks 
or Italians have two Churches on the other side in Gallata. 
It hath seven hundred and forty publick fountaines. The 
Armenians have four Churches. 

1 The full title of the book is. The History of the Imperiall Estate 
of the Grand Seigtteurs : Their Habitations^ Lives^ Titles^ Qualities^ 
Exercises^ Workes, Revenues, Habit, Discent, Cereni07iies, Alagnifi- 
cence, fudgements, Officers, Favourites, Religion, Power, Uovernment 
and Tyranny. Translated out of French by E. G., S. A. [Edward 
Grimston, Sergeant at Arms], London, 1635. 

^ The date of the accession of Murad or Amurath IV. is 1623. 

^ The author now proceeds to quote Grimston in his own fashion 
with emendations and omissions. The extracts, as they stand in 
the English translation of the work, will be found, at length, in 
Appendix E. 


The tribut called Charay^ levied on the Jewes at Con- 
stantinople, being one Chequeene^ for every male child, 
amounts to eleven Milliones three hundred chequeene 
(a mistake I conceive, 1 1 milliones for 1 1 Mille, in french, 
1000^). Every greeke here and within three miles of the 
Citty pay allsoe one Zequeene, amounting unto thirty 
eight thousand Chekeenes per annum. The description 
of the Citty is from p. i to p. i8^ 

Concerning the serraglio, weomen®, treasure, officers, 
etts., it foUoweth from p. 18 to p. 191, the end. 

Allsoe in Mr. Sands® there is some relation of the 
above mentiond, there beeing the draught or print of the 
Citty, allso of the serraglio apart, with othersl Allsoe 
in Mr. Blunt of the turkish moderne Condition*, unto 
whome I referr you for a more elegant description of the 
above written. 

As concerning their Religion, it is handled somwhat 
largely by Mr. Purchase in his pilgrimage^. 

For the severall habitts used att Constantinople, where 
most officers and Nationes are distinguished by their 

^ Caratch (Arab. khardj\ the tribute or poll-tax levied by the 
Turks on their Christian subjects. Compare Dumont, A New Voyage 
to the Levant, ed. 1696, p. 281, "The Greeks... are forc'd to pay a 
yearly Tribute, call'd the Carache...a perpetual Poll-tax, and exceeds 
not four Piasters a Man." 

^ Sequin. A gold coin of Italy, the Venetian zecchino, worth from 
about seven shillings to nine shillings and sixpence English money. 
See Hobson-Jobson, s.v. Chick. 

^ The words within brackets are an interpolation by Mundy. 

* i.e. of Grimston's book. 

^ The author notes here, " Weomen about 300 in the serraglio for 
the Gran Signior." 

" Travels., containing an History of the Original and present State 
of the 'J'urkish E77ipire, Their Laws., Government., Policy., Military 
Force., Courts of Justice, and Commerce, etc. etc. By George Sandys, 
1st ed. 1615. 

'' On p. 24 of ed. 1673. 

^ Blount, Voyage into the Levant. See Appendix A for full title. 

9 See pp. 297 — 303, 306, 308 — 325 of ed. 1626 of Piirchas His 


habits, I have a Httle booke, only of that particuler, 
painted by the Turcks themselves in Anno 161 8, although 
no great art therein, yet enough to satisfie concerning 
that Matter^ 

An Asper is about a halfe penny, for about 90, or 
sometimes 100 make a Ryall of eight or a Reichs Doller^; 
a chequeene worth about Ss. English^. [Signed] Penrin, 
2d. February, 1649/50. 

Concerning Constantinople and the Seraglio, Thomas 
Gainesford in his book of the Glory of England, Lib. 2, 
page 262, saith thus* : — This Imperiall place looketh with 
a more Mareschall^ countenance then other Citties. Con- 
stantinople, otherwise called Stamboll, the beautifull, Hath 
a handsome and formall triangle of a wall. The first part 
reacheth from the Seven Towers to the Seraglio, some 
three English miles. The second from the Seraglio to 
Porto del Fieume, a little more, and both towards the 
Sea, which runneth one way into Euxinum and another 
way to encounter a prettie fresh River on the North of 
Pera. The third overlooketh the feilds of Thracia with 
a greater Compasse and strength, because it hath a double 
Wall and openeth three or four gates, as Adrianopli, 
Gratianopoli, the tower gate, etts., into the Country*', the 

1 It is a matter for regret that this " Httle booke" was not preserved 
with the author's MS. 

2 Fr. aspre, It. aspero, lit. ' white money.' A small silver Turkish 
coin, of which 120 are reckoned to the piastre, now only a money of 
account. Murray, Oxford English Dictionary. 

^ See note 2 on p. 26. 

* For the complete title of Gainsford's Gloty of England and the 
full and correct rendering of the passages abstracted by Mundy, see 
Appendix E. 

^ Gainsford has " majesticall." 

6 For the twenty-five gates at Constantinople, see Sanderson's 
Voyage in Purchas His Pilgrimes, ed. 1625, Part ll. Book ix. 
p. 1629. 


walles orderlie, beautified with square towers of hard 
stone whose equall distance makes a reasonable shew : 
the goodhest Harbour in the world, twentie fathom deepe, 
close to the shores of both citties, conteyning ten english 
miles in circumference ; much Wast ground within. 

The Seraglio is the pallace of the Gran Signior in- 
closing as much ground as St. James parcke : Large 
Courts : Spacious gardeins, enbattled walles, stored with 
Artillerie, divers manner of Structures, which indeed 
seeme severall pallaces, among whome there is one called 
a Caska^ (or Cheeaskee") without the wall of the seraglio, 
close to the water side, where hee accustometh to take 
his gallie (or Kaeeck^), of the delicatest and rarest presence 
that ever I beheld, for it is a quadrat of seven arches on 
a side cloisterwise, like the Rialto walk in Venice, and in 
the middest riseth a Core* of three or four Roomes with 
Chimneys whose mantle trees^ are of silver, curiously 
glazed, protected with an Iron grate all guilt over most 
gloriously. The whole frame soe set with Opalls, Rubies, 
Emeralds, burnisht with gold, painted with flowers and 
graced with Inlaid worcke of porphiry, marble, Jett, Jasper 
and delicate stones, that I am perswaded there is not such 
a bird cage in the world. Under the walles are stables 
for sea horses, called hippopotamie, which is a monstrous 
beast taken in Nilus : Elephants, tigres and Dolphins : 
Sometimes they have Crocodiles and Rinoceros. Within 
are Roebucks, white partridges, and turtles, the bird of 

1 Kiosk. Turk, and Pers. kushk^ F. kiosqiie^ a pavilion, villa, 
portico. Compare Sanderson's Voyage in Pu?'chas His Pilgrinies^ 
Part II. Book ix. p. 1626, "Sultan Morat [Murad, Amurathj...hath 
built... two faire Lodgings, or as we may say Banqueting Houses, 
which they call Chouskes." 

2 Mundy's interpolation. 

3 Mundy's interpolation. Caique, Turk, kdik, the small skiff used 
at Constantinople. 

* i.e. a central building. 

^ Beams across the opening of the fireplaces. 


Arabia, and many beasts and foule of Aphrica and India. 
The walkes are shaded with Cipresse, Cedar, turpentine^ 
and trees which wee only know by their names, amongst 
such as afford sustenance, as figgs, almonds, olive, pome- 
granetts, Lemmons, Orenges, and such like, but it should 
seeme, they are here as it were inforced, and kept in order 
with extraordinary dilligence : for the sunne kisseth them 
not with that fervency, as may make them large, or ripen 
in their proper kinds. 

The Citty is very populous towards the Harbour. The 
Bisisteene^ Bashaws houses, mosques. Conduits, tombes 
and monuments, are even as it were a storehouse of 
magnificent worckes : And when I read, that Constantine 
unplumed Rome, and as it were unplumed all the world, 
I cannot find the perticulers in my Inventory, for the 
Cheifest structures now are the great Seraglio, the lesser 
Seraglio, the Seventowres, the double wall, divers Bashaws 
houses, the mosques or temples, among whome the Sophia, 
Soliman and Amurath, are indeed heapes of Ostentation 
and fabriques of great delight, the Patriarchs house ; 
certaine balneas or bathes ; aquaducts ; Constantines 
pallace ; and the towres on the walles, to these you 
may adde the Besistene, a place like our Exchange, for 
varietie of merchandise, markett of Virgins, Selling of 
Slaves, doucts under ground fenced with Iron gates to 
Secure their treasure, to prevent the fury of the Janizaries, 
extremity of fire and earthquakes, to whose violence the 
Citty is many tymes Subiect. 

The next division is Gallata, over against it divided 
only by the Sea. 

The third part Pera : 

1 i.e. the pistacia terebinthns, which yields the turpentine known 
as Cyprus Turpentine, Chian Turpentine and Scio Turpentine. 

2 Turk, bazistan. market. 


The last quarter of this division is a towne in Asia 
called Scutaro. 

Thus I confesse, if on the towers of the Amurata, or 
battlements of the Sophia, you beheld all at once, as one 
united body, it would equall, if not surpasse London, for 
spaciousnesse of ground, Some monuments divers pallaces 
and howses ; but yet come no way neare my satisfaction, 
for here is Neither good lodging, proportionable fare, free 
recourse, gracious entertainement, true religion, secure 
abiding, allowable pleasure, Orderly government, Or any 
thing wherein a Noble citty is made glorious indeed : 
Thus much for Constantinople. 

The author was there as I gather by his book in 
Anno 1607. Page 35 lib. i.^ 

Of Constantinople^ and the Serraglio, there is somewhat 
said in the five foregoing sides^, being the relation of others ; 
but for my owne observation I tooke no perticuler notice, 
as elce where I have said. Only I can remember, viz. 

Imprimis. That once I walked alone from Cassum 

^ This last remark is Mundy's own note. 

2 Preceding these remarks Mundy quotes extracts from Sandys' 
Travels. These he gives, for the most part, correctly, without any 
notes or interpolations of his own. In many cases, however, he breaks 
off in the middle of a sentence and gives no hint of the omission. 
Therefore, for the sake of clearness, the passages extracted by Mundy 
have been corrected from Sandys' work, and will be found, with the 
quotations from Grimston and Gainsford, in Appendix E. 

Following the extracts from Sandys, is a double-page map of 
Turkey and Arabia, with Mundy's sea and land routes marked in 
red dotted lines. Some of the places are also lettered in red, and 
remarks under these letters are found on the reverse of the second 
leaf. The map bears no name or date, but contains the portrait of 
Sultan Muhammad III. (1596 — 1603). On the reverse of the first 
leaf are the author's own comments on Constantinople (added in 
February, 1650), which are now given in the text. The notes on the 
reverse of the second leaf of the map have no connection with the 
story of the author's Travels, and, consequently, have not been 

^ The author alludes to his extracts from Grimston, Gainsford and 
Sandys. See ante, pp. 25 — 30, and Appendix E. 


Basha^ at the West or end of the Citty, as farre as Yedee- 
cula or the Seven Towers^, where I saw the double wall 
(that crosseth over from the Haven to the Hellespont), one 
within and higher then the other, and a pretty distance 
from each other. I conceaved them treble, accompting the 
Innermost wall of the ditche for one, all compleated with 

1 The history of this suburb, situated between Constantinople and 
Galata, is given by Evhya Efendi, who was born in 161 1, as follows : — 
" In the time of the infidels, Kasim Pasha was a monastery called 
Aya Longa, but Muhammad II. converted it into a Moslem burying 
ground.... The town of Constantinople growing too narrow for the 
throngs of people, the great monarch Sultan Sulaiman commanded 
his vazir, the conqueror of Napoli (di Romania), Kasim Pasha,... to 
build the suburb called now {circ. 1631] Kasim-pasha. It is in the 

jurisdiction of the Maula of Galata There are one thousand and 

eighty-five walled houses with gardens." Travels in Europe etc. in 
the Seveftteejtth Century, by Evliya Efendi. Eng. trans, ed. 1834, 
vol. I. Part ii. p. 43. The description is continued up to p. 49. 
Compare Thevenot, Travels into the Levant, ed. 1687, Part i. p. 27, 
^' Cassum-pasha, which seems to be a great Village ; there by the 
water side is the Arsenal... from thence you come to Galata, separated 
from Cassumpasha only by the burying places that are betwixt them." 
See also Le Bruyn, Voyage au Levant, ed. 1725, vol. i. p. 171. 

For a description of Constantinople in 1604, see De Bauveau, 
Relation jour7taliere du Voyage du Levant, pp. 37 — 75. 

2 The Seven Towers, Yedi Kiile, at the S.W. angle of Constanti- 
nople. Three of the towers have disappeared, and the whole building 
is now in a ruinous condition. It was once a state prison. 

Compare the following allusions to this building: — 

1596. "A fort that is fortified with seven Towers, called by the 
Turkes Jadicule... where a garrison of souldiers is kept." Moryson, 
Ltinerary, ed. 161 7, p. 263. 

1600. "Yedi Cula. The gate of the seven Toures : for so many 
there are together, neere thereunto, built of the Ottoman Princes, 
where it is said, they have in time past put their Treasure." Sander- 
son's Voyage in Pitrchas His Pilgrimes, Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1629. 

1616. " Upon the west corner of the Citty there is a strong 
Fortresse, fortified with seaven great Towers, and well furnished 
with munition, called by Turkes Jadileke." Lithgow, Painefull 
Peregrinations, p. 135. 

1701. "The Seven Towers, now a prison for persons of quality... 
but antiently the Porta Janicula of Constantinople." Chishull, Travels 
in Turkey, p. 48. 

1810. "Although four only of the Seven Towers have remained 
entire... the fortress still retains the names of Efta-Coulades in the 
Greek and Yedi-Kouleler in the Turkish language, both of them 
significant of the former number of its conspicuous bulwarks." 
Hobhouse, Jour7iey through Albania, vol. ii. pp. 938 — 940. 

See also Sandys' description in Appendix E ; Delia Valle, Voyages, 
vol. i. p. 43 ; Thdvenot, Travels i?ito the Levant, Part i. p. 20. 


battlements and towers^ In the said wall I saw an arche 
made or dambd upp. They say on this occasion : — That 
it was the gate by which the Citty was entred and Won 
from the Christains, and that there is a Prophecy among- 
the turcks that it shall bee lost againe by the said gate^. 

Secondly: I was with others at Atmaidan, Hippodrom 
or Horseplace^, to see the gran signior, Sultan Achmet, 

^ The author was right in his first surmise. The Hne of defence 
was a triple wall with a double row of towers. The walls were erected 
by Constantine the Great, and were partly rebuilt by Theodosius and 
his successors. 

Compare the description by Evliya Efendi, Travels in Europe, 
vol. I. Part i. p. 11 f, who says (in 1634), "This triple row of walls 
still exists, and is strengthened by 1225 towers." He adds, however, 
that the masonry had fallen into such decay that " waggons might be 
anywhere driven through the walls." These ravages were repaired 
in '1635. 

For the accounts of other travellers, see Sandys' Travels in 
Appendix E ; Delia Valle, Voyages, vol. i. p. 25 ; Th^venot, Travels 
into the Levant, Part i. p. 20; Tournefort, Voyage i?ito the Levant, 
ed. 1718, vol. i. p. 349; Hobhouse, Journey through Albania, vol. ii. 
PP- 936—937- 

2 The Turks gained an entrance into Constantinople, in 1453, by 
the Wooden or Circus Gate, which had been walled up for two 
centuries previously, on account of an ancient prophecy, and reopened 
during the siege for the purposes of a sortie. It was, however, the 
Golden Gate that was walled up by the invaders, in consequence of a 
superstition that through it the future conquerors of Constantinople 
should enter the city. For a similar Turkish prophecy with regard to 
the Golden Gate at Jerusalem, see Purchas His Pilgrimes, Book viii. 
ch. 8, p. 1324. 

^ At-maidan. Compare the description of John Sanderson in 
1602, Purchas His Pilgri7nes, Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1627: — "The 
greatest and most famous spacious place of the Citie is that which 
in time past of the Greeks was called Hippodromo, and now of the 
Turkes Atmaidan, which is as much as to say, both in the one and 
the other Language, running of Horses, for there they did and doe 
runne them. In time past it hath been much more greate, but the 
many Palaces (that divers great men in processe of time have built) 
hath lessened it." 

Compare also Grimston's description, History of the Iniperiall 
State of the Grand Seignieurs, p. 76: — "The Hippodrome is a great 
place in Constantinople, about fourscore fathome long and fortie 
broad, artificially built upon a great number of Pillars and Arches 
which support it strongly, and keepe it from drowning by the waters 
of the Sea, which run under it, by certaine Channels which give it 
entry: It was the ancient mannage and course for Horses as the 
word doth signifie....This place is called at this day Atmeidon, that is 
to say Mannage." 

For other accounts of the At-maiddn, see the extract from Sandys' 


ride in pomp to one of his Mosques or Church : Where 
among other monuments I remember I saw three brasen 
serpents wreathed together^ : allsoe another Hke a pira- 

Travels in Appendix E. See also Delia Valle, Voyages^ vol. i. p. 37 f. ; 
Thevenot, T?-avels hito the Levant^ Part i. p. 22 ; Tournefort, Voyage 
ijito the Levajtt, vol. i. p. 361 ; Le Bruyn, Voyage au Levant^ vol. i. 
p. 158; Hobhouse, yi9Z/r;z^ through Albania^ vol. ii. p. 950 f. 

^ The column of the Three Serpents, said to have formerly sup- 
ported the golden tripod of the priestess of Apollo of Delphi. 

Compare the following accounts of this column : — 

1594. "This Piazza hath also another Pillar... of Brasse made 
with marvellous art in forme of three Serpents wreathed together with 
their mouthes upwards, which is said, was made to inchant the Ser- 
pents that on a time molested the Citie." Voyage of John Sanderson 
in Picrchas His Pilgrinies, Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1627. 

161 5. "A bronze column composed of three Serpents of the same 
metal interlaced with each other, whose three heads extend beyond 
the summit forming, instead of a capital, a regular triangle. The 
tales of the old wives aver that this column was made by a Magician, 
and that by the enchantment with which he endowed it, the town was 
freed from the number of Serpents which then infested it." Delia 
Valle, Voyages^ vol. i. p. 38 (translated from the French). 

1634. "On the wonderful Talismans within and without Kostan- 
tineh... Seventeenth talisman. A sage named Surendeh, who flourished 
in the days of error, under King Puzentin, set up a brazen image of a 
triple-headed dragon {azhderhd) in the Atmaidan, in order to destroy 
all serpents, lizards, scorpions, and such like poisonous reptiles : and 
not a poisonous beast was there in the whole of Makedoniyyah. 
It has now the form of a twisted serpent, measuring ten cubits above 
and as many below the ground. It remained thus buried in mud and 
earth from the building of Sultan Ahmed's mosque, but uninjured, till 
Selim II,, surnamed the drunken, passing by on horseback, knocked 
off with his mace the lower jaw of that head of the dragon which looks 
to the west. Serpents then made their appearance on the western 
side of the city, and since that time have become common in every 
part of it. If, moreover, the remaining heads should be destroyed, 
Istambol will be completely eaten up with vermin." Evliya Efendi, 
Travels in Europe^ vol. I. Part i. p. 19. Tournefort, Voyage into the 
Levant, vol. i. p. 380, says that the two remaining heads were taken 
away in 1700. 

See also Sandys' Travels, ed. 1673, P- 27; Thevenot, Travels into 
the Levant, ed. 1687, Part i. p. 22 ; Chishull, Travels in Turkey, p. 41 ; 
Le Bruyn, Voyage au Levattt, vol. i. p. 158. 

^ The author refers to the Egyptian Pyramid set up by Constantine 
to mark the goal in the chariot races. Compare the description of the 
column by Tournefort, Voyage into the Levant, vol. i. p. 379 : " The- 
Obelisk of Granate or Thebaick Stone is still in the Atmeidan : it is; 
a four-corner'd Pyramid, of one single Piece, about fifty foot high, ter- 
minating in a Point, charg'd with Hieroglyphicks, now unintelligible."' 

See also for other accounts, Voyage of John Sanderson in Purchas 


Thirdly : I walked another tyme alone as farre as 
Aurat Bazar, or the market of Weomen^ and there I saw 
the Historicall pillarl 

Fourthly : I saw another High columne of marbled 
It stoode (as I take it) towards the Haven, bound about 

His Pilgrinies, Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1627 ; Delia Valle, Voyages^ vol. i. 
p. y] ; Thevenot, Travels into the Levant^ Part i. p. 22 ; Dumont, 
A New Voyage to the Levant^ p. 151; Le Bruyn, Voyages au Levant^ 
vol. i. pp. 158 — 159 ; Chishull, Travels in Turkey^ p. 40. 

^ Avret-bazar, about one mile west of the Hippodrome. The 
district is still so called. 

"A large and spacious place... towards the Port of Selimbria, 
called by the Turkes Aurat Bazar (which is as much to say, the 
market place of women, for thither they come to sell their Workes 
and Wares)." Voyage of John Sanderson in Purchas His Pilgrimes, 
Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1629. 

^ So called from the military scenes sculptured on its base. The 
pedestal now only remains. 

Compare the description of the Historical Column by Busbequius 
(Busbek) in 1555, Ti'avels into Turkey^ p. 49, "Constantinople doth 
gratifie us with the Sight of two memorable Pillars; One... in the 
Forum, called by the Turks, Aurat-basar, i.e. The Womens Court, 
wherein, from Bottom to Top, is engraven the History of a certain 
Expedition of one Arcadius, who built it, and whose Statue, for a long 
time, stood on the Top of it. And yet it may rather be called a 
Stair-case, than a Pillar, because it goes winding up like a Pair of 

Evliya Efendi in his account " of the wonderful Talismans within 
and without Kostantineh," Travels in Etu^ope, vol. I. Part i. p. 16, 
gives the following interesting legend in connection with the Historical 
Column : — " First talisman. In the Avret-Bazari (female slave- 
market), there is a lofty column (the pillar of Arcadius) of white 
marble, inside of which there is a winding staircase. On the outside 
of it, figures of the soldiers of various nations, Hindustanies, Kur- 
distanies, and Multanies, whom Yanko ibn Madiyan vanquished, 
were sculptured by his command ; and on the summit of it there was 
anciently a fairy-cheeked female figure of one of the beauties of the 
age, which once a year gave a sound, on which many hundred 
thousand kinds of birds, after flying round and round the image, fell 
down to the earth, and being caught by the people of Rum (Romelia), 
provided them with an abundant meal. Afterwards, in the age of 
Kostantin, the monks placed bells on the top of it, in order to give an 
alarm on the approach of an enemy : And subsequently, at the birth 
of the Prophet, there was a great earthquake, by which the statue and 
all the bells on the top of the pillar were thrown down topsy-turvy, 
and the column itself iDroken in pieces : but, having been formed by 
talismanic art, it could not be entirely destroyed, and part of it 
remains an extraordinary spectacle to the present day." 

^ The Burnt Column (Jemberli Tash). 

UNTILL ANNO 1620 35 

in Severall places with Hoopes or bands of Iron^ by 
reason that tyme had weakned and dissolved the very 
veines of it, soe that it appeared with great Crackes in 
sundry parts, and, but for those bands, would fall and 
occasion much Hurt either to men or buildings^. 

FiftJily : I was allsoe in Sancta Sophia^ and other 
Turkish Mosques^ 

Sixtly : I was in the serraglio^ within the second 

1 The author is alluding to the copper bands covering the joints of 
the several pieces of porphyry of which the column is composed. 

2 Compare Busbequius, Travels itito Turkey^ p. 49, "The... Pillar, 
over against the House the German Ambassadors used to lodge in, 
the whole Structure, besides the Basis and the Chapiter, consists of 
eight solid Marble {sic) of Red Porphyry Stones, so curiously joined 
together, that they seem but one continued Stone. For, where the 
Stones are jointed one into Another, upon that Commissure, there is 
wrought a circular Garland of Lawrels round about the Pillar, which 
hides the jointing so that they which look upon it from the Ground, 
perceive no jointing at all. That pillar hath been so often shaken by 
Earthquakes, and so battered by Fires happening near it, that it is 
cleft in many Places, and they are forced to bind it about with Iron 
Hoops, that it may not fall to pieces." 

Compare also the description of Evliya Efendi, Travels in Europe, 
vol. I. Part i. pp. 16, 17, " Second talisman. In the Tauk-Bazar (poultry- 
market) there is a needle-like column (the pillar of Theodosius) formed 
of many pieces of red emery {siinipdreh) stone, and a hundred royal 
cubits \zird Jiialiki) high. This was damaged in the earthquake 
which occurred in the two nights during which the Pride of the 
World was called into existence; but the builders girt it round with 
iron hoops, as thick as a man's thigh, in forty places, so that it is still 
firm and standing. It was erected a hundred and forty years before 
the era of Iskender, and Kostantin placed a talisman on the top of it 
in the form of a starling, which once a year clapped his wings, and 
brought all the birds in the air to the place, each with three olives in 
his beak and talons." 

2 Erected in a.d. 325, burnt down in 404, rebuilt in 415, again 
burnt in 532, once again rebuilt by Justinian in 538 and restored by 
him in 568. For a long and detailed description of the Mosque of 
St Sophia and the many marvels worked within its precincts, see 
Evliya Efendi, Travels in Europe, vol. i. Part i. pp. 55 — 65. See also 
Busbequius, Travels into Turkey, p. 46 ; Sanderson, Voyage, in Purchas 
His Pilgrimes, Book ix. ch. 16, pp. 16 — 26; Yioh\vo\!i's,&,Jour7iey through 
Albania, vol. ii. pp. 968 ff. 

* e.g. the Mosques of Bajazet II. [Bayazid], Sellm I., Sulaiman, 
Ahmad, etc. 

^ i.e. the Palace of the Osmanli Sultans. Evliya Efendi, in his 
description of the Seraglio, Travels in Europe, vol. I. Part i. pp. 49, 50, 
says, " Sultan Muhammad surrounded this strongly fortified palace 



courts at the tyme Sir Paul Pindar was to come for 
England and Sir Jno. Eires was com over to supply his 
place of Embassador^, when both of them went to kisse 
the gran signiors Hand or sleeve, the former to take his 
leave and the latter to bee admitted in his roome. Where 
the present brought by the new Embassador was laid to 
the open view of all men (on the greene)^ Then was there 
a turkish bankett, or meal, prepared for the attendants 
(on the floore)*, with which wee had noe sooner don, 

with a wall that had 366 towers, and 12,000 battlements; its circum- 
ference being 6,500 paces, with 16 gates, great and small.... There was 
no harem in this palace ; but one was built afterwards, in the time of 
Sultan Sulaiman." See also the accounts by Gainsford and Sandys 
in Appendix E ; and Tavernier, Collections of Travels, ed. 1684, 
vol. ii., "A new Relation of the inner part of the Grand Seignor's 
Seraglio," pp. i — 91. 

1 The Arz-oda, Hall of Audience, erected by Muhammad II. 
In this enclosure all great ceremonials took place. 

Tavernier, in his description referred to in the previous note, has 
a chapter, pp. 35 — 43, " Of the Hall wherein the Grand Seignor gives 
Audience to Forein Ambassadors, and the manner how they are 
receiv'd." He, however, places the Hall in the third court of the 

^ See p. 23, and Appendix D. 

3 " Dans le mesme temps que le Grand Seigneur fait les presents, 
on estalle ceux des Ambassadeurs." Du Loir, Voyages, p. 84. 

* Compare the account of " Ambassadours entertaynment and 
audience in The Grand Signiors Serraglio" by Master Robert Withers 
in Put'chas His Pilgrijnes, Book ix. ch. 15, p. 1585, "When it falleth 
out that an Ambassadour from any great King is to kisse the Grand 
Signiors hand, it must be either upon a Sunday or upon a Tuesday... 
and then the Vizier commandeth that there be a great Divan, which 
is, by calling together all the Great men of the Port... who are... 
commanded... to go every one to his ordinary place in the second 
Court, and there to stand in orderly rankes...the Ambassadour... is set 
face to face close before the chiefe Vizier upon a stoole covered with 
cloth of gold ; and having for a while complimented and used some 
pleasant discourse together, the Bashaw commandeth that the dinner 
bee brought.... And so the Ambassadour, and the chiefe Vizier, with 
one or two of the other Bashawes doe eate together.. ..They having 
dined, the Vizier entertayneth the Ambassadour with some discourse 
till such time as the Ambassadours people have also dined.... And then 
the Ambassadour is called by the Master of the Ceremonies, by whom 
hee is brought to the Gate, whereat the Capi Agha \kdpi dgha, chief 
door-keeper] standeth with a ranke of Eunuches, which Capi Agha 
leadeth him to the doore of the Roome where there doe stand two 
Capoochee Bashees \_kdpiji-bds/ii, chamberlain] ready, who take the 


but our attendants (turcks) fell to scambling and catchinge 
of what was left, that, in a manner, they tumbled one over 
the others Nose in a platter of Peelaw\ perhaps ! 

Seve7ithly : I have bin in their bathes" and besistenes^ 
Christians churches^ and Jewish sinagogues'^: allso in the 
old pallace of Constantine", where, among other a[nimals], 
I saw a terrible great lyon {somwhat tame) playing with a 
little dog. 

Eightly: Concerning the Haven. It is soe Secure 

Ambassadour, the one by one arme, and the other by the other, and 
so leade him to kisse his Highnesse hand." 
See also Du Loir, Voyages^ pp. 82 — 89. 

1 Pilau. Delia Valle, Voyages, vol. i. p. in, gives a similar de- 
scription of the behaviour of the attendants at a banquet given to the 
French Ambassador. See also Du Loir, Voyages, p. 85. 

2 For the principal baths of Constantinople, vi'ith their names, see 
Evliya Efendi, Travels in Europe, vol. I. Part i. pp. 179 — 181. He 
estimates the number of public baths in 1634 as over three hundred. 
See also Delia Valle, Voyages, vol. i. p. 45, and Thevenot, Travels into 
the Leva?it, Part i. p. 31 f. 

^ See p. 29. Compare the Voyage of John Sanderson in Piirchas 
His Pilg7'imes, Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1628, "There is in the chiefest 
places for Traffique of the Citie, two Basistans, which are certayne 
Buildings four square, high, and made round at the top, in the forme 
of great Lodges covered, each of which have foure Gates, opening 
upon foure streets, round about garnished with shops stuffed with all 
rare and exquisite Merchandize." 

* See p. 25. Compare the Voyage of John Sanderson in Purchas 
His Pilgrimes, Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1627, "The Patriarch of Greeks, 
Meleto...told me that there is in Constantinople one hundred Christian 
Churches, most assuredly within the citie and Suburbs; I take it there 
are more." 

^ See p. 25. 

" Compare the following allusions to Constantine's Palace : 

" The ruines of a Pallace upon the very wals of the City called the 
Pallace of Constantine, wherein I did see an Eliphant." Moryson, 
Itinerary, p. 263. 

" On the first Hill is to bee seene, beginning from the West 
towards the Port of Andranople, a fragment standing in memory of 
the old Emperiall Palace with certayne Galaries, wast roomes, and 
pillers within it selfe, doth well shew the great power of Time, the 
destroyer and overthrower of all, that a Prince of the world his Palace 
is now become a Lodge for Elephants, Panthars, and other Beasts." 
Sanderson, Voyage, in Purchas His Pilgrimes, Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1625. 

"At the third Angle, which is at the bottom of the Port, on the 
Land side, are the Ruines of Constantine's Palace." Thdvenot, 
Travels into the Leiuint, Part i. p. 20 


from winds and soe commodious deepe, even to the very 
shore, that our EngHsh shipps lay their broad sides to the 
Custom house key^, which is so contrived, the outer part 
next the shippes much higher then the other, soe that the 
goods which they discharge, as balles of Cloath, barills of 
tynne, Spicery, etts., is with Httle labour conveyed in to 
the said Custom house, there beeing farre more imported 
then exported, otherwise little advantage. Venetian 
Argosies, or shippes, lay their Stemmes on the Dunghills 
on Galata side. Here are a multitude of peramees^ or 
ferriboat, sundry sorts of other vessells, among the rest a 
CaramsalP, built of such a forme, that I have heard Sea- 
men say that their sternes were Neare as high as the 
Mayne topp of their great shipps. 

1 Compare Moryson, Itmerary, p. 263, " The Haven will receive 
an huge number of Shippes, and upon bothe the bankes of the City 
and Galata, shippes of five hundred tunnes or greater, once unloaded, 
may so lie with their Cables fastened on the Land, as they can passe 
from the shippes to Land without any boates." See also Sandys' 
account of the Haven in Appe7idix E and Thevenot, Voyage into the 
Levant^ Part i. p. 19. 

2 Transit boats, modern Greek Trepafx, a passage, pass, strait, a 

Compare the following allusions to this kind of boat : — 

1597. "I...hyred a boat called Pyrame." Moryson, Itinerary, 
p. 266. 

1610. "On the other side of the Haven (continually crossed by 
multitudes of little Boats called Permagies, and rowed for the most 
part by Egj^ptians)." Sandys, Travels, p. 30. 

1614. "Little boats... called Perames, sometimes with two, some- 
times with four oars." Delia Valle, Voyages, vol. i. p. 26. 

1640. " On y va (de I'un a I'autre bord du port de Constantinople) 
parde petites nasselles qu'ils appellent Permez faites a peu prez comma 
sont les gondolles de Venise; mais plus legeres encore." Du Loir, 
Voyages, p. 67. 

1655. "There are on both sides a great many Caiques and 
Permes, which will carry you over for a very small matter.... Permes 
are little shght Boats or Wherries, and so ticklish, that by leaning 
more to one side than another, it is an easie matter to overset them."" 
Thevenot, Travels into the Levant, Part i. p. 27. 

1 8 10. " Peramidias, or small wherries, which ply upon the canal." 
Hobhouse, yf/zr/z^j/ through Albania, vol. ii. p. 955. 

^ Caramoussal, carmousal, Turk, qaramusal, a kind of ship ; 
It. caraniussale, a Turkish merchantman, a Turkish ship with a very 
high poop. See Murray, Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. Caramoussal. 


Ninthly : I was at Tophana^, or place of Artillery, 
where I saw a multitude of Ordnance lying on the ground, 
amon[g] the rest one with three bores, and another whose 
bore was twelve of my spannes, within which I have com- 
puted is Near thirty inches, or two and a half feet 

TentJily and lastly : There hapned at my beeing thear 
three terrible accidents : a Small earthquake^ a fearfuU 
fire^ which by report consumed about four thousand 

^ i.e. the Top-khdna. Evliya Efendi, Travels iti Europe., vol. I. 
Part ii. pp. 54 — 62, has a long description of the Top-khdna and of 
the suburb to which it gave its name. Of the foundation, he says as 
follows, p. 54, " Top-khanah, in the time of the Infidels, was a convent 
situated in the middle of a forest : this is the mosque called the 
mosque of Jehanglr: as it was dedicated to Saint Alexander, the 
Infidels visit it once every year on the feast of this Saint.... Thus 
the foundation of Top-khanah is carried back to Alexander[?]. 
Muhammad 11. built here the gunfoundery and Bayazid II. enlarged 
it, and added the barracks." 

Compare Thevenot, Voyage into the Levant., Part i. p. 27, " Tophana 
lies upon the Rivers side over against the Serraglio : It is called 
Tophana, that is to say, the House of Cannon, because it is the place 
where Guns and other Pieces of Artillery are cast, and that gives the 
name to all that Quarter, which is a kind of little Town." See also 
Delia Valle, Voyages., vol. i. p. 26. 

2 "In the yeare 1605. ..a French gentleman presumed to tell 
[count] the artillery and canons before the Topinaw as they lay by 
the sea shore." Gainsford, Glory of England, p. 197. 

^ Compare Thevenot, Voyage into the Levatit, Part i. p. 19, "This 
town (Constantinople) is so subject to Earthquakes, that I have felt 
two in one night." See also note 4. 

* Compare the following allusions to the prevalence of fires at 
Constantinople in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries : — 

" The Citie of Constantinople in time past had eleven gates.... But 
the continuall fires, the many Earthquakes... overthrew the famous 
Ancient wall." Sanderson, Voyage., in Purchas His Pilgrinies, Book ix. 
ch. 16, p. 1628 f 

" In Constantinople there have happened many fearefuU fires... and 
now lately in the yeare 1607, October 14, there were burned above 
three thousand houses." Lithgow, Painefull Peregriitations, p. 138. 

Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 289, mentions an extensive fire at Con- 
stantinople in 1606, and, on p. 295, he alludes to the portents at the 
end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad, " First they were astonished at a 
blazing Comet, secondly they were affrighted at a great fire hapning 
amongst the Jewes, which they presaged ominous. Thirdly a sore 
Earth quake made their hearts quake for feare. The Sea also 
swelled extraordinarily. And a great dearth hapned." 

Thevenot, Voyage into the Levant, Part i. p. 26, remarks, " As to 


houses, beeing Most small shoppes or boothes of boards ; 
and a Mortell plague of pestilence \ which at the highest 
consumed above one thousand a day in that Citty^ : from 
which evills and all others, good Lord deliver us. Amen=*. 

the Houses of Constantinople, they are very ordinary, and almost all 
of Wood, which is the cause that when Fires happen, as they do very 
often, they make great havock amongst them, especially if a wind 
blow : there were three Fires in Constantinople in the space of eight 
months that I sojourned there; the first... burnt down eight thousand 
Houses.. ..In the time cf Sultan Amurat, such a fire raged there for 
three days, as ruined one half of the Town." 

^ See Moryson, Itinerary^ p. 265, and Delia Valle, Voyages, vol. i. 
p. 49 f. 

Compare Du Loir, Voyages, p. 34, " Cette ville (Constantmople) est 
tellement afifiigee de la peste qu'il arrive quelque fois que par una 
seule porte on enleve plus de mille personnes mortes en un seul jour." 

2 Evliya Efendi regarded the heavy loss of life from plague, fire or 
earthquake with great equanimity. He casually remarks. Travels in 
Eurohe, vol. I. Part i. p. 23, " Istambol is so vast a city that if a 
thousand die in it, the want of them is not felt in such an ocean of 

3 This concludes the Author's Siipplenient to Relation I. 

Sern Vol 17. 

Compiled for the HaJduyl Societr 

Jolm Baxtholomew iCo..l907 


A Journey overland from Constantinople to London, 
begun the 6th. May anno i620\ 

The Honourable Paule Pindar, Ambassador from the 
Kinge of Create Brittaine unto the Gran Signior, haveinge 
bene resident there eight yeares and eight monethes^, 
began his Journey for England the day abovesaid in the 
morninge, haveinge taken his leave of Sir John Eyres* 
(lately come over to remaine in his place), departed from 
his howse att Pera by Constantinople^ there going with 
him for England these persons followinge vizt., Mr. Paule 
Pindar (Cousin to my Lord)^, Mr. Cary Davis'', Mr. Anthony 
Wilson', Mr. Richard Castleman^ Mr. Farnam Beamond^ 

1 The title oi Relation II. in the British Museum copy, Hart. MS., 
2286, is: — "A Journey overland from Constantinople to London in 
companie with the Honourable Paul Pindar, Ambassador from the 
Kinge of Great Brittaine unto the Gran Seignior, haveinge bene 
resident there eight yeares and eight Monethes, begunn his Journey 
for England the 6th. of May Anno 1620." 

2 From 161 1 to 1619, see Appettdix D. 

^ Sir John Eyre was appointed in 1619, arrived in 1620, was 
recalled in 1621, and was succeeded by Sir Thomas Roe in 1622, 
Mr John Chapman acting in the interval. 

* See note 2 on p. 22. 

5 Paul Pindar Junior was admitted to the freedom of the Levant 
Company on the ist July, 1619. State Papers, Foreign Archives, 
vol. 148, p. 31. 

^ I have not succeeded in finding any extraneous reference to these 

'' Anthony Wilson was admitted to the freedom of the Levant 
Company on the 5th February, 1620. State Papers, Foreign Archives, 
vol. 148, p. 47. 

8 Admitted to the freedom of the Company 24th November, 1620. 
State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 148, p. 45. 


Mr. Lawrence Spike\ Mr. Richard Lane^ and Mr. Robert 
Withers^ (attendants), Mr. Sealed Signer Coprian^, Signer 
Dominico (Druggarman^), Henry Faro (taylour), John 

^ In March 1628, Lawrence Spike was recommended by Sir Allen 
Apsley as a purser for the Mary Rose or any other ship. Calettdar of 
State Papers^ Domestic Series, 1628 — 1629, p. 46. 

2 In February, 1628, a warrant was issued for Letters of Marque to 
the Sa/naritan of Dartmouth, owners, Richard Lane and others. In 
1 63 1 Richard Lane refused to pay a bill drawn on him for merchandize 
supplied to his son, John Lane, on the plea that the Creditor, Adrian 
Payes, was an "alien enemy." The case was referred to Sir John 
Wolstanholme, etc., in February, 1632, and quashed. See Calendar 
of State Papers, Domestic Series, under dates, 7th February, 1628, 
30th December, 163 1, and 14th February, 1632. 

^ I have not succeeded in finding any extraneous reference to these 

* A Humphrey Seale was "Beadle" to the Levant Company 
161 5 — 1619. {Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, vol. 147, 
pp. 154, 161 a, 172 a.) He may have been the father of Mundy's 

^ i.e. Dragoman, Turkish terjuman, interpreter. He was taken ill 
when the party arrived at Paris, in September, 1620, and was left 
behind under the care of Vincentio. In State Papers, Foreign 
Archives, vol. 148, pp. 45 a and 52, there are the following references 
to Dominico after his return to England: — "Sir Paule Pindar... recom- 
mended unto the Company the honesty, ability and good service of 
Signior Dominico A Greeke who was his drichman there, desiringe 
that the Company would add some tytle of reputation unto him for his 
good service passed, and that they would againe entertaine him and 
recomend him to the present Ambassador to serve him as one of his 
Secretaries being a verie fitt man for the discharge of that place. 
Whereupon the Court approvinge of the motion have chosen the sayd 
Signior Dominico for one of the Secretaries of Mr. John Eyres so as 
it be with his likinge and good approbation. And upon such terme as 
Mr. Deputie, Mr. Raph Freeman, Morris Abbott, Henry Garway, 
Anthony Abdy and the Husband [steward, paymaster] shall sitt downe 
and agree uppon, which with the Companyes pleasure Mr. Governor 
acquainted the sayd Signior Dominico ; he verie thankfully accepted 
of their favor and respect towards him which he will alwais indeavour 
to preserve." In spite of this excellent testimonial, Dominico did not 
get the post. " Whereas Signior Dominico was formerly entertayned 
at a Generall Court the 18th. of October last upon the recommenda- 
tion of Sir Paule Pindar Knight, to assist Sir John Eyre the now 
Ambassader at Constantinople in his affaires for the Company as his 
Secretary, and an agreement made with him for 400 doUers Per 
Annum to beginn at Christmas last, yet with this reservation, that if 
Sir John Eyre should not agree thereunto nor accept of the said 
Signior Dominico in that place upon notice thereof given unto him 
from the Company, that then the said Election and agreement should 
be wholly voyde. Forasmuch as the letters read at this Courte from 
the Ambassador do intymate that he will not accept of the said 


Clearke, Emanuell ([a] Greeke), Robbin the Cooke, Rice 
Davis a Welshman, John Deems and Vincento Castello 
(Greekes), John Cunny, William Pennington, Thomas 
Humes (a Scottishman), Edward the footeman (an Irish- 
man), Teodoro (a Muscovite or Russe), and my selfe, 
Peter Mundy. In all 25 persons with my Lord. Likewise 
six Frenchmen went in our Companie ; these came over 
with the newe Frenche Ambassador^, and were now 
returning for their Countrie. Moreover, twenty-one Janis- 
saries^ for our safe Convoy, two Sices or horsekeepers^, 
one Armenian and a Muratt* to dresse victualls, and 

Dominico as Secretary, and that ther is not any occasion of Imploy- 
ment for him as Truchman, or otherwise ; but adviseth the Company 
to ease themselves of that charge. Sir Paula Pinder being then present 
in Court did take notice thereof, and after some debate too and fro 
aboute the said busines, did in the behalf of Signior Dominico 
acknowledge the Companies favour towards him ; and freely dis- 
charged the Company from the said Ellection and Agreement which 
was accordingly accepted of by the Court, and the said Signior 
Dominico leaft at his owne libertie, and dispose to imploy himself as 
hee best thought fitting." 

^ The French Ambassador at this time was Monsieur de C6sy 
{vide Des Hayes, Voiage de Levant^ p. 88, quoted in Appendix F). 
De Cdsy succeeded the unfortunate Baron de Sancy, who was Am- 
bassador from 161 1 to 1617, in which latter year he was insulted and 
imprisoned in the " Seven Towers " by Mustafa I. De Sancy was 
recalled in 161 8, and Osman, Mustafa's successor, made his peace 
with the French king. See Knolles, Historic of the Turkes^ p. 1378. 

^ The Janissaries ( Yengi cheri^ new soldiery) were established by 
Amurath (Murad) I. in 1362. The organization was composed mainly 
of tributary children of Christians. It was finally abolished in 1826. 
The composition, rise and history of the Turkish Janissaries are 
curiously allied to that of the Cheylas employed about the Muham- 
madan Courts of India in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
Vide Ind. Ant., vol. xxv. pp. 199 ff. and 228 ff. 

Compare Gainsford, Glory of Englaiid., p. 201, "The degrees of 
the Turks. The second degree is of Janizaries.. .the principall beame 
of the whole Empires frame. For from their suffrages and obedience 
the Gran Signeur is confirmed." 

See also Purchas, Pilgrimage., p. 291. 

^ Syce (from Ar. sais)., a groom, horse-keeper. 

* There appears to be a copyist's error here and the passage 
should apparently run, "one Armenian named Muratt," Murat (Ar. 
for Murad) being a common Armenian surname Later on in this 
Relation we learn that "this Murratt" was otherwise named "Taddue" 
(see p. 48) and " Taddux" : so that we may assume that the author is 


Stamo the Greeke, my Lord haveinge hired twelve 
waggons as farr as Belgrade for the stuffe. Himselfe 
with the Gentlemen and Marchants were well mounted, 
the Attendants, servants, etts., road in the waggons. The 
Frenchmen had thirty-one Carts of theire owne, which 
carryed themselves and their Lumberment. 

All the Marchants of Gallata brought his Lordshipp 
on the way, vizt., Mr. Edward Stringar\ Mr. Moody^ 
Mr. William Woodhouse^, Mr. Hunt^, Mr. Hamond 

Gibbons^ Theis five tooke theire leaves att the fresh 
Rivers^ which is about two miles from Pera. Mr. Wilson^ 
and Mr. Beamond returned back with them about some 
businesse. Mr. Laurence Greene*', Mr. Bartholomew 

speaking of an Armenian who was named Thaddeus Murat. When 
the party arrived at Belgrade, "this Muriatt" was permitted to return 
to Constantinople with a Bulgarian woman, whom he had chosen as 
a wife for his brother, a shoemaker in the Turkish capital. 

^ Edward Stringer was treasurer to the Levant Company at Con- 
stantinople. State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 148, p. 9 a. 

^ I have been unable to find any further mention of these in- 

^ William Woodhouse was admitted to the freedom of the Levant 
Company on the 14th June, 162.1. State Papers, Foreign Archives, 
vol. 148, p. 56 a. 

* In a map of 1690 (B.M. 43335. 3) Aqua dulce is marked. Com- 
pare Clarke, Travels, vol. iv. p. 521 f, "We embarked at Galata... 
we came to the confluence of two small rivers, the Cydaris and the 
Barbyses, abounding with innumerable fishes, and giving to this part 
of the bay the name of Sweet or Fresh Waters." 

^ See note 7 on p. 41. 

^ See note 4 on p. 23. The following extracts from the Calendar 
of State Papers, Domestic Series, appear to refer to the Lawrence 
Greene with whom Mundy was connected : — 

? 1621 (vol. 42, No. 67). "The King to [the Levant Company], We 
request that Lawrence Greene, late consul at Smyrna, between whom 
and you a difference exists about his salary, may have a fair and 
ample allowance for his services and expenses during his employ- 

1 62 1 (vol. 42, No. 68). "The King to Sir Thomas Rowe and 
Sir Paul Pindar. We recommend the case of Greene, late consul 
at Smyrna, referred to you by the Council, to your favourable 

28 January, 1634. "The King to the Governor and Company of 
Merchants trading to the Levant. Recommends John Freeman for 


Abbott', Mr. Abell Guilliams^ Mr. Francis Lowe^ Mr. 
John Smith-, Mr. Edward Wyche^ Mr. Robert Salter^ 
Theis seven rode on with my Lord, and that eveninge 
wee came to a Towne standinge on the sea syde" (Ponto 
Piccolo, 15 miles''). Wee lodged that night in a good 

consul of Scio and Smyrna in place of Lawrence Greene whom they 
have removed." 

6 December, 1636. Petition of Lawrence Greene to the King. 
"On the death of William Salter, he was appointed Consul at Smyrna, 
by his Majesty's Ambassador with the Turkish Emperor, afterwards 
confirmed by the Company of English Merchants trading in those 
parts. Having done them many services these five years, he has 
received no allowance for his pains, as his predecessors have done, 
whereupon he has made stay of some of their goods. For staying of 
which goods the said merchants now at his return labour to arrest 
petitioner (in this dangerous time) and restrain him from attending 
His Majesty or the Secretaries of State as he ought. Prays letter of 

From the above, Lawrence Greene seems to have held the post 
of Consul at Smyrna under the Levant Company prior to 1621, and 
again, for five years previous to 1634. 

' See note i on p. 1 5. 

2 I have found no further reference to these individuals. 

^ This may be the Francis Lowe who is referred to in September 
1626 {Calendar of State Papej's^ Dotnestic Series, 1625 — 1626, p. 421) 
as follows : — " Sir Alexander Brett to Nicholas. Certifies sufficiency 
of Francis Lowe who was in the action at Algiers, and with Sir Walter 
Raleigh under the command of Captain Pennington." 

* For an account of Edward Wyche, and Mundy's relations with 
the Wyche family, see Appendix B. 

^ Robert Salter, who was probably connected with William Salter, 
Consul at Smyrna (see above, p. 44, note 6), was made free of the 
Levant Company in June, 1619; State Papers, Foreign Archives, 
vol. 148, p. 30 a. In August, 1629, a warrant was issued to a Robert 
Salter for letters of marque as owner and Captain of the Margaret of 
Weymouth; Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, 1629— 1631, 
p. 155. 

'° Pindar's train travelled by the old post road from Constantinople 
to Belgrade, a route now almost exactly followed by the railway. It 
was the road taken by Des Hayes in 1621, Blount in 1634, PouUet in 
1657 — 1658, Covel in 1670, Pococke in 1740, and Clarke in 1802. The 
three former covered the same ground as did Mundy from Constan- 
tinople to Belgrade, though in the contrary direction, and the two 
latter, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, made their way 
to Adrianople by the same stages that the author followed in 1620. 
The Journey of Des Hayes, happening almost contemporaneously 
with Mundy's "Journey Overland" is given at length in Appendix F. 

'' The names and mileage in brackets throughout this Relation 
refer to the author's own marginal notes. 


stone Cane\ Heere is a longe stone bridge which goeth 
over a Creeke of the Sea^. 

The yth. May, 1620. Mr. Smith and Mr. Davis returned 
to Constantinople, Mr. Davis beinge to come after my 
Lord^ From Ponto Piccolo wee came to Ponto grande 
(8 miles), another Towne on the Sea side, with a faire 
Stone bridge alsoe^ Heere my Lord pitched his Tent 
the first tyme in a faire Greene neere the Towne, And 
this night hee gave order for a watch to bee kept by two 
and two howres each couple all the nighte. 

The ^th. May, 1620. This Morninge the seaven afore- 

^ Khan, caravan-serai, posting inn. 

^ "Ponto Piccolo" is the modern Kuchuk Chekmejd. Des Hayes 
(see Appendix F) has Petit pont; a map of 1690 (B.M. 43335. 3) has 
Cochion Check Mege ; and a map of 1744 (B.M. 28195. 22) has Pons 

Compare Poullet, Notcvelles Relations dtc Levant, vol. i. p. 203, 
" Kutchukmege, qui veut dire un petit (pont), suivy d'un autre gros 
bourg, qui n'a point d'autre appellation, ou les Ambassadeurs qui 
vont a la Porte demeurent, pour y attendre les ordres du Grand 
Seigneur, et estre conduits a I'Audiance." 

Compare also Pococke, A Description of the East, Book the third, 
ch. iii. (Pinkerton's Voyages, vol. x. p. 732 f.), "The road (from 
Constantinople to Adrianople) to the south west, through an open 
fertile country, which is uneven as far as Selivree....Five miles from 
Constantinople there is a small town called The Little Bridge, from 
a bridge there near the sea, over the outlet of a lake. 

See Covel, Early Voyages in the Leva?it, p. 174 and Clarke, 
Travels, vol. iv. p. 477. 

^ It is not clear when he re-joined the Ambassador and the rest of 
the company. The next mention of him in this Relation is when the 
party reached Paris. 

* The modern Biyuk Chekmeje. Des Hayes (see Appetidix F) 
has grand Pont, and a map of 1744 (B.M. 28195. 22) has Pons maj. 

Compare Poullet, Nonvelles Relations du Levant, vol. i. p. 203, 
" Bouioukmege est le nom d'un grand pont, sur lequel on traverse 
un marais cause par un degorgement de la mer, pour passer a un 
bourg nommd de mesme." 

Compare also Clarke, Travels, vol. iv. p. 477, " Buyuk Tchekmadji, 
signifying the Great Bridge, has a series of four stone bridges raised 
upon arches : over which, and along the old paved way, we passed by 
a lake to the town." 

See Covel, Early Voyages in the Levant, p. 176. See also Pococke, 
A Description of the East, Book the third, ch. iii. p. 732, in Pinkerton's 
Voyages, vol. x. 


mentioned^ tooke theire leave of my Lord and Gentlemen, 
and returned to Constantinople. Wee likewise departed 
from Ponto grande. Passinge by Camburgas (6 miles)^, 
wee came to Selibrea (11 miles)^, a Seatowne, neere which 
wee pitched for that Night. 

The.(^th. May, 1620. Wee came to Choorloo (20 miles)*, 

1 i.e. Messrs Greene, Abbott, Gwilliams, Lowe, Smith, Wyche, and 
Salter. They were all probably " Turkey Merchants," residing at 
Pera. See note 3 on p. 15. 

2 The modern Kumburgas. Compare Covel, Early Voyages in 
the Leva?it, p. 1 79, " About half way to Selibria we go by a Httle 
ruinated town, just in the very sea, the road lying upon the sand ; 
the town stands to the right hand, in Turkish Koomburgas, or sand- 
burough... there hath been formerly a little castle or fort there." 
PouUet calls the place Congerba: — " Une personne de consideration 
...nous protegea de sa compagnie, et nous conduisit jusqu'k Congerba." 
Nouvelles Relations dn Levant., vol. i. p. 203. In a map of 1822 
(B.M., 6". 205) it appears as Coumbourgaz or Couzomion. 

Compare also Pococke, A Description of the East (Pinkerton's 
Voyages., vol. x. p. 732), " Ten miles further [beyond the ' Great 
Bridge'] is a village on the sea called Camourgat." 

^ The modern Silivri. Compare the stages in "The Journey of 
Edward Barton, Esquire, her Majesties Ambassador with the Grand 
Signior.... Written by Sir Thomas Glover, etc." in Purchas His 
Pilg?imes, Book viii. ch. 9, p. 1355 f (Barton made the journey 
from Constantinople to Belgrade in 1596 and followed Mundy's 
route to Selibria), "The second day of July, 1596, the said Am- 
bassador parted his house (which is in the Vines of Pera) and took 
his journey... unto a place called Aquadulce [the Fresh Rivers]. ..we... 
came to Ponte Piccolo... some fifteene miles distant from Aquadulce... 
parted thence... arrived at Ponte Grande, which is about twelve miles 
distant... we parted Ponte Grande, and by Sun-rising wee came to a 
small village called Combergassi... parted thence, and came to a Towne, 
called Celebria...some ten miles distant from our last Lodging." 

Compare also Poullet, Nouvelles Relations du Levant., vol. i. p. 203, 
" Les restes d'une petite Ville, appel^e Celivree, qui a son Port combl^ 
et poste en un lieu fort avantageux." 

See Blount, A Voyage into the Leva7tt, ed. 1638, p. 23, for "Burgaz, 
Churlo " and " Selibree." The passage is quoted in Appe?tdix A. 

See also Covel, Early Voyages in the Levant., p. I79f, and Pococke, 
A Description of the East (Pinkerton's Voyages, vol. x. p. 732). 

Clarke, Travels, vol. iv. p. 540, remarks, "From Buyuk Tchekmadj^ 
to Selivria was Hke travelling over the steppes of Russia," and, p. 542, 
" surrounded by vineyards.... The harbour is good." 

* The modern Chorlu. See Covel, Early Voyages in the Levant, 
p. i8of, and Bargrave's account, quoted at the end oi Appendix F. 

Compare Poullet, Nouvelles Relations du Levant, vol. i. p. 201 f., 
*' Chiourlik, au dessus duquel on voit quelques vieilles vestiges d'une 


where Mr. Beamond, Mr. Wilson^ and Taddue overtooke 

The lotk. May, 1620. Passinge by Caristran (15 miles)^. 
Wee came to a Towne named Bergasse (15 miles)^^ 
haveinge a prettie fresh water River with a Stone Bridge 
by which wee pitched. . 

The nth. May, 1620. Wee past by Babaeskeesee^, and 

ancienne muraille, et d'un Canal que les derniers Empereurs Chrestiens. 
avoient commence k faire creuser pour laisser degorger la mer de 
Marmora dans le Pont-Euxin, et se couvrir des irruptions des Bar- 
bares." Des Hayes (see Appendix F) calls the place Chiourli. A 
map of 1690 (B.M. 43335. 3) has Ziorli Chiourlik, and a map of 1744 
(B.M. 28195. 22) has Tschurlik-Tzurlum. 

See also Clarke, Travels, vol. iv. p. 543, and Pococke, A De- 
scription of the East in Pinkerton's Voyages, vol. x. p. 732. 

^ They left the party at the " Fresh Rivers." See p. 44. 

2 The modern Karistran. See Covel, Early Voyages in the Levant, 
p. 183. He gives the distance as 17 miles from Chorlu. 

Compare Clarke, Travels, p. 544, "At six hours' distance from 
Tchorlu, we turned a little out of the road to the village of 

^ The modern Lule-Burgas: called also Chatal-Burgas. See 
Blount, ed. 1638, p. 23, quoted in Appendix A. See also Appendix F 
(last part) for an extract from Rawl. MS., C. 799, giving the Diary 
of Robt. Bargrave in his journey from Constantinople to Burgas, 
in 1652. 

Compare Pococke's account, A Description of the East (Pinker- 
ton's Voyages., vol. x. p. 732), "We went.. .to a town called Borgas, 
which from the name, as well as situation, seems to be the antient 
Bergulas." (A map of 1744 (B.M. 28195. 22) has Bergulae Ar- 

Compare also Hobhouse, foiirtiey through Albania, vol. ii. p. 871, 
"The forests of Belgrade commence about ten miles from Pera, 
extending in length from the village of Bourgas towards the shores 
of the Black Sea.... At Bourgas is a portion of the aqueduct built 
originally by Theodosius or Valens and Valentinian...and totally 
reconstructed by Solyman the Magnificent." 

* Now usually Eski Baba, though in Kiepert's map of the Turkish 
Empire (1855) it appears as Baba Eskisi. See Covel, Early Voyages 
in the Levant, p. 1 85 f. 

Compare Poullet, Nouvelles Relations dii Levant, vol. i. p. 201, 
"La route [Adrianople to Constantinople] est toute ennuyeuse, unie, 
et sans beaucoup d'arbres. Le seul avantage qu'il y a, est la com- 
modite des Caravan-serails, qui sont les plus beaux qu'il y ait dans 
le Levant... de Constantinople a Andrinoplc.on rencontre quelques 
bourgs, dont les premiers sont moins peuplez que les derniers : a 
scavoir Absa, Babaesqui, Burgase, compose seulement d'un fort petit 


came to another Towne called Hafsha (15 miles) \ haveinge 
also a fresh river with a stone bridge by which wee rested. 

The \2th. May, 1620. Wee Came to, and past through 
the Cittie of Adrianople (15 miles)^ where, on the other 
side of it, in a very faire learge Greene just before the 
Grand Sigrs. pallace, wee pitched ; but there succeeded such 
a terrible shower of rayne with thunder and lightninge, that 
wee were forced to seeke a better harbour, which was pro- 
fered us^, beinge a greate howse to lodge the Gran Signiors 
trayne and horses, when he cometh thither, which is very 
seldome. Heere is also a fresh water River and a bridge. 

The iph. May, 1620. My Lord went to see the Gran 
Signiors howse with the Gentlemen and most of his 
Attendants, to describe which would require a greate 
deale of tyme ; only you may suppose it was very 
stately, curious and costly, haveinge many faire greate 
gardens, with howses of service covered with Lead, vizt. 
kitchins. Bathes, etts. all environed with a faire bricke 
Wall, beinge to receive the Gran Signior att his arrivall 
heere, which is very seldome, as a forementioned^ 

nombre de maisons, et qui n'est considerable qu'a cause du Caravan- 
serail qu'on y a esleve, le plus acheve de toute la Turquie." 

See Pococke, A Description of the East (Pinkerton's Voyages,. 
vol. X. p. Ti-^). 

^ The modern Khafsa, or Hafsa. See Covel, Early Voyages i?i 
the Levafit, p. 187. See previous note for PouUet's spelling of the 
place. Des Hayes {Appendix F) calls it Absa ; a map of 1690 (B. M. 
43335- 3) has Apsa ; a map of 1744 (B.M. 28195.22) has Hapsala; and 
Pococke has Hapfa. 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, "Vid: Fol: I." This refers 
to Blount's remarks on Adrianople, extracted from his Voyage into the 
Levant. The passage will be found in Appendix A. 

^ Pindar and his train were more fortunate in their lodging at 
Adrianople than were Sir John Finch and Sir Thos. Barnes when 
they made the same journey in 1675 as described by Covel, Early 
Voyages iti the Levant, p. 190, "The house we first were allotted was 
the damn'dest, confounded place that ever mortall man was put into ; 
it was a Jewes house not half big enough to hold half my Lord's 
family, a mere nest of fleas and cimici [bugs], and rats and mice, and 
stench, surrounded with whole kennells of nasty, beastly Jewes." 

* Compare the following travellers' descriptions of Adrianople and 
the "Gran Signior's" SeragHo: — "There yet remain the walls of the 


TJie \A^th. May, 1620. About Noone wee departed 
Adrianople, leaveinge Stamo the Greeke behinde\ whoe 
was to goe to Gasparo Gratiano^ that was once my Lords 

old town, which now contain the fourth and worst part, inhabited by 
Zinganes [Gipsies], Christians, Jews, and others esteemed as refuse 
people : a little without the city northward, stands the Grand Seignior's 
seraglio with a park walled, some three miles in compass : the palace is 
very low, all covered with lead rising up for [?from] a fiat, into a sharp 
round, and seems but like a garden-house for pleasure : it is kept by 
his Agemoglans \^ajenu-oghla?t, lit. foreign-boy, an oriental foreigner 
newly admitted to the Sultan's service], to entertain not only the 
Grand Seignior, but in his absence, any bashaw or other principal 
minister." Blount, A Voyage into the Levant, p. 23. (Blount was 
fifty-two days in travelling from Spalato to Constantinople. Mundy 
took forty-six days to do the journey in the opposite direction.) 
" Adrianople is very delightfully situated, in a beautiful plain, watered 
by three rivers ; the shops, which are well built and furnished, and the 
Kanes are within the city walls, but most of the people live on the 
height over the old city — This is one of the four royal cities in which 
the Grand Signiors have made their residence ; the seraglio is to the 
west of the town... it is built on a fine plain spot, and there is a large 
meadow towards the river planted with trees ; besides the principal 
building for the Grand Signior, which did not seem to be very large, 
there are many little houses in the gardens for the ladies, and in other 
parts for the great officers ; and as they are low, it has the appearance 
of a Carthusian cloyster....On the hill to the west of the seraglio there 
is a large summer-house which belongs to the Grand Signior, from 
which there is a fine prospect of the City, and all the country round." 
Pococke, A Description of the East, in Pinkerton's Voyages, vol. x. 

P- 733 f- 

See also PouUet, Nonvelles Relations du Levant, vol. i. pp. 195 — 
200 ; and the account in Appendix F. 

1 See p. 44. 

2 " Gasparo Gratiano, a Druggerman," Author's l7idex. Caspar 
Gratiani was a notable character of the time. He was first employed 
as interpreter to Sir Thomas Glover, Pindar's predecessor at Constan- 
tinople, and was instrumental in obtaining the release of Sir Thomas 
Shirley, who had been imprisoned by the Turks. Later, Gratiani 
entered the service of the Grand Signior. In 1614 he was sent on an 
embassy to the Emperor Matthias. As a reward for his success in 
the negotiations, he obtained the government of Moldavia. See 
KnoUes, Historie of the Ttirkes, p. 1385, and Von Hammer, Nistoire 
de V Empire Ottoman, vol. viii. pp. 201 and 246. Compare the follow- 
ing contemporary references to Gratiani : 

" Gasparo Gratiano a man for speciall uses entertained amongst 
the English, whose brother and sister were both taken and admitted 
amongst the Turkes, being formerly Christains of Transilvania or 
Austria." Gainsford, Glofy of Ettglajtd, p. 192. 

"At Vienne in Austria...! found a Turkish Ambassadour, going 
downe the Champion Danubis of Europe, for Constantinople; and 
with him one Gratianus, a Greeke his Interpreter, to whose familiar 
love I was much obliged and with whom I imbarked downe the River 
to Presburge." Lithgow, Paineftt II Peregrinations, p. 412. 


Drogaman or Interpreter, but now Prince of Bugdamia\ 
and attained to that dignity thus : — There beinge warrs 
betweene the Emperor of Germany and the Turke, this 
Gasparo was sent by the Gran Signior by reason of the 
quicknesse of his witt and tongue to treate of a peace 
betweene them, where hee soe dilhgently behaved him- 
selfe that it was concluded betwene the twoe Monarches, 
And att his returne, for his good service therein performed, 
hee was made Duke of an Hand called Naxia^ ; afterwards 
for his good Goverment therein shewed, hee was created 
Prince of Bugdanial 

From Adrianople wee came to Mustapha Pasha 
Cupreesee (15 miles)*, as much to say as the bridge of 

^ The term Bugdamia or Bugdania appears to have been used in 
two senses : firstly, for some portion of the modern Bessarabia, then a 
part of Moldavia ; and, secondly, for the old province of Moldavia 

Compare Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 294 f., "The Janizaries. ..cried 
out... why should they not march to... the foraging of the Countries 
of Moldavia and Bogdonia....The King of Poland... encamped in the 
fields of Bogdonia." 

Gainsford, Glory of England, p. 183, alludes to "the inhabitants 
of Bogdonia and the borders of Russia" and, on p. 192, he remarks on 
the "Provinces of Bogdonia and Moldavia at strife." 

^ Naxia or Naxos, in the Greek Archipelago. 

^ " It was afterwards reported that standinge out in Rebellion 
against the Turke hee was by them Slaine." Author s marginal note. 
The downfall of Caspar Gratiani, when Voivode of Moldavia occurred 
soon after Mundy left Constantinople. He was deposed on the 
discovery of his intrigues with Sigismund III., the ruler of Poland. 
Gratiani called upon the Poles for assistance. They sent him a force 
of 50,000 men, 10,000 of whom were slain at a battle fought near 
Jassy, in Moldavia, on the 20th September, 1620. Gratiani himself 
perished in the retreat across the Dniester with the remnant of the 
army. See Von Hammer, Histoire de VEmpire Ottoinan, vol. viii. 
pp. 256 — 260. Knolles, Historie of the Turkes, p. 1385 f., gives a 
different version of Gratiani's deposition and says that he escaped 
alive after the battle. 

* This place is still known as Mustafa Pasha, or Jezar Mustafa 
Pasha, or Mustafa Pasha Kuprusu. A map of 1744 (B.M. 28195. 22) 
has Mustapha Bassa Cuprisy Pons ! 

Compare Busbequius, Travels into Turkey, p. 31, "We passed 
over the Hebrus on a famous Bridge, made by Mustapha, and so 
came to Hadrianople." 

Compare also Poullet, Nouvelles Relations dii Levant, vol. i. p. 189, 


Must Pasha. Of this bridge it is thus reported for 
certaine, That Sultan SoHman the Magnificent haveing 
warrs with Hungary^, att his Comeinge this way, saw the 
bridge, and demaundinge whoe caused it to be built, the 
afore named M.P.^ presented himselfe, sayeing hee did it. 
The Kinge then prayed him to bestowe it on him, where- 
unto hee replyed that, in regard hee had built it for the 
good of his soule, it could not be given away. The Kinge, 
beinge discontented with this answere, would not passe 
over the Bridge att all, but sought a foorde a little above 
the said Bridge with his horses and followers ; wherein, 
passinge over, there was drowned two of his owne Pages 
among the rest. Soe that it is a Custome to this day, 
when any Vizer or Basha hath occasion to passe this way 
on warfare, hee goeth not over the Bridge, but where the 
Kinge did passe. The rest of the Armie goe over the 

The \^th. May, 1620. From the place a foresaid^ wee 
came to this Towne (Armanly, 15 miles)^ and pitched 
hard by a good Cane. These Canes^ beinge certain great 

" Au sortir de Philiba nous rencontrames quatre ou cinq villages, qui 
n'avoient rien de plus celebre que les antiquailles de leurs ruines ; 
comme Apapa likioi, Cayli kioi ou Zovigiova, Hermanli, Mustafa- 
pacha Cupressi, Tekyeh; ou je vis d'assez beaux Caravanserails." 

See Des Hayes' description of "Mustapha Bascha" in Appendix F. 

^ Sulaiman the Magnificent besieged and took Czabaoz and 
Belgrade in 1521. In 1526, and again in 1531, he led victorious 
armies into Hungary. 

2 i.e. Mustafa Pasha. 

^ i.e. the town of Mustafa Pasha. 

* Hermanli, or ChirmenH. See note 4 on pp. 51, 52. See also the 
account of Hermanli by Des Hayes in Appendix F. The Khan seems 
to be still in existence. 

^ See note i on p. 46. 

Compare PouUet, Nouvelles Relations du Levant, vol. i. p. 68, " Je 
me rendis au Han, qui estoit justement fait comme une grange... en 
Turquie ils sont tous pareils a celui-ci." 

For various accounts of the Khans in Turkey, from 1620 up to 
1810, see Busbequius, Travels i?tto Turkey, pp. 21 — 24; Du Loir, 
Voyages, p. 190; Covel, Early Voyages in the Levatit, p. 174; 
Thdvenot, Travels into the Levant, Part i. p. 26; Dumont, A New 


edifices built by Kings and greate Men for the accom- 
modation of soldiers and Travellers, most commonly att 
easie Journies ends ; because there bee noe Inns in the 
Turkes Dominions. These places beinge very necessarye 
for horse and man, and soe large that one of them will 
conteyne eighty or one hundred Horse with their Riders. 
Only if you have noe servants, you must buy your pro- 
vision and dresse it your selfe in the said Canes, where are 
Chimnies for the purpose. These Canes are of the fairest 
buildings in theis parts, of Hewen stone, and Covered with 
Lead for the most part ; as likewise the Mosches or 
Churches (which are cheifest), then Besistenes and Bathes. 

Besistenes are faire greate buildings full of Shopps 
within, which open att nine in the morning and shutt 
att three in the affternoone. The Owners leaveinge their 
Shopps and goods in Custodie of the Keepers of the said 
place, being verye secure, where are sold none but fine 
and rich wares \ 

Bathes are places where Men resort to wash themselves, 
which is often used, especially by weomen, for whom there 
bee bathes a parte which they frequent twice a Weeke 
att least^. Haveinge pitched our Tent neere the Cane as 
aforesaid, it began soe to rayne that wee were glad to 
shelter our selves within the said Cane. 

Voyage mto the Leva?it^ p. 160; Tournefort, A Voyage into the 
Levant, vol. ii. p. 60 f. ; and Hobhouse, A Journey through Albania, 
vol. ii. p. 960. 

A detailed account of the " Quiervansaras " of Turkey, by Des 
Hayes, will be found in Appendix F. 

1 See pp. 29 and 37. For further descriptions of bazistans or 
arcaded shops, see Delia Valle, Voyages, vol. i. p. 42 ; Thevenot, 
Travels into the Levant, Part i. p. 26; Dumont, A New Voyage iftto 
the Levant, p. 149; Hobhouse, A Journey through Albania, vol. ii. 
p. 962 f. 

2 See note 2 on p. 37. See also Delia Valle, Voyages, vol. i. p. 45. 
Compare Blount, A Voyage into the Levant, ed. 1638, p. 100, 

"Upon the taking of any Towne, the first thing they (the Turks) 
erect is publique Bathes, which they establish with faire revenues; 
so that for lesse then two pence, any man or woman may bee bathed 
with cleane linnen, and neate attendance." 


The \6th. of May, 1620. Wee came to Uzumyova^ a . 
little Towne where wee dined ; then to Cayalucke 
(15 miles)^, a poore Towne of Christians, Where their 
best walls were of Stakes and Bowes covered with strawe^ 
Heere were Store of Hoggs, and the first wee saw since 
our settinge out from Constantinople*. My Lord himselfe 
lodged in one of those poore howses. 

Noate : that all the Townes wee passed by or through 
hitherto (this excepted) have bene somewhat hansome, 
with their Cherches, Canes^ and Bathes*' fairely built, the 
Turke beinge very curious in those kind of buildings, as 
alsoe Besistenes'', but the latter only in greate Citties. 

The I'jth. May, 1620. Comminge to another poore 
Towne of Christians (Papaslee, 18 miles)^ wee there dyned, 
and from thence wee came to the Cittie of Phillippopolis 
(12 miles)^ said to be built by Phillipp the father of 

1 The modern Uzunjova or Usunchobi. Poullet, in his map, has 
Ouzouisgiova. A map of 1690 (B.M. 43335. 3) ^^^.s Usumchese ; a 
map of 1744 (B.M. 28195. 22) has Usumchova ; and a map of 1822 
(B.M., S. 205) has Ouzoundja-ova. 

2 The modern KiaUk, Des Hayes speaks of "Caiah"as a Christian 
town. See Appendix F. Poullet, in his map, has Kaili Kioj. 

^ " I say their howses." Author's marginal note. 
* Until his arrival at Kialik, the author had only passed through 
Muhammadan towns. 

5 Khans. See pp. 46 and 52. ^ See note 2 on p. 53. 

7 See pp. 29, y] and 53. 

8 Still known as Papasli. Poullet, in his map, has Apapasli Kioj. 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, " Phillipicke feilds, vid : 
Fol. I." This refers to Blount's remarks on Philippopolis and Mundys 
comments thereon. These will be found in Appendix A. 

Compare the account of Busbequius, Travels into Turkey, p. 31, 
" The City of Philippopolis is situate on one of three Httle Hills, 
disjoyned, and as it were, rent from the rest of the Mountains, and is, 
as the Grace of those Httle Hillocks.... The whole Plain, about the 
Town, is full of Httle round HiUs of Earth, which the Turks say, were 
raised on Purpose, as Monuments of the frequent Battles fought in 
those Fields and the Graves [of] such as were slain there." 

Compare Poullet's description of Philippopolis, Nouvelles Relations 
die Levant, vol. ii. p. 177, " Nous passames la Marissa sur un pont de 
bois assez mal fait, et arrivames k Philipopolis, ou Philiba, jolie ville, 
situee sur le bord de cette riviere, passablement bien batie, dans una 
assiette fort agreable, et un peu plus grande que Saint Denis." See 
also the account of Des Hayes in Appendix F. 


^^^ .;.*^^S?|,7 



Allexander. It lyes in a greate plaine with high hills on 
either side, hard by a River, over which was a tymber 
bridge. Hard by us wee discovered the carcasses of Two 
men eaten with the Doggs, there remaineinge nothinge 
but their bones. They were taken some six dayes past in 
the Mountaines adjoyninge, robbinge and killinge, soe were 
staked alive \ after throwne downe to bee eaten by Doggs. 

This punnishment of Stakeinge is ordinarily inflicted 
on such kinde of Offenders, which is by driveinge with a 
great Sledge a bigge, longe, sharpe, poynted pole in att 
their Fundament quite through their Body, untill it come 
forth betwene head and shoulders ^ The Malefactor is 
first laid on the Ground flatt on his Belly with ropes tied 
to his feete, where divers hold on and pull, one or two 
kneeling on his backe to keepe him from strugglinge ; 
while another, att the farther end, with a Mall^ or sledge 
beateth it into his body. Then they sett the Pole an end, 
where the body is to remaine three dayes, and continueth 
alive ordinarily Eight or nine howres, sometymes more. 
Myself was present att one of theis Executions att Con- 
stantinople, where I heard the blowes of the Mall, and the 
most horrible and fearefull Crye of the Tortured wretch ; 
but hee sodainely left off, even as the Stake was through 
his Body, all though hee lived and spake many howres 
after. I could not well come neere to see him for the 
presse of people till hee was sett uppl 

Some are executed by Gaunchinge. Gaunches® are 

^ See the Journey of Edward Barton, Esq., in Purchas His 
Pilgrintes, Book viii. ch. 9, p. 1355. 

2 In the British Museum copy of Mundy's Travels, Harl. MS., 
2286, the description of Staking ends here. 

2 i.e. a mallet. 

* For similar accounts of Staking, see the Voyage of John Sander- 
son in Purchas His Pilgrinies, Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1623 ; Lithgow, Paine- 
full Peregrinations, p. 154 ; and Raw I. MS., C. 799, fol. 30 b. 

•^ Gaunch or ganch, an obsolete word from the French ganche, 
Ital. ganciare, gancio, a hook, is the apparatus employed in the 


great, sharpe, poynted Iron Hookes of about a yard and 
a halfe in Compasse, which are fastned on a high paire of 
Gallowes, three hookes on each side. On the two side 
Timbers of the said Gallowes (which goe four or five yards 
higher then the hookes) there is annother Beame over- 
thwart, on which are fastned acrosse three lesser, over each 
paire of hookes one, haveinge litle Pullies att their ends, 
which lye right over the poynts of the said hookes. Soe 
the Offender, haveinge his hands and feete made fast 
together behinde his back, is by them hoysed upp, and, 
on a suddaine lett fall upon one of the said hookes, where 
hee must hange three dayes likewise^ lett it Catch where 
it will, breast, shoulders, or thighes ; but most commonly 
it runns in at their bellies and out att their Backe, and 
may remaine alive a whole day or more^. 

Others are hanged, although there are noe publique 
Gallowes nor Gibbetts, as I could see, but on Trees ; and 
if it bee in a Towne, upon some end of a beame stickinge 
out of any mans wall or howse, or any other place where 
they can conveniently fasten a Rope^. 

Weomen offenders are bound in a Sack, and in the 
night with great silence throwne in the Sea, haveing 
stones made fast thereto to sinck them*. 

Theis are the punishments (amonge the rest) wherewith 
Malefactors are putt to Death att Constantinople. 

execution of criminals by ganching. See Murray, Oxford English 
Dictionary, where the earhest quotation for the word is, 1625 — 1626. 

1 The British Museum copy, Harl. MS., 2286, has " till hee dyes." 

^ For other accounts of "gaunching," see the Voyage of John 
Sanderson in Purchas His Pilgrimes, Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1628; Rawl. 
MS., C. 799, fol. 30 b ; and Th^venot, Travels into the Levant, Part i. 
p. 68 f. 

^ See the Voyage of John Sanderson in Purchas His Pilgrimes, 
Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1628; and Du Loir, Voyages, p. 187. Bargrave, 
Mawl. MS., C. 799, fol. 30 b, says that Jews were commonly seized 
.u^pon and compelled to perform the duties of the hangman, the nearest 
l)eam serving as gallows. 

* See Sandys, Travels, p. 52, and Dumont, A New Voyage to the 
Leva7it, p. 241. 


For smaller Crimes, they are beaten on the feete (some 
terme it Drubbinge)\ In this manner. First, there is a 
good big Stacke^ with a small rope unto, and with which 
the Offenders feete are made fast, and soe held upp 
betwene Two, his body lyeinge on the ground, while other 
two with two prettie small Cudgells alternatively, or one 
after an other, lay him on the soules of his feete, whereon 
att most the Offender hath but a paire of thinn Pumps, 
unto such a number of blowes as hee shalbe thought to 
disserve ; A terrible paine by report of those that have 
felt it. This is the extreamest manner of its execution, 
for ordinarily one man serveth to hold upp his feete while 
the other striketh thereon^. 

One punishment more I saw inflicted on Two weomen, 
the youngest of them for playing the Harlott and the elder 
for being her Bawde. They were sett on Asses backs, their 
faces all besmeared with Soote, dirt and filth, their heads, 
necks, sholders and bosomes over layed and hung round 
with the Intrailes, gutts and garbidge of some Sheep or 
other beasts, with the Excrament adhearinge, and in this 
sweet pickle they were conducted through the Streets of 
Gallata, etts.^ 

What I relate of theis Sundrey punishments is partly 
by my owne knowledge as an Eye Witnes, and partly by 
the generall and Common Report of the Inhabitants^ 

1 The descriptions of the punishments of "Drubbinge" and 
" Shameinge," as well as of the " Three Severall sorts of Swingings " 
are omitted in the British Museum copy, Harl. MS., 2286. 

2 Stock. 

^ See Poullet, Nouvelles Relations dii Leva?ti, vol. i. p. 348 ; and 
Thdvenot, Travels mto the Levant., Part i. pp. 66 and 68. 

* In the Voyage of John Sanderson, in Purchas His Pilgriines, 
Book ix. ch. 16, p. 1623, a similar punishment is described for false 

See Poullet, Nouvelles Relations dii Levant, vol. i. p. 348 ; and 
Dumont, A New Voyage to the Levant, p. 267. 

^ The value of Mundy's MS. is enhanced by his abstention from 
using, as his own, the experiences of other travellers. 


Theis three, vizt. Stakeing, Gaunching and Drubbinge 
are (for the better apprehension) expressed by Figures on 
the other side\ 

To divert your thoughts from those most creuell and 
Torturinge punishments, I will digresse to some of their 
pastimes, and amonge the rest the severall Sorts of 
Swinginge used in their Publique rejoyceings att their 
Feast of Biram^. 

First there is erected (as it were) an exceedinge high 
paire of Gallowes, parralell with the Topps of their howses, 
from whence descends three Ropes, where unto is fastned 
a trianguler board which hangeth about three foote from 
the ground, on which the partie sitts that is to bee swunge, 
if a litle Boy hee comonly is made fast, although others 
more hardy hold fast themselves. Then four or five 
fellowes first with their hands give them a litle way^ 
haveing ready certen yards of Cerse^ webb, Clapp it 
before him att his comeing backe, lettinge it goe soe farr 
as it may, then forcibly pull him backe againe. Thus 
continueinge untill he come to a great high, the Musique 
playing all the while. But much more doth a man doe 
alone without any helpe, soe that only with a certaine 
Carriage of his body hee swingeth himself levell with the 
Topps of the Timber, which may seeme strange to some, 
though not so much if any one would make tryall ; For 
once haveinge gotten the least motion, every tyme he 
ascends, forward or backward to raise himself upright, 
and in fallinge to contracte himselfe close towards his 
feete, and thus every Turne he will gaine untill hee come 
to the highte aforesaid, with soe swifte a motion, equalling 
the flight of a Bird in the Ayre. 

^ See illustration facing p. 55. 

2 See Th^venot, Travels into the Levant^ Part i. p. 42 f. for an 
account of the observance of the Bairam in his time. 

3 r^narcf^ 



Other twoe sorts there are, lesse dangerous and trouble- 
some. One is Hke a Craine wheele att Customhowse 
Key^ and turned in that Manner, whereon Children sitt on 
little seats hunge round about in severall parts thereof, 
And though it turne right upp and downe, and that the 
Children are sometymes on the upper part of the wheele, 
and sometymes on the lower, yett they alwaies sitt 
upright I 

The third sort is like a great Cart Wheele, on whose 
Circumference are fastned litle seats, whereon the Children 
beinge sett, the wheele is putt about, they all goeing round 
Horizontallwise^ Theis two latter only servinge for litle 
Children I 

The three sorts of Swinginge beforementioned are also 
expressed in the Figure on the other side^ 

Beinge att Philippopolis, as in fol. 5^ understandinge 
that the Plague was in that Cittie, wee pitched on thother 
side of it by the bancks of a river as is before mentioned, 
and our people warned not to goe unto it on any occasion''. 

^ The old Customhouse "near to the Tower of London," was built 
by John Churchman, Sheriff of London, in 1385. See Stow, Survey 
of London., Book v. p. 114. Stow also refers to the "Custom House 
Key" as follows (Book ii. p. 53), "The present Names of the Keys 
or Wharfs lying on the South Side.. .Custom House Key... .But 
above all is the Custom House : Which being consumed by the Fire 
of London 1666, is rebuilt in a much more magnificent and uniform 
manner." As Stow has no reference to the " Craine wheele " men- 
tioned by Mundy, it is probable that this also was destroyed in the 
Great Fire of 1666. 

^ The contrivance here described appears to be similar to the now 
famous " Great Wheel " at Earl's Court. 

3 This " s^ying" is the " Merry-go-round," still so popular at English 
country fairs. 

* In no other contemporary writer on Turkey or the Turks have I 
found any allusion to the very common oriental pastime of swinging, 
although the various modes of punishment receive full attention and 
are described in detail. 

^ See illustration facing p. 58. 

^ i.e. fol. 5 of the Rawlinson MS.., p. 54 of this volume. 

''In the British Museum copy, Harl. MS.., 2286, there is only the 
remark, " Heere wee understood the plague was within the Cittie." 


Noate : that from Constantinople unto Adrianople is a 
plaine Champion Countries without either Tree or bush 
exceptinge att Townes or Villages", But from Adrianople 
hither, although the like plaine ground, yett over growne 
with woods and Bushes of Oake for the most parti 

TJie 18///. May, 1620. Wee came to this place (Tatar- 
bazargick, 15 miles)-*, where, having dined, wee past forward 
to a Christian village (Yengheekeoy, 10 miles) ^, and there 
remained that night. 

The igth. May, 1620. Departinge from Yenheekeoy, 

^ i.e. open ground, of the nature of downs, not necessarily flat 

^ See the descriptions by PouUet and Pococke of the country be- 
tween Adrianople and Constantinople, quoted in notes on pp. 46 and 48. 

^ Compare Busbequius, Travels into Turkey, p. 30, " Before a Man 
descends into that Plain that is over against Philippopolis, he must go 
through a Forest." 

* Still called Tatar Bazarjik. Des Hayes has Basargicq ; vide 
Appendix F. Compare Poullet, Nou7>elles Relations dii Levant, 
vol. i. p. 177, "Tatar bazargik, un des plus gros bourgs, ou il y a un 
des plus beaux Caravanserails que j'eusse point veu en Turquie, avec 
une belle horloge qui sonne, et qui d^couvre la reverie de ceux qui 
disent que I'Alcoran defend les cloches ; n'y ayant presque pas un 
Turc de consideration qui n'aie une montre sonnante, avec son reveil- 
matin." In his map Poullet spells Tatar Bazarjik, Thatar basardgin ; 
and, in a map of 181 1 (B.M. 43315. 18), the place appears as Tzapar- 

° The two contiguous villages, named in the text Yengheekeoy and 
Yelkeeoy, seem to have been pretty freely mixed up by the old 
travellers. Thus (1621), Des Hayes {vide Appendix F) calls them 
Janicoli or Novocelo. In a map of 1650 (B.M. 43315. 9) they also 
appear as Janicoli or Novocelo. Poullet, in his map (165S), names 
them Novathelo and Lebevitha. A map of 1690 (B.M. 43335. 3) 
gives Jancoli and Novoceylo. Half a century later a map of 1744 
(B.M. 28195. -2) has Novaithelai and Yesnikoi. Taylor, Travels 
from England to India in 1789, vol. ii. p. 310, has Senichoi. A map 
of 181 1 (B.M. 43315. 18) gives Novoselo. Kiepert's map of 1853 
(B.M. 43315. 8) has Nawoselo. Lastly, a map of 1856 (B.M. 
43315. 30) gives Nowi Khan. In the most modern maps only one 
village, Novi Khan, or Yeni Khan, appears. 

Confusion in the names of oriental villages is quite common, 
especially in hilly country, and there is nothing unusual in the dis- 
crepancies noticed above. The names appear to refer to two separate 
villages or to detached parts of the same village in the vernacular 
or translated forms. Yengi kytcy means in Turkish "the new 


wee entred Mountaines\ deserts^ and thick woods, where 
usually repaire Troopes of robbers to the spoyle of 
Passengers^, by reason of which my Lord caused every 
one to goe on foote with their Armes, to bee the more 
ready if occasion should offer, but God bee praised, there 
was none. 

Att six miles end wee came to Yelkeeoy*, a village of 
poore Christians, and four miles further, to Cappeekeoy^ 
an other poore village, where is to bee seene a great, high, 
ruinous Arch of brick, by reporte built by Allexander. 
Betwene theis two villages^, wee mett a man beatinge on 
a drumme'', sett there of purpose to advise travellers 
whether there bee theeves or noe, hee abideinge in the most 
daungerous place of all. Soe wee came to Yteeman 
(4 miles)^, lyinge in a vallie^, where are ten other Townes 

^ i.e. the slopes of the Balkans, separating Rumelia from Bulgaria. 
These are from three to five thousand feet high, and are covered with 
thick v/oods on their tops and sides. 

2 i.e. uninhabited spots, not necessarily without vegetation. Pindar 
and his party were now traversing the Pass of Kapulu Derbend, or 
Pass of the Gate (Mpi, gate, derbend, pass) so named from the Trajan 
Gate, the last remains of which were demolished in 1855. 

3 The conditions have not much altered since Mundy's time, for 
guides were, at any rate until quite lately, hired at Tatar Bazarjik 
to protect the traveller from the danger of brigands among the passes 
of the Balkans. 

* See note 5 on p. 60. 

^ The modern Kapuli. This place has been known under various 
spellings. Des Hayes (1621) has Capili Dervent (see Appendix F). 
PouUet, in his map (1658), has VasiHta Capili Kioi. A map of 1690 
(B.M. 43335. 3) has Capigi Derrene. Another map of 1744 (B.M. 
28195. 22) has Capitschik or Temircap. In Kiepert's map of 1867 
(B.M. 43305. 54) the place appears as Kapoulou Derbend. 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, "Thermopilae conceaved 
to bee aboutt this place." Mundy is alluding to Blount's remarks on 
Thermopylae, which will be found in Appendix A. 

'' See Blount, A Voyage into the Levant, quoted in Appendix A. 

* The modern Ikhtiman. Des Hayes has Ictiman ; see Appendix 
F. Poullet, in his map, has Kivan pachnum, and, in a map of 1744 
(B.M. 28195. 22) the place is given as Hischtimon. 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, "And hereabouts is the 
Mountain Rodope, River Strimon, where Orpheus lived etts. Vid: 
fol. I." Mundy is again alluding to Blount. Vide Appendix k.. 


in Sight. Of this dayes Journey, ten myles through woodie 
mountaines and the rest through Inhabited places. 

The 2Qth. May, 1620. Wee came to the Cittie of 
Sophia^ betwene which and Iteeman wee mett another 
drummer, there beinge an other daungerous place, where 
Companies have bene robd and killed. Att Our approach 
wee sawe a great number of Tents, makeinge a gallant 
shewe, which wee understood belonged to the Beglerbeg 
of Gretia^, now bound to the Black Sea against the Cas- 

^ See the accounts of Sophia by Des Hayes and Blount in 
Appendix A and Appendix F. Compare Busbequius, Travels into 
Turkey, p. 27, " Sophia is a Town big enough, and well inhabited both 
by Citizens and Strangers: It was heretofore the Royal Seat of the 
King of Bulgaria." Compare also PouUet, Nouvelles Relations du 
Levant, vol. i. p. 168, " Sophie est plus petite qu'Orleans, quoy qu'elle 
soit la Capitale et le siege du Bacha de la Romelia, boiieuse dans tous 
ces dehors, ou la bont^ du terrain laisse un acces fort desagreable, 
mais assez raisonnablement batie par dedans, avec quantity de 
maisons, lesquelles ont une cymetrie fort approchante a celle des 

A map of 1690 (B.M. 43335. 3) gives Sophia as Sophia Triadizza 
or Sardica; and a map of 181 1 (B.M. 43315. 18) has Scopia. 

^ i.e. the Viceroy of Rumelia. The title begler-begi, Bey of Beys, 
was formerly given to the governors-general of Rumelia {Rinneli, 
the country of the Greeks) and Anatolia. Compare the following con- 
temporary allusions to the province and the official : — 

1607. "The Degrees of the Turks. ...On the sixt step of 
honour is the Bashaw lifted up, who is a principall Viceroy. ..and 
according to the dignity and majesty of the place called Beglerbeg : 
these are every three yeeres mansuold [a puzzle : ? Lat. mansio, a 
journey, march ; possibly a corruption of Ar. and Turk. 7nanzil\ that 
is to say remooved." Gainsford, Glory of England, p. 202. 

1610. "Greece, tearmed by the Turkes, Rum Hi, that is, the 
Romane Country: It is ruled by a Beglerbeg or Bassa....This 
Beglerbeg of Greece is the greatest Commaunder of all other Bassaes 
in the Turkish Provinces of Europe." Lithgow, Paitiefidl Peregrina- 
tions, p. 73. 

1616. "Beglerbeg signifieth Lord of Lords : of which there are 
wont to be two ; one in Europe, another in Asia : but by Solyman 
increased, that though Romania and Natolia have still the chiefe 
titles, yet in Europe are foure others." Purchas, Pilgrijnage, p. 292. 

1621. "Tous les Beglerbeis s'appellent communement Bashas. 
Or, Bascha, qui en Turc veut dire teste, est une qualite que les princi- 
paux de I'Estat prennent, lors qu'ils ont exerc^ quelque gouverne- 
ment. Mais Beglerbey, s'entend d'un gouvernement general de 
Province, que le grand Seigneur donne pour tant et si peu qu'il luy 
plaist: et ce mot de Beglerbey signifie Seigneur des Seigneurs." Des 
Hayes, Voiage de Levant, p. 45. 

1635. "There are two Beglierbegs (that is to say Lord of Lords) 


sacks\ a people of Russia whoe did much molest the Turkes 
in those parts. This Cittie lyeth in a plaine^, there being 
about twenty Townes and villages in the said plaine all in 
sight togeather. 

The 7.\st. May, 1620. His Lordshipp went to visitt the 
Beglerbeg att a howse hee had within the Cittie, where, 
when hee came, after salutations on each side, there was 
Sherbett brought for them and the rest. It is a drincke 
made of Sugar, Juice of Lemmons and water, with which 
the better sort mingle Amber, Muske, Roses, Violetts, etts., 
this beinge the ordinary drincke of great men, their Lawe 
forbiddinge them wyne ; the poorer sort drinke only 
waters Soe haveinge past halfe an hower in Comple- 
mentall conference, they tooke leave each of other. In the 
outward Court of the howse there was a Standard sett upp, 

the one of Romania or Greece, the other of Natolia or Asia the lesse." 
Grimston, The History of the Iniperiall Estate of the Grand Seigneurs, 
p. 169. See also Blount's remarks on the "Beglerbeg of Greece" 
quoted in Appendix A. 

^ The ravages of the Cossacks along the southern coasts of the 
Black Sea had become a serious menace to the peace of the empire 
during the reign of Ahmad L In 1613 they surprised and devastated 
the city of Sinope. 

2 The plain is watered by the river I sea. 

^ Compare the following contemporary remarks on this beverage : — 

"Water mixed with honey, which they call sherbert." Gainsford, 
Glory of England, p. 203. 

"Above the rest (of drinkes) they [the Turks] esteeme Sherbets 
made with Sugar, the Juyce of Lemmons, Peaches, Apricocks, Violets, 
or other Flowers, Fruits, and Plumbes as each country affoords ; 
these are dryed together into a consistence reasonable hard, and 
portable for theire use in warre, or else-where, mingling about a 
spoonefuU with a quart of water." Blount, A Voyage into the Levant, 
p. 105. 

" Une certaine composition qu'ils appellent chorbet, fait de sucre, 
et de jus de limon, d'essence de violette, de rose, de jasmin, ou de 
quelques autres odeurs : laquelle se conserve des annees entieres dans 
des pots de fayance ; parce qu'elle n'est pas en liqueur. Elle res- 
semble a la durete de notre castonnade ; on en delaye une ou deux 
cueillerdes dans une grande tassde d'eau, quand on s'en veut servir." 
Poullet, Relations du Levaiit, vol. i. p. 109. 

See also Grimston's description of " Sorbet." The History of the 
Imperial I Estate of the Grand Seigneurs, p. 141 ; and Delia Valle, 
Voyages, vol. i. p. 90. 


Which to us appeared a horse taile dyed redd\ Other sort 
there are questionlesse^. For att my beinge att Constanti- 
nople came a Persian Ambassador about a Confirmation of 

1 The Turkish honorary distinction of a Standard of one to 
seven Horse-tails arose out of the old Turkman custom of granting- 
the right to display a Standard of one or more Yak-tails as a reward 
to officers of high rank for exceptional military services. The earliest 
mention of it among the Osmanli Turks appears to be in 1288 A.D., 
when Osman I. received from the Seljuki Sultan Alau'ddin III. the 
following insignia — a banner, a drum, a robe, a sword and a horse-tail 
by way of recognition of his importance. Vide D'Oksza, Histoire 
de VEinpire Ottoman, vol. i. p. 35, and Von Hammer, Histoire de 
VEnipire Ottomatt, vol. i. p. 75. Vide also Irvine, Army of the Indian 
Moghuls, p. 34 f. 

Compare Delia Valle and Tournefort for the popular stories of the 
origin of the Horse-tail Standard : — "Six Capigis Bassis, qui sont les 
Capitaines des Portiers du Grand Seigneur marchoient en suite a 
cheval avec chaque Compagnie de Capigis, qui precedoient les 
Estendarts Imperiaux, trois desquels ne sont que des queues de 
cheval, au bout de trois lances assez longues ; et I'on dit que cette 
coutume n'est introduite que depuis qu'en une certaine bataille, apr^s 
que I'Estendart fut pris par les ennemis, un simple soldat coupa la 
queue de son cheval, et fit merveilles, I'ayant attach^e au bout d'une 
demipicque. lis s'en sont toujours servis comme d'un symbole 
d'honneur, en memoire d'une si belle action : quoy que I'on die que 
c'est chez les Romains que cela s'est fait et que les Turcs ne s'en 
servent qu'k leur imitation. Quoy qu'il en soit, c'est un de leurs 
principaux Estendarts : et quand le Premier Bassa va faire la guerre 
par I'ordre du grand Seigneur, on en porte toujours trois devant luy, 
au lieu que devant les autres Chefs inferieurs...I'on n'en porte 
qu'un." Delia Valle, Voyages, vol. i. p. 140 f. 

"The Grand Vizier is preceded by three Horse-tails, on the top of 
each of which is a gilded Apple : this is the Military Ensign of the 
Ottomans, which they call Thou or Thouy itugh). For a certain 
General of this Nation, they say, being at a plunge to rally his 
Troops, who had lost all their Standards, thought of this Device, to 
cut off a Horse's Tail, and erect it on the point of a Lance : the 
Soldiers flock'd to this new Ensign, and came off with Victory." 
Tournefort, A Voyage into the Levant, vol. ii. p. 20. Facing page 20, 
there is an illustration of "A Turkish Standard or Horse-Tail, call'd 
in Turkey Hou or Houy." Q^Xi^iXid,, Journal, vol. i. p. 125 f. has a full 
description of the Turkish "thou" and the story of its origin. 

Compare also Tavernier, A Relation of the Grajid Signior's 
Seraglio, vol. ii. p. 88 f., " The Entrance into Constantinople of the 
Sultaness on the Second of July 1668. ...The Order of the March.... 
There appear'd afterwards Six Capigis, about the first Coach.... 
They had each of them a Launce in his hand ; and in the Rear of 
them, there appear'd a Horse-tail-Banner, of a pale-red colour, 
whereby it was known, that some Bassa's were coming up.'' 

2 From this point to the end of the paragraph is an addition not 
found in the copy at the British Museum. Harl. MS., 2286. 


a peace betwene the Gran Signior and the Kinge of Persia^ 
whoe brought with hinn a great Present of Silke, both rawe 
and wrought, Carpetts, etts. The said Ambassader was 
received into the Cittie with a very great, rich and warHke 
shewe of horse and foote, the latter all Janizaries^, whereof 
some bands or Companies had each man a whole compleat 
Leopards Skinn over his shoulder, whereon he carried his 
peece or Gunn : And amonge theire troops were sundry 
Ensignes on the Topp of longe staves, as the image of 
some fowle, the head of some beast and other figures, 
somewhat resemblinge the manner wee see deciphered by 
Picture in Romaine Battailes. 

The 22nd. May, 1620. Beinge two miles in our way 
from Sophia, wee were overtaken by a Chiawsh^ and 
twenty Jannizaries with nine waggons, bound for Buda"*, 

1 The "Persian Ambassador" was Burun Kasim (Kasim of the 
Nose), who was sent by Shah 'Abbas to Constantinople in 1618 to 
confirm the terms of peace between Persia and the Porte. His visit 
is thus described in the Annals of Naima, vol. i. p. 466, " The Arrival 
of a Persian ambassador. In the month of Jemadi I. [a.H. 1026, 
A.D. 161 7] the Persian ambassador, Burun Kasim, sometimes called 
Kasim Beg, but, in his credentials, All Sultan Khallfeh, arrived at 
Scutari with one hundred loads of silk, four elephants, and one 
rhinoceros, with, other gifts for the emperor of the Ottomans. From 
Scutari he passed over to the imperial city, and was lodged in the 
palace of Pertev Pasha. His letter to the emperor specified, in all its 
various ramifications, the treaty signed by KhalTl Pasha." The 
accuracy of Mundy is therefore curiously confirmed. 

2 See note 2 on p. 43. 

^ Turkish chawush, now- a -days a minor military officer, a 
sergeant, but in Mundy's time a high official. Compare Gainsford, 
Glory of England, p. 201 f., "The Degrees of the Turks. The fift 
roome is supplyed by the Chiaus, a degree of honourable eminence 
and may ranke with our Barons. For they ride in velvet gownes, 
silver-plated saddles, costly stirrups, and rich turbans." 

Compare also Knolles, Historie of the Turkes, p. 1393, "The 
Grand Seignior hath also certaine officers attending on him to the 
number of three thousand, whom they call Chiaus, which are as it 
were sergeant at amies. These are men well esteemed and are often 
employed in Embassies to forreine Princes : They also carry letters 
and commendations from the Prince or his chiefe Vizier, and they 
apprehend offenders. These never goe to the Warre but when the 
Sultan is there in person. They are commanded by a Chiaus Bassa." 

* Then in the Turkish Empire. 


with pay for the Soldiers there in Garrison. The Begler- 
beg^ sent a Couple of Soldiers alonge with us to conducte 
us in our way. Att noone wee dined in the feilds nere 
some stony hills, haveinge gone about ten myles. After 
dinner wee departed, and entringe among Rockie Hills^ 
wee were overtaken with rayne, where wee had not only 
a dangerous passage by reason of Theeves, but very 
troublesome and wearisome by reason of the rockey, 
stony way and durtie weather. Att length wee came to 
Zarebrode (lo miles)^ a little village, where wee remained 
with as little ease, the foule weather continueinge all night, 
and Lodginge very scarse, my Lord himselfe beinge glad 
to take parte of a poore mans howse with the poore man, 
his wife and Children. 

Tke 2'i,rd. May, 1620. Wee came to Zarekeeoy (8 
miles)*, a greate Towne, where wee remained that after- 
noone by reason of the dirtie way, wearynesse of the 
horses, as alsoe likelyhood of more rayne. But the 
Chiawsh and Janizaries^ left us, and went forward, their 
busines requiring more hasfc. In this Towne was a small 
Castle, and little river. Also, from under a Hill close by, 
there issueth such a Spring of Water that is imedeatly 
sufficient to drive a good Mill. 

The 2^th. May, 1620. Accompanied with fourteen 

^ See note 2 on p. 62. 

^ For a description of the country between Nissa and Sophia see 
Appendix F. 

2 The modern Zaribrod. The author's distances are rather mis- 
leading here. Apparently he means that Zaribrod was ten miles from 
the place where Pindar's train dined and not from Sophia, the last 
town mentioned. 

* The modern Pirot or Sharkoi, the former being the Bulgarian 
and the latter the Turkish name of the place. Des Hayes has 
Cherquioi (see Appendix F), and Pouilet, in his map, has Charkioi. 
Compare Taylor, Travels fro7n England to India in 1789, vol. ii. 
p. 309, " Schiarchioi. Here you have fine plains and the rest woods." 
In a map of 1830 (B.M. 43625. i) the place appears as Csarda. 

^ See note 2 on p. 43. 


Spahees^ or horsemen, wee proceeded (25 miles), my Lord 
haveinge a Commaundment from the Gran Signior to all 
Governors and Officers where hee should passe, to see him 
safely conducted from place to place^; As also to furnish 
him with such provisions and necessaries as hee should 
neede att the charge of the Greate Turke. But my Lord 
would not make use of it in wronging the poore Christians 
thereby, for the aforesaid Officers would perforce take from 
them what they listed, as sheepe, henns, milke, butter, etts., 
without giveinge anie pennie for it but blowes^. 

Wee came to a village called Curut Chisme (15 miles), 
as much as to say a drye fountaine. There beinge one 
abandoned of water"*, as the village was of Inhabitants, by 
reason of the great tax imposed on them by the Governor 
of the Province, which they being not able to pay, fledd for 
feare of farther miserys, the Turks grindeing their verie 
bones^, for all the benefitt poore Christians can make by 

^ Stpdhi, sepoy. Compare Gainsford, Glory of England, p. 201, 
"The Degrees of the Turks. ...The fourth place is appropriate to 
the Spahyes, who are inferior horsemen, with high fathers in their 
strange fashioned hats, somewhat more glorious than the Janizaries, 
their arming as also the Janizary, keepes some correspondency with 
the Persian." 

Compare also Knolles, Historic of the Tiirkes, p. 1391, "The 
Turks forces. ...His horsemen consist of Spahi.. .these are Christian 
slaves bred up yong in the Princes Seraglio, who by their merits 
attaine to that degree." 

2 The same protection was afforded to Des Hayes in the following 
year. Twenty mounted Turks guarded the Frenchman's party from 
Nisch towards Adrianople. See Appetidix F. 

^ See Keppel, Narrative of a four?tey across the Balca?t, vol. i. 
p. 439, for similar commandeering of goods from Christians by the 
Turks in 1830. 

* Turkish qiirut chesine, dried-up spring. The inhabitants had 
returned to the village when Des Hayes passed through it in 162 1 
{vide Appendix F). Des Hayes calls the place Cruchismet. A map 
of 1650 (B.M. 43315. 9) gives Cruchisnat, and a map of 1690 (B.M. 
43315- 3) gives Cruschimit. Poullet, in his map (1658), has Kourou 
Thehaemech. Kiepert's map of 1853 (B.M. 43315. 8) calls the place 

^ See Lithgow, Painefull Peregrinations, p. 152, for Turkish 
oppression of Christians. See also the remarks of Des Hayes in 
Appendix F. 


the ground, their Cattell and Labour is hardly enough to 
supply the Governors impositions layed upon them, and to 
finde them bread, soe that they are in worse case then 

From thence wee came to another village of Christians, 
named Palanca (5 miles)\ where is a certen fence made of 
boughes of trees woven on great Stakes, as wee make our 
frithes^, clapt on the out side with morter, there beinge two 
of the said frithes about three yards a sunder, the space 
betwene beinge fill'd upp with greate stones which serves 
for the wall ; and soe it goeth fower square of a great com- 
passe, there dwellinge within sixty or seventy Turkes, the 
place beinge a Shelter for all people hereabouts to retire 
unto, because that, from the borderinge mountaines doe 
often repaire Troops of Christians and doe much harmed 
this beinge in Hungarie^ Here is alsoe to bee scene the 
foundation of some Castle or great building of Bricke. 

1 " Palanca a wooden castle." Author's marginal note. It is the 
Turkish palangha, a small fort or stockade. The village mentioned 
by Mundy is still known as Musa Palanka, Bela Palanka, or Ak 
Palanka. In a map of 1690 (B.M. 43335. 3) it appears as Mehemet 
Bascha Palanka. In a map of 1744 (B.M. 28195. 22) it is simply 
Mustapha Basa ; and again in 181 1 (B.M. 43315. 18) it is Mustafa 
Pacha. In 1822 (B.M., S. 205. 40) it appears as Moussa Pacha 
Palanka. Des Hayes (1621) calls it the " Pallanque de Mehemet 
Bascha." See his account of " Pallanques " in Appendix F. See 
also Blount's remarks quoted in Appendix A. 

2 A frith is a hedge or a hurdle, made of wattled brushwood. In 
Dorset such hurdles are known as "riths." 

^ Compare Busbequius, Travels i7tto Turkey, p. 24, " The Chris- 
tians being wearied out with the Pride and Insolency of the Turks, do 
many times withdraw themselves from the common Road into desert 
Places ; which tho' they are less fruitful, yet are more secure ; and so 
leave their better Possessions to the domineering Turks." Des Hayes 
says that a large number of Spahis and Janissaries were posted at 
Nissa and in the neighbourhood for the security of the roads and 
to hold the ten thousand Christians of the vicinity in subjection. See 
Appendix F. 

'* The author is incorrect in assigning the district around Nissa 
to " Hungary." The part to which he refers was in Servia. By 
" Hungary " Mundy seems to mean a Christian land. Des Hayes, 
Voyage de Levant, p. 26 f., gives the extent of Hungary in 1621 as. 
follows : — " Le Royaume de Hongrie a este cogneu des anciens. 


The 2i^tJi. May, 1620. With thirty-one soldiers out of 
the said Palanca or fence, wee departed, whoe conducted 
us halfe way to Nice (29 miles)\ soe farre in the waie 
being more daungerous for theeves then any wee past 
hitherto, and noe lesse troublesome, being mountainous, 
dirtie and stoney^. Soe my Lord, giveinge them some 
gratification, they were dismissed with a Certificate from 
my Lord howe they had safely conducted us hitherto, 
written in Turkish by signior Dominico^ with my Lords 
hande and seale to it. The rest of the way, although not 
soe dangerous and mountainous, yett altogeather soe 
stonie and dirtie, even to Nice it selfe. Heere is a bridge 
called Nicea (20 miles), and a River by that name^ over 
which the bridge lyeth^ A Castle none of the best, and 
a paire of greate old fower square ruinated Brick walls. 

sous le nom de la basse Panonie. II est borne du coste de Midy 
par la Save, qui le divise de la Servie, et de la Croatie. Au 
Septentrion il est separe de la Pologne par les monts Carpatiens. II 
a I'Autriche, la Moravia, et la Stirie au Couchant, et au Levant la 
Transilvanie et la Servie." 

Lithgow had a very low opinion of the Hungarians. Compare his 
Painefull Peregri7iations, p. 414 f., "The Hungarians have ever been 
thistuous, treacherous and false, so that there one brother will hardly 
trust another, which infidelity among themselves and distracted 
deceitfuU governours, was the chiefest Cause of their overthrow and 
subjection under Infidels." 

1 The modern Nisch, or Nissa. In a map of 1690 (B.M. 43335. 3) 
the place is called Nizza, and in one of 1744 (B.M. 28195. 22) it 
appears as Naissus. 

2 Pindar and his train were now traversing a pass over the 
Balkans. Compare Taylor, Travels from England to India in 1789, 
vol. ii. p. 309, " Nissa. Here you pass through a very dangerous 
Country, being all woods and infested with robbers." See also the 
remarks of Des Hayes on the road to Nissa in Appendix F. 

^ The Dragoman. See p. 42, note 5, for an account of this man. 

* Now known as the river Nissava. 

^ " I say the River is called Nicea haveing a bridge over it." 
Author's marginal no'te. Des Hayes calls the river "Nice" or 
" Nichava." He says that it separates Servia from Bulgaria, Nisch 
being then under the government of Buda and the country on the 
other side of the river under the Governor of Greece. See 
Appendix F. 

Compare Busbequius, Travels into Turkey^ p. 21, "At a small 
Distance from Jagodna, we met with a little River which the Neigh- 
bouring Inhabitants called Nissus, and we kept it on our right Hand 


The 26th. Ditto. About seven miles from Nice, wee 
overtook the Chiaush with his twenty Jannissaries, whoe 
formerly left us^, And at Roshneah^ wee lodged in a good 
Cane^ the way beinge faire and plaine, although desert 
and full of woods. 

The 2yth. May, Anno 1620. Wee past by Paracheeno 
(6 miles)*, a small village, and from thence four miles 
further to a bigg river^ without a Bridge, soe that wee 
spent four howres att least in passinge our selves and 
necessaries **, and soe came to Yagola (10 miles)'', where is 
another Palanca, or wooden fence : heere wee pitched for 
this night. 

almost all the Way till we came to Nissa; yea, and beyond the Town, 
upon the Bank thereof were there some Remains of an old Roman 
Way. ...As for the Town of Nissa, for that Country, it is a decent 
one, and full of inhabitants." 

Compare also PouUet, Nouvelles Relations dn Levant, vol. i. 
p. 164, " Nous continuames de suivre nostre route par des mar^cages, 
quantite d'arbres, quelques petits villages par Nissa petite ville, 
laquelle donne son nom k Nissava petite riviere, et par les detours du 
fond d'une seconde montagne." 

See also Blount's account of " Nisse" quoted in Appendix A. 

^ See p. 66. 

2 The modern Rashan or Razan. Des Hayes calls the place 
Razena. See Appendix F. A map of 1830 (B.M. 43625. i) has 

3 Khan. See note i on p. 46 and note 5 on p. 52. 

* The modern Paratjin or Parachin Palanka, and the Paraquin of 
Des Hayes (vide Appendix F). Poullet, in his map, has Pachin 

5 The Morava. 

^ Compare Poullet, Nouvelles Relations dn Levaiit, vol. i. p. 164, 
" Nous arrivames apres deux jours et demy de chemin sur le bord 
d'une grosse riviere nommde la Morava... nous fusmes tout un jour 
a trav'erser ce flieuve sur des batteaux." Des Hayes had a similar 
experience i(uide Appendix F). 

^ i.e. Yagodin or Jagodina. Des Hayes says that this town con- 
tained more Turks than Christians in 162 1. 

Compare Busbequius, Travels into Turkey, p. 20, "After we had 
past the River called Morava, we came to a Town of the Servians, 
named Jagodna." 

Compare also Poullet, Nouvelles Relations du Levafit, vol. i. 
p. 164, "Nous passasmes au travers de quantite de bois fort epais, 
d'une montagne... qui fait en cet endroit un defile de peu de longueur, 
et qui s'elargit en une plaine vers sa fin ; au commencement de 
laquelle paroist Yagodena, gros bourg." 


The 2%th. May, 1620. Haveinge dined att Batachin 
(12 miles)^ wee passed forward to Casanpasha Palanca 
(12 miles)^, Palanca being the proper name of one of those 
wooden Fortifications ^ of which sort this was the fairest 
wee sawe hetherto, haveinge Turretts of boards, which 
made a very handsome shewe : we lodged in a large Cane. 

The 2gth. May, 1620. Att this Towne (Colare, 13 
miles)* is another Palanca, from whence (haveing dined), 
wee came to Gratsco (13 miles)^, scituate on the River 
Danubius**, heere beinge also a Palanco and two great 
stone Canes, but my Lord pitched neere the Towne. 
Heere was a man staked ^ beinge one of fifteen that were 

^ The modern Batotschina and the Baticina of Des Hayes, who 
calls it a Christian village {vide Appendix F). PouUet, in his map, 
has Deveh Bayoj. A map of 1680 (B.M. 28160. 2) has Barakin. A 
map of 1720 (B.M. 27730. i) has Potitschina. A map of 1744 (B.M. 
28195. 22) has Patazin. A map of 181 1 (B.M. 43315. 18) has Rat- 
shina ; and, in a map of 1830 (B.M. 43625. i) the place appears as 
Devibagardan. Compare the Attnals of Naima, vol. i. p. 17, "After 
passing through Philippopolis and Sophia [in 1602], he (the Grand 
Vizir, Siran Pasha) caused a palanka and an inn to be erected at 
a place called Batchina in the district of Yaghodina, a dangerous and 
difficult pass, and exposed to banditti." 

2 i.e. Hassan Pasha's Palanka. Des Hayes calls it "la Palanque 
de Hassem Bascha " and says it was inhabited by an equal number of 
Turks and Christians in 1621 {vide Appendix F). A map of 1830 
(B.M. 43625. i) has Hassan Paschina Palanka. The place is now 
known as Hassan Palanka or merely Palanka. 

2 See note i on p. 68. 

* The modern Kolar or KuUar. Des Hayes calls the place Cola 
and says that, in 1 621, it contained more Turks than Christians. 
Poullet, in his map, has Cola palankassi, thus confirming the author's 
statement as to the existence of a palangha at this place. In a map 
of 1744 (B.M. 28195. 22), the place appears as Koiar. 

'" Grotzka, on the Danube. Des Hayes says that " Grosca," called 
by the Turks "Ichargic" \i.e. Hissar ^tic/iuk], means "little castle" 
{vide Appendix F). In two maps of 1720 the place appears as 
Grusca Icargie and Isardschick Krotzka ; in a map of 1744 it is 
Krozka, and in one of 1830 it is called Stolnaz or Groczka. 

^ " Danuhius, the most famous river of Europe, vid : fol: i." 
Author's marginal note. Mundy is referring to his extracts from 
Blount's Voyage into the Levant., for which see Appendix A. 

<■ See p. 55. Impaling was still practised in 1830 (see Keppel, 
Narrative of a Jotcrney across the Balcan, vol. i. p. 458), but the 
victims were first shot. 


taken and put to death hereabouts of fifty that haunted the 
woods and Mountaines : the rest escaped. 

The ■}f)ih. May, 1620. Wee came to the Cittie of 
Belgrade (12 miles)^ lyeing on Danubius. Heere my Lord 
hired a howse, being determined to stay some few daies. 
Also our waggons were discharged^, being to take horses 
henceforward by reason of the mountainous waie. 

The 31^"/. May, 1620. My Lord went to visitt the 
Caddee^ which is a Justice amongst the Turkes, where 
haveinge stayed one hower, hee departed, and went through 
the Cittie to the River side, where takeinge boate, wee 
past over and backe againe for recreation. There ride 
before the Cittie thirty-five floatinge milles"*, theire Cables of 
withes, and theireAnchorsgreatebasketts filled full of stones, 
makeinge as faire a shewe afarr of as they were handsome 

1 Here Mundy again refers to "Fol: i" of his MS., containing 
Blount's remarks on Belgrade. For these see Appendix A. In his 
Index, the author defines Belgrade as "A Citty in Hungary under the 
Turck." See PouUet, Nouvelles Relations du Levajtt, vol. i. p. 129, 
for a short description of Belgrade. 

Pindar's train occupied twenty-five days in the journey from Con- 
stantinople to Belgrade, a distance of six hundred and twenty-seven 
miles, an average of twenty-one miles a day. See note 6 on p. 45. 

2 See Poullet, Nouvelles Relations du Levant, vol. i. p. 162, for an 
account of Turkish vehicles of transit and the discomfort endured in 

^ i.e. the kdzl or kddi. Compare Des Hayes, 'Voyage de Levant, 
p. 60, " Pendant le sejour que nous fismes a Belgrade, le Sieur Des- 
hayes alia voir plusieurs fois le Mola Cady, appelle Habil efifendi, qui 
est le Juge de la ville." 

* Mills of this sort still exist in the neighbourhood of Belgrade. 
Compare Busbequius, Travels into Turkey, p. 17, "I... passed down 
the Stream to Belgrade. ...In my Passage down the River. ..there 
were many Water-Mills, with several Trunks and Boughs of Trees 
hanging over the Banks." 

Compare also Des Hayes, Voyage de Levant, p. 60, " Les moulins 
qui sont au milieu de I'eau (sur le Danube de Bude k Belgrade), et 
qui sont grandement dangereux." 

See also Blount's remarks on the mills at Belgrade, quoted in 
Appendix A, and Major Keppel's remarks on the Floating Mills 
on the Maritza in 1829 {Narrative of a Journey across the Balcafi, 
vol. i. p. 144). On the Adige, at Verona, in the present day, there are 
still floating mills, such as are here described by the author. 


within, in all things resemblinge a howse, saveinge the 
forepart, which was shipp shapen, built on a greate Barge, 
the building being neatly contrived, each tymber beinge 
squared and wrought, haveinge noe Iron worke, all fastned 
with wooden pinns, there being an other small boate to 
uphold the other end of the Axeltree whereon the water 
vvheele turneth, which are att least eight yards broad, I 
meane that part or outer circle which the water turneth, in 
regard of the soft motion of the Streame, and a small 
bridge to passe from the Mill to the lesser boate. Theie 
are made aloft in the Country and sent downe with the 
Currant. The river is abundant in fish, as Sturgeons, 
Carpes, Pikes, etts., which are soe cheape as is almost 

The first of June, 1620. Wee went to see the Cittie, 
beinge scituate on a poynte where the River Saba"^ runneth 
into Danubius, which is nothing neere halfe soe broad, but 
of a farr more swifter course. The Cittie conteynes about 
2000 howsholds, whereof sixty or seventy are Jewes, the 
rest Christians and Turkes: generally made of Boards, 
both walls and roofife (Churches, Besistenes-^, bathes and 
Canes* excepted), which are built of Stone. Howsoever, 

' Compare Busbequius, Travels into Turkey, p. 85, "At Belgrade, 
upon one of our Fish-days, we were presented with abundance of 
choice Fish, and amongst the rest, with large full-bodied Carps, taken 
in the Danube, whose Carps are very much commended... yet all that 
quantity of Fish, which was enough to satisfy forty Men, cost but half 
a Dollar." 

Compare also PouUet, Noiivelles Relations dn Levant, vol. i. 
p. 135 f., " Un patissier Turc me fournissoit de bon pain, et du 
meilleur poisson de cette riviere, qui n'a pas la chair ferme comme 
celuy des nostres ; quoy qu'ils n'ait que de tres-grosses carpes, de 
beaux brochets et de grands esturgeons, et m'en envoyoit de passable- 
ment bien appreste, plus que moy et mon valet n'en pouvions pas 
manger, pour vingt sols par jour, du prix de la monnoye de France." 

See also Appendix F for similar remarks by Des Hayes. 

^ i.e. the river Save. ^ See notes on pp. 29, y] and 53. 

* Compare the following quaint allusion to the Khatts of Turkey in 
" Mr Stampes observations in his Voyage to Constantinople and 
thence overland to Ragusa in 1609," Stowe MS. 180, fol. 30, "The first 
night wee came to a Towne called Biux Cegnige [Biyuk Chekmeje] 
where wee lay in a stable, the next. Celebrea [Silivri] in the stable, 


those wooden buildings make a faire shewe, beinge very 
handsomely contrived ^ 

The 27id. JtiJie, 1620. The Castle is next worth notice 
(if not cheife): it standeth within the Cittie on the very 
pointe which the Two Rivers make, shewinge without to 
bee a very great, faire and stronge thinge, beinge very 
much beautifyed with Turretts, bulwarks, battlements and 
watch Towers round about, wherein is as it were an other 
Cittie, haveinge Churches, Bathes, etts., all the dwellers 
Turkes'^. But on the hill standeth the principall fort, 
beinge seperated from the rest by a double wall, where 
wee were not suffered to enter, also many other fortifica- 
tions included within the outer wall. There is alsoe a 
Clocke, which is heard over all the Cittie, seeminge strange 
to us, beinge there are none used in other partes of Turkey 
that wee could heare^: but it is likely that remained over 
since they conquered this place from the Christians^ 

and soe from stable to stable even to Ragusa." See also notes on 
pp. 46 and 52. 

1 Compare Busbequius, Travels itito Turkey^ p. 18, "As for Bel- 
grade itself, it is seated at the confluence of the Save and the Danow ; 
the old City is built in the extreme Angel of the Promontory, the 
Building is old, it is fortified with many Towers, and a double Wall : 
Two parts of it are wash'd by the Save and the Danow, but on that 
part where it is joined to the Land, it hath a very strong Castle on 
high Ground, consisting of many loftly Turrets made of square Stone ; 
before you come into the City, there is a vast Number of Buildings, 
and very large Suburbs, wherein several Nations inhabit, viz. Turks, 
Greeks, Jews, Hungarians, Dalmatians and many others." 

2 The fortress is now only a ruin. See Appettdix A and Appendix F 
for the remarks of Blount and Des Hayes about the Castle at Belgrade. 

Compare Poullet, Noitvelles Relations du Levant^ vol. i. p. 127 f., 
" Ce Fort (a Belgrade)... est construit a I'usage des Grecs, et presque 
dans la mesme cymetrie que sont les anciennes murailles de nos villes, 
sinon que les tours n'y sont pas si grosses, ni si bien flanqu^es que 
parmi nous, et qu'elles ont par tout des creneaux au lieu d'embrazures." 

3 See Poullet's remarks on clocks in Turkey, note 4 on p. 60. 
Compare Th^venot, Travels itito the Levaftt, Part i. p. 51, "The 
Turks... though they be great lovers of Clocks and Watches, they'l not 
take them. ..if they have any Figures of Men, Women, or Beasts upon 
them ; but they matter it not, if they be of Trees or flowers." English 
" grandfather " clocks are nowadays to be found in every mosque in 

* Belgrade was taken by Sulaiman the Magnificent on the 20th 
August, 1 52 1. 


The Ferrie boats they use are of one peece. There are 
likewise very greate boates for carrieing too and froe 
Corne, wood, salt, etts. The salt is digged out of the 
Mountaines in greate peeces of neere three quarters of 
a yard square, blackish to Sight, but being beaten small, 
exceedeth all other in whitenesse, brought downe hither by 
boats, and from thence transported over the Countries 
Wee likewise sawe the Artillery howse, wherein were many 
brave peeces of brasse ordinance, which the Turks had 
lately taken from the Emperour^ with his Armes thereon. 
Amonge the rest there were of Anno 1596, 1598, 1600, 
which theie tooke in a Stronge Towne called Canitza upon 
the River Danubius, or rather Dravus^ 

The 6th. June, 1620. Horses were provided with great 
difficultie for our farther proceeded, there being none in 
Towne, only those newely arrived from other parts. This 
place is under the Basha of Buda^, himselfe residinge there, 
haveinge heere his Deputie, called Caymalcam*^, (being the 

^ Great quantities of rock-salt were extracted from the district of 
Saros, in Hungary, in the sixteenth and early part of the seventeenth 
centuries, but, towards the end of this period, the quarries were inun- 
dated by salt springs. 

2 Ferdinand II., 1619 — 1637. 

^ Kaniza, on the Theiss, a tributary of the Drave, was taken by the 
Turks on the 22 October, 1600. Here the author has a marginal 
note, "Taken by Mahomet 3rd. aboutt Anno 1600. KnoUes, Turky 
Hist: p. 1 130: vid." The account of the siege of Kaniza is, as 
Mundy says, given by KnoUes in his Historic of the Ttirkes, pp. 11 30 
— 1 1 32. 

Compare the Annals of Naitna, vol. i. pp. 188, 194 and 195, "The 
forty-two pieces of cannon and five falconets which had been taken in 
the trenches were most beautifully ornamented by art, each being of 
considerable value... .The whole of the cannon and arms were 
transported by order of the Pasha into the fortress of Kaniza... .Three 
full months were spent in collecting and bringing into Kaniza the 
cannon, arms, ammunition, tents, &c. which the enemy had left 
behind them." A full account of the siege is given in the same work, 
p. 168 ff. 

* See Des Hayes {Appendix F) for the cost of hiring horses in his 
journey across Turkey. 

^ See note 4 on p. 65. 

^ KaHmmakam, deputy governor. Compare Des Hayes, Voyage 


name of his office or deputieshipp). From hence Mr. 
Willson^ hcensed Tadux^, his Servant, to returne to 
Constantinople. This Murrat=^ related unto mee hee hadd 
a Brother there, a Shoemaker, for the Common sort of 
Armenians are generally Shoemakers, Bakers and Porters, 
of whom alsoe the English serve themselves for Cooks. 
This his said brother requested him at his departure 
that att his returne hee would bringe him a wife of the 
daughters of the poore Christian Bullgarians, It beinge 
a Custome much used amongst them : And the Bulgarians 
are the willinger thereto, haveinge ever found the Armenians 
to have performed honestly with them in that kinde. Soe, 
accord inge to his brothers request, hee had made choyce 
of one att his comeinge downe, and now att his returne 
would carry her alonge with him, haveinge allready gotten 
her owne (with her father and mothers) consent. Thus the 
poore Christians trade, although they never sawe nor heard 
of each other before. 

The manner of theis poore Bulgarians as farr as I 
could learne, is the Men generally Labourers, cloathed 
in white cloth, the weomen for the most part in Russett. 
The Virgins goe in theire haire, which hangeth downe 
behinde handsomely plaited, adding thereunto other haire 
to increase its length, alsoe upon theire heads and about 
their necke they have a great many shahees'* and other 

de Levant^ pp. 39 and 45, " Ce fut a Strigogne que nous apprismes 
I'ordre que le Caimacam avoit donne de faire desfrayer le Sieur 
Deshayes aux despens du grand Seigneur... le Sieur Des-hayes desira 
de visiter le Caimacam en I'absence du Bascha." 

Compare also Knolles, Histo?-ie of the Turkes, pp. 141 1 and 1457, 
"The Embassadour... desiring them that he would leave him a 
particular recommendation to the Chimacham or Deputy... .The 
Spahees... discontent with the government of the old Chimacham." 
See also Delia Valle, Voyages, vol. i. p. 77. 

1 See note 7 on p. 41. 

^ i.e. Thaddeus. 

3 See note 4 on p. 43. 

* Shdht, a small silver coin of Persia, worth about 4|d. 


peeces of silver and brasse, which, by makeinge little holes 
in them, they sowe and weave together ; Alsoe in theire 
Eares great earings of silver, whereof some weigh att least 
fower ounces the paire. They goe in their smocksleeves, 
which are very wide and wrought, although not very fine, 
and barefooted. The married weomen differ in this : they 
weare a linnen cloth plaited which hangeth downe behinde 
over the tresse of theire haire'. Att our passage through 
any village, theie would stand readie with hott Cakes, 
many of them, for they make noe bread but when they 
have occasion to use it, bakeing it in the Embers. Also 
milke sweete and sowre, fresh cheese, butter, Eggs, etts.^, 
being brought to us by the youngest and prettiest wenches, 
among them : and if wee lodge neere any of theis villages, 
after they had brought us of theire provisions, then would 
they gather together younge Weomen and Children, and 
holding hand in hand in a round, they would daunce 

^ Compare Busbequius, Travels into Turkey, p. 27 f., " The Habit 
of these Bulgarian Women. They commonly wear nothing but a 
Smock or Shift, made of no finer Linnen-thread, than what we make 
Sacks of. And yet, these coarse Garments are wrought by them, with 
several sorts of strip'd Needle-work, after a homely Fashion : With 
this lose party-coloured Habit they mightily pleased themselves, so 
that when they saw our Shifts, made of the finest Linnen, yet they 
wondered at our Modesty, that we could be contented to wear them 
without various' Works of divers Colours wrought in them. But that 
which I most of all admired in them, was the Tower, which they wore 
on their Heads. that Space interjacent between their upper and 
lower Part, they hang Pieces of Coin, little Pictures or Images, small 
Parcels of painted Glass, or whatever is resplendent, though never so 
mean, which are accounted very ornamental among them." 

^ Compare Busbequius, Travels into Turkey, p. 27, "We con- 
tinued our Journey, for many Days, through the pleasant, and not 
unfruitful Valley of Bulgaria ; all the Time we were in that Country, 
we had little other Bread but only Cakes bak'd under Ashes upon the 
Hearth which they call Togatch. The Women and Maids sell them, 
for they have no Bakers in those parts ; and when they perceive any 
Guests a-coming, that are likely to pay for what they have, presently 
they knead a little Dough, with Water, without any Leaven, and lay it 
upon Tiles, under the Ashes, and so bring it out piping hot, and sell 
them for a very small matter ; other Victuals is also very cheap there, 
a good Weather-sheep may be bought for thirty-five Aspers ; a 
Chicken and a Hen for an Asper, a sort of Coin with them of which 
fifty make but a Crown." 


and sing very merrily, although with noe greate melodie. 
Theire Language neither Turkish nor Greeke^, but like the 
Russian, for wee had a Russe- which served for our In- 
terpreteur hereabouts. 

The jth. J2ine, 1620. Wee departed from Belgrade, and 
dined by a Fountaine six myles in our waie, and four 
miles farther wee pitched and lay in the feilds. Too day 
Exceedinge hott. 

The '^th. June, 1620. Att the end of eight miles wee 
dyned, and rested some three howres to passe away the 
heate of the day, after which wee passed two myles 
further, and remained in the feilds that Night. 

The (^th. June, 1620. From our aforesaid feild lodginge 
wee came by Noone to a great Towne called Valliano 
(10 miles)^ where by a Rivers side*, which had two bridges, 
my Lord pitched his tent. Att our entrance into the 
Towne were twoe men on stakes throwne downe, halfe 
eaten with Doggs and Crowes. The Caddee sent us twenty 
men to watch with us all night, the place being somewhat 
dangerous for Theeves^ Heere wee had Cherries at a 
farthinge a pound. 

The \Qth. June, 1620. Att twenty miles end wee tooke 
upp our lodginge in the Feilds. This dayes travell proved 
some what easie, in regard the day was not very hott of it 
selfe, and the next, our waie beinge through shadie woods 

^ Compare Busbequius, Travels info Turkey, p. 29, " They [the 
Bulgarians] use the Illyrian, or Slavonian Tongue, as the Servians 
and Rascians [District E. of Herzegovina, now Novibazar] also do." 

2 i.e. Teodoro. See p. 43. 

3 The modern Valjevo or Valievo. See Blount's remarks on this 
place quoted in Appe7idix A. Mundy from this point to Spalato 
becomes very difficult, and at times impossible, to follow, and seems 
to have frequently misjudged the distances in the mountains. 

* The Kolubara, a tributary of the Save. From Belgrade the road 
follows the banks of the Save for some ten miles and then turns south- 
wards into the valley of the Kolubara and its several affluents. 

^ See Appendix A for the precautions taken by Blount's caravan 
when passing through this district. 


all that dale, ascendinge and descendinge pleasant moun- 
tains \ which exceeded all others that ever I sawe for height 
and beautie, not steepie, but gentlie riseinge by degrees, 
the Topps being as good ground as the bottome and as 
firtill, these mightie Hills beinge full of prettie swellings, 
aboundinge with springs from the foote to the head, and 
Rivers in all the valleyes which run into the lowermost 
vallies of alP. Yett lyes this pleasant peece of Countrey in 
a manner waste, and growen with weeds and woods of 
exceeding high trees, as Oake, Maple, etts.^, saveinge some 
fewe places heere and there, which poore Christians make 
use of for a little Tillage and keepeinge a few Cattle. To- 
wards .the end, wee descended a hill much more steepie 
then the rest, over against which was a huge mountainous 
Rock of an incredible height and steepienesse*, betwene 
both which runne a River® with a Stone bridge, by which 
wee found such quantitie of good ripe Strawburryes as none 
of our Companie ever sawe the like, soe that a man might 
gather them by handfuUs in a manner, Alsoe manie wilde 

1 " Faire shadie woods, most pleasant, firtill, aspiring Moun- 
taines." Author's marginal note. Pindar's train was now entering 
the mountain system of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the various chains 
of which connect the Dinaric Alps with the Albanian. They consist 
of short ridges and plateaus, generally running from N.W. to S.E., 
rising from 3000 to 5000 feet in height. Their slopes are covered 
with forests of pine, oak and beech. In a map of 1830 (B.M. 43625. i) 
they are called the Zarugie Mountains. In a map of 1892 (B.M. 
44250. 13) the elevated land (alp) west of Valjevo is called the Radjevo 
Planina and the Maljevo Planina. 

2 The route followed on this day, after leaving Valjevo, seems to 
have been up the Jablanitza, over the Medvednjik Planina, and down 
the Ljubowija. 

^ See Blount's remarks on this district in Appendix A. 

* In a map of 1712 (B.M., K. 113. 15) the Crance Mountains are 
marked between the Kolubara and the Drina Rivers, and, in a map of 
1876 (B.M., S. 238. 13), two peaks, named Jablanck and Medvednjik 
(3090 feet high), are marked in the same district, with a tributary of 
the Drina between them. 

Here the author has a marginal note, "A steepie, ragged, Rockye 

^ ?The Ljubowija. 


Apple and Cherrie Trees. I doe remember that in a 
parcell of the Countrey wee past, the ground was neere 
covered with a kind of wilde redd rose of a perfect good 
smell and coulour, but single, growinge close to the ground 
on little Spriggs, Whether it was this day or noe I am not 

The iitk. June, 1620. Wee came to the River of 
Dreena (8 miles) ^, which runneth into Saba-, formerly 
mentioned, beinge a stones cast over, very swifte and cleire, 
noe bridge, soe wee were ferried over by boate. Goeinge 
six miles further, wee came to a small brooke betwene 
two Hills, where wee dined and past the heat of the day. 
Neere to this place wee past by certaine howses and Mills 
(11 miles), which serve for the worke of a silver Myne in 
the Neighbouringe Mountaines^. Att the foote of one of 
them is a Cane, but wee pitched by it. 

The \2tJ1. June, 1620. In ascendinge the Mountaine 
(Ravena)^ wee found it much higher then wee expected, 
beinge by computation about eight miles ascendinge and 
descendinge from the foote of the Hill on the other side^ 
Wee went twelve miles farther through a plaine where were 

^ The Drina. In the Itinerary of le Sieur Quiclet, 1657 — 1658 
(B.M. 4040. i), there is the remark, " Drin, riviere, porte iDatteaux." 

2 The Save. 

3 These statements are difficult. They seem to refer to the Drina 
and Jadar Rivers, and to Srebreniza (jT^^r<? = silver), the site of the 
ancient silver, copper and lead mines. 

4 The "Romania Acheri " of the Itinerary (see above, note i), the 
M. Romana of a map of 1687 (B.M., K. 113, 34) and the Romanja 
(Romania) Planina of Blau's map, Ronten in Bosnia unci Herzego- 
vina, 1876. 

^ Compare Poullet's remarks on the road from Bosna Serai to 
Belgrade, Noiivelles Relations dii Levant, vol. i. pp. 123 and 125 f., 
" A une petite journee de Bosna, je me trouvay engage au milieu des 
montagnes, qui sont fort hautes en ces quartiers, et estoient encore 
couvertes de neiges.... Pendant huit ou dix jours que nous restames 
pour arriver a Bellegrade....Je n'y vis que de mechans villages, aupres 
desquels nous couchames, ou dans des Hans, ou a la campagne.,..On 
voit a deux journees de Bosna une petite riviere presque guayable par 
tout, appellee Yadra." 


six or seven villages and many scatteringe dwellings, all 
made of wood, where was neither bread nor wyne, nor any 
thinge els to bee had but att very dear rates. 

The iT)th. June, 1620. From the afore mentioned place^, 
for eight miles the way reasonable plaine, but from thence 
to the Cittie of Bosna Sarae, seven miles farther^, very 
mountainous and rockyl This Cittie lyeth among the 
Hills'*, upon one of which neere the same stands a Castled 
The howses heere in generall have theire walls of Clay, the 
rooffs of Timber, the people very bigg and tall, Att this 
tyme very discourteous to Francks by reason of a Con- 
troversie the Marchants of this Cittie have with the 
Venetians, too longe to bee here inserted"; whereupon my 
Lord forbadd anie to stirr out of doores, haveing taken 
a howse till wee gott other horses, the former being dis- 
charged, for whome wee paid aspers'' 200 each from 

1 Apparently from the end of the plain in which were the villages 
and " scatteringe dwellings." 

2 Bosna Serai, the modern Sarajevo. This place, the ancient 
Tiberiopolis, derives its name from the Seraglio or palace built by 
Muhammad II. In a map of 1720 (B.M. 44250. 4) it is called Saraio, 
Sarayevo, Bosna Saraie, Bosna Argentina or Bistue Nova. See 
Blount's remarks on the place in Appendix A, and Mundy's comments 

Sarajevo is 122 miles south-west of Belgrade. Pindar and his 
train accomplished the distance in seven days, an average of \^\ miles 
per day, as against the 21 miles per day from Constantinople to 
Belgrade. See note i on p. 72. 

^ The hills round Sarajevo rise to a height of 5250 feet. 

* Sarajevo is 1770 feet above the sea. 

^ The castle, now a ruin, was built by the Hungarian general, 
Cotroman, in 1263. See Blount's remarks in Appendix K. 

^ The dispute between the Bosnians and the Venetians was owing 
to the piracies of the Uscocs, a people of Dalmatia. The Pasha of 
Bosnia accused the Venetians of complicity in the outrages of 161 3. 
For some years, relations between the Porte and Venice continued 
to be strained and war was only averted with difficulty. For a full 
account of the Uscocs and the protection given to them by Austria, 
see Wilkinson, Dalmatia atid Montenegro, vol. ii. pp. 352, 384 ff. 
and 429. 

"^ See note 2 on p. 27. Compare Th^venot, Travels into the 
Levant, Part i. p. 67, "The Aspers are little pieces of Silver that 
have no other stamp but the Grand Signior's Name, and are worth 


Belgrade hither. Heere are about 50 Turkish Churches \ 
and as many water mills driven by one Brooke^, lyeinge 
one lower then another, each haveinge but one little wheele, 
which the water turneth, the Axeltree of which is fixed in 
the Millstone it selfe^ 

The \6th. Jitne, 1620. Haveinge heere hired horses for 
Spalatra* att 170 aspees per horse, wee departed and came 
to Pasaricke (10 miles)^, our way betwene Mountaines, 
and from thence to Evan'', the way also mountainous and 

about eight Denieis, or three Farthings a piece, but there are many of 
them Counterfeit, and one must have a care of that ; so that to receive 
half a crown in them, it requires half a quarter of an hour to examine 
the Pieces one after another ; but great payments require whole days." 

^ Blount gives the number as about eighty. See Appendix A. 
Compare Poullet, Nouvelles Relations du Levant, vol. i. pp. 83 and 
103, " Cette ville de Bosna est la Capitale d'un des plus considerables 
Pachalies, et fort raisonablement grande, beaucoup plus longue que 
large, et enfonc^e entre deux montagnes vers le Septentrion. Elle a 
quantite de Mosquees, couvertes de plomb, et eslevees en dome.... 
Cette ville n'a presque plus que quelques pieces de murailles ruinees, 
et est tres desagreable a voir par dedans...." 

2 The Miljacka or Miljatzka, a tributary of the Bosna. 

2 Compare Poullet, Nouvelles Relations du Levant, vol. i. p. 104, 
L'extremite de Bosna vers Belgrade, est eslev^e sur une colline, d'oii 
il descend un petit ruisseau ; lequel est tellement conduit, qu'il fait du 
moins tourner cinquante moulins d'un mesme cours. lis sont indus- 
trieusement placez par etage, les uns au dessous des autres, que la 
mesme eau fait tout moudre. La roue sur laquelle elle tombe, n'est 
pas posee sur le cost^ de I'edifice, comme elle est parmy nous, mais 
tout au bas, et mise de plat, sur un pivot contre terre, ayant son 
^tendue, parallele a I'horison, et faisant la mesme figure que fait une 
pirouette tournee sur une table." This form of mill is still in use. 
For the water-mills at Belgrade, see ante, p. 72 f 

* Spalato. " Spalatra, a place in the Venetian gulff." Author's 

^ Pazaric or Pasaritj is fifteen and a half miles from Sarajevo on 
the Sarajevo-Mostar railway. In the Itinerary of le Sieiir Qniclet in 
1658 (B.M. 44040. i) the place is given as Bazarick, in a map of 1720 
(B.M. 44250. 4) as Pasarick or Bazaritch, and in a map of 1806 
(B.M., K. 113. 34) as Bocaritz. 

^ i.e. Ivan. The Ivan Planina is a ridge separating the valleys of 
the Lepenica and Narenta rivers. The village of Ivan, or Jora Ivan, 
twenty-four miles from Sarajevo, is on the top of the ridge. In the 
Iti7ierary, mentioned above, Mont Yvan is given, and, in a map of 
1720 (B.M. 44250. 4) we have Mont St Jean or Mont Yvan. 


The lyih.Juue, 1620. Wee came to Coneetza (8 miles)^ 
a good Towne, before which runneth a prettie River named 
Neretria^ cleire, greenish and verye swift, makeinge a great 
Noyse as it passeth among the Hills. Wee kept our way 
alongst by it to Leeseecheechee (2 miles)'^, where wee 
dined, then continued our course yett by the said River 
a good space till it tooke another waie, where the River 
Ramatha* ran into it, and goeinge one hower by the said 
Ramatha, wee crost it by a bridge, then lefte it and began 
to ascend an exceedinge highe Mountaine and steepy*^, soe 
that in divers places were rayles of wood, that Horses with 
Carriage might not fall and perrish. When wee came to the 
descent, thinckinge to discover some plaine Countrie, wee 
sawe an other mountaine right before us, adjoyninge to 
this, altogether soe high, but much more steepy, beinge one 
entyre Masse of a Rocke, most strange and fearefull to 
behold'^. Betwene theis twoe is a little valley, wherein is 
a little village (15 miles), and two little Rivers, which 
comeinge contrary wayes, meete, and both together sincke 

1 Konjica, or Konitza, on the Neretva or Narenta, thirty-five 
miles from Sarajevo. Poullet, in his map (1658), has Conitha. A 
map of 1720 (B.M. 44250. 4) has Cogniz or Comitha, and a map of 
1830 (B.M. 43625. i) has Sconicza. 

^ The B.M. copy of Mundy's Travels, Harl. MS. 2286, has 
'• Neretna." 

^ The author's distance is wrong. Lisicici is seven and a half 
miles from Konjica. 

* i.e. to Rama at the junction of the Rama and the Narenta. It 
is, like the preceding places, on the Sarajevo-Mostar railway. Pindar's 
train next proceeded south-westwards to Spalato over the Prologh 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, "Dowlany Hills, vid : Fo : i." 
The remark refers to the extracts from Blount in Appendix A. 

In a map of 1720 (B.M. 27730. i) Dogliani Mountain is marked on 
the north of Sarajevo, but the author, by his " Dowlany Hills," seems 
to mean the heights surrounding the valley of the Doljanca or Dol- 
jani, a tributary of the Rama, and to give this name to all the hills 
drained by the Rama itself. 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, "A wonderfull high Steeple 
Rockye mountaine, the strangest wee yet saw. Dowlanee Fo : i." 
The party most probably passed the night somewhere near Prosor. 



right downe among the gravell. I could not learne where- 
abouts they rise againe. 

The I'ith. June, 1620. Departinge from Dowlanee, wee 
began our Journey through more of the said huge Rock, 
some in a manner threatninge to overwhelme us. Wee 
came to a plaine called Borvagaglava\ where wee dyned. 
Before wee came to this plaine, wee ascended another high 
mountaine, which had little descent to bee perceived, the 
plaine begininge from the topp of the said Mountaine, 
where wee found it very cold, it standinge very high^. On 
either side were other Hills whose topps were covered with 
Snowe, with Forrests of Pine trees and a little farther were 
whole woods of them cutt downe to the ground^, To prevent 
Theeves that usually lurked amonge them^ Heere were 
feedinge great store of horses, kyne, sheepe and swine. 
From thence into a wood, and then into another plaine^ 
environed with stonie barren hills, though in the plaine 
were store of villages and other dwellings. Att the end of 
this plaine (10 miles) wee remained all night by a fountain 
called Bresneeg''. 

The igth. June, 1620. Wee dyned by a great Lake'', 

^ Borovaglava, a plateau of the Prologh Mountains. Pindar and 
his party appear to have followed the ancient Gabinian way over the 
Prologh Mountains, a part of the Dalmatian Alps, and thence, across 
the river Cettina to Spalato. In a map of 1780 (B.M. 44290. 6) 
Borovaglava appears as Buscova Draga. In a map of 1878 (B.M. 
43625. 9) Boroylawa Han is marked. The party probably started 
from Prosor. 

2 Here the author has a marginal note, "An admirable Plaine." 
The other "high mountain" may be the " Mt. Militsch " of a map 
of 1806 (B.M., K. 113. 34). 

3 The British Museum copy, Had. MS. 2286, has "hewen to the 

* Here, in the Rawlinsoti MS., is inserted a double-page map of 
Italy by Hondius, dated 163 1, with Mundy's route from Spalato to 
Turin and also his Mediterranean voyage (described in Relation I.) 
marked in red dotted lines. 

^ ?The Duvno Polje. 

*• Probably a spring in the neighbourhood of Livno. 

'' Mundy's "great lake" is shown, but not named, in a map of 
1811 (B.M., K. 113. 23). It is most probably the Semaroromo Blato 


the way soe stoney and rockey that wee past with a great 
deale of trouble. Att night wee rested in a Cane neere a 
River side, of a marvelous slowe motion\ Noe water from 
the lake to this place, heere being also a fountaine by the 

The 20th. JiLiie, 1620. Crossinge over the said River ^ by 
boate, wee stayed and dined under a Turkish Garrison 
Castle (Keeleesh, 7 miles), built on a high cragked Rock'*; 
from thence a miles further to an other Castle of Turks, 
Loucharick'', lately taken from the Venetians, haveinge yett 
their Armes over the gates, And one Mile beyond that is a 
Stone sett betwene the Venetian and Turkish Dominions. 
Wee were noe sooner past it, but wee entred into Christen- 
dome, then seeminge to bee in a new World, such was the 

or Zrni Lug in the Livanjsko Polje, E. of the Prologh Planina, seen in 
flood. But it might be the Rusko Blato (Lake), S. of Livno. The 
distance to the Cettina by either route would be about the same. 

* The Cettina. Here the author has a marginal note, " Cheteena, 
a river." 

^ The Khan would probably be either at Petricevic or at Trilj, 
according to the route taken over the Prologh Planina. 
^ i.e. the Cettina. 

* Here the author has a marginal note " Keeleesh, a garrison 
Vid: Fol : i." This refers to the extracts from Blount in Appendix K. 
" Keeleesh" is Mundy's spelling ; Blount calls the place Clyssi. The 
author has underestimated its distance from the Cettina. Clissa(KlTsh), 
a fortress famed from early times, for its strong position, lies two and 
a quarter miles E.N.E. from Salona. For its history, see Wilkinson, 
Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. p. 173 and vol. ii. pp. 293, 351 ; 
and Yriarte, Les Bords de PAdriatique et le Montenegro., p. 283 f. ; 
Compare De Bauveau, Relation Jonrnaliere dii Voyage du Levant., 
p. 4, " Passant plus outre [in 1604] nous laissasmes..,Clysse, forteresse 
appartenant aux Turcz." Clissa is one of the five Hungarian royal 
castles depicted by Spanyi in the dining-room of the House of Mag- 
nates at Budapest. 

^ This appears to be a copyist's error for Soucharick i.e. Su^uraz. 
Castel SuQuraz or Sugurac is one of the sixteen Venetian Castles 
constructed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries as places of refuge. 
If, by Loucharick, Suguraz is intended, the author can only mean that 
he passed it at a distance, for Suquraz is not on the direct road from 
Clissa to Spalato, but lies on the sea shore north of Salona. There 
is no modern name between Clissa and Spalato which would cor- 
respond with Mundy's Loucharick. For Suguraz, see Wilkinson, 
Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. p. 173. 


alteration wee found \ not only in the Inhabitants, but also 
in the Soyle ; for, for three dayes before, wee sawe nothinge 
but rockey, barren, stoney ground, scarce any Corne, tree, 
or greene thing to bee perceived, excepting in the vallies. 
But heere it was otherwise. For a man hath scarcely 
seene, or could immagine a more fertill peece of ground or 
delightsome prospect, for of the very stones, of which there 
are aboundance, being a great hindrance to any soyle, they 
turned them by their Industrie to as great a furtherance 
and benefitt by makeinge of them pertitions, like walls, 
instead of hedges. And the feilds are soe well manured^ 
that it is impossible almost it could bee putt to better use 
that waie ; for in the Middst of their Cornefeilds (they 
being then reapinge), were rancks in the Furrowes of Olive 
trees, Pomgranett Trees, Pines and figg trees, And this 
even to the gates of Spalatra^, beinge about three miles 
from the marke aforementioned. It lyeth on the Sea side, 
here abouts beinge many ruines of Castles and buildings, 
and many watch Towers on the hills alongst the sea 
Coasts Att our arrivall heere, wee were conducted to 
a Lazaretto, It being a Custome that all Travellors, 
whether they come from this or other parts, are to abide 
some certaine dayes, vizt. forty, thirty, twenty, fifteen, 
some more, some lesse, within the said Lazaretto before 
they are permitted to proceede to Venice, or to commerce 
with any of their Subjects, there beinge the like in all their 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, " Christendome, an 
admirable chaunge." 

^ " Excellent husbandry." Author's marginal note. 

^ Spalato or Spljet (Aspalathos = ? Palatium) was built within the 
precincts of Diocletian's palace in a.d. 303. Here the author refers 
to his extracts from Blount, " Spalatra, vid: Fol : I." For these, see 
Appe7idix A. For an account of Spalato, see Yriarte, Les Bords de 
rAdriatiqne et le Mon/etiegro, pp. 240 fif. 

* See note 5 on p. 85. These "Castles and watch Towers" were 
erected by nobles, on land given to them by the Venetians, as places 
of refuge for the peasants during the wars with the Turks. See 
Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montettegro, vol. i. p. 173. 


Dominions, and in most parts of Italy, especially Sea ports, 
which they doe to prevent Infection^ My Lord had one 
of the said Lazarettoes to himselfe wholey, there beinge 
roomes sufficient for himselfe and company, when presently 
was sent us in beddinge, lynnen. Tables, Chaires and 
necessaries, but not soe to every one. Also fresh Victualls, 
soe that wee wanted nothing but libertie, for noe man may 
stirr out of doores till his tyme bee out, which they never 
come to knowe till it bee accomplished, Wee haveing a 
Guardian or Keeper to the outward Doore, as well to see 
wee wanted nothinge, as also that noe man must come in 
nor goe out, neither to approach within three or four yards 
of any man. Att night our Guardian is shutt in with us, 
and the key carried away. This Afternoone the Counte or 
Earle of this place came to visit my Lord, th' one sittinge 
without the gate, and thother within, a good way a sunder, 
where, after some welcomes and Complements enter- 
chaunged, they departed. 

The 22th. \sic\ June, 1620. The Counte came again to 
visit my Lord, of whome hee obteyned leave for John Clarke"'^ 
to goe forth, being to send him to Venice, there to provide 
a howse and accommodation against his arrivall ; soe hee 
departed that day. But first hee was washed in the Sea, 
afterwards with Vineger, then, haveinge another suite of 
Clothes brought him, was licensed, and that eveninge tooke 
his passage in a Boate for Venice. 

TJie 2gth. Jtme, 1620. To day wee had Prattick^, which 
is leive to goe forth, wee haveinge bene but the Tenth day 
in all, which tyme is very short in regard of the ordinary 
continuancyes, but herein his Lordshipp was greatly 

1 Here the author has a marginal note, "A Lazaretto, what it is 
and wherefore ordained." Venice took the lead in measures to prevent 
the spread of the plague, and as early as 1348, appointed three officers 
of health. The first V'enetian Lazaretto was founded in 1403. 

2 One of Pindar's servants. See p. 43. 

^ See note 2 on p. 17. See also Sandys, Travels, p. 5. 


favoured. The Counte came and Invited him home to his 
howse, where hee dyned with the Gentlemen. The Towne 
is strongly built, furnished with many soldiers and many 
brave, stout edifices, although auntient. 

Mr Lane^ hired a barke of Tenn Tonnes for my Lord 
and his Company, the Frenchmen haveing hired another 
for themselves ; and that night, haveing gotten a Certificate 
of Contamacia-, or our abideinge, wee sett saile with a faire 
winde, and before day wee past by Zara, a Venetian Garrison 
Towne^ where are said to bee 400 English Souldiers*. 

The '^oth.June, 1620. With a soft Gaile of Wynde wee kept 
along the Shoare of Dalmatia, alwaies among small Islands, 
verie stoney and barren, as the Mayne seemed to bee. 

The first July, 1620. By noone wee came to Osoro 
(170 miles)^ a towne seated in a narrowe straight betwene 
two Islands'^, where boats must passe or saile a great way 
about, here being a Drawbridge att the passage it selfe'^, 

1 See note 2 on p. 42. 

2 J^ar la contwnacia is a nautical expression meaning. To perform 
quarantine. Compare Fanfani, Vocabulario della Lijigua Italiana 
(1855) s.v. Contuinacia: '"'' Far la contuniacia o Star ift contwnacia 
dicesi delle persone e delle niercantie die per alcun detenninato te7npo 
si tengono in liiogo separate per sospetto di peste." That is to say, 
the above expressions are used of persons or goods kept apart for some 
fixed time on suspicion of the plague. 

^ See Blount's description of Zara in Appendix A. Compare 
Lithgow, Painefidl Peregrinations, p. 48, " Zara is the capitall city of 
Dalmatia, called of old Jadara. There lye continually in it a Great 
Garrison of Souldiers to defend the towne and Cittizens who are 
maintained by the Duke of Venice ; for he is Signior thereof." 

See also De Bauveau, Relation Jonrtialiere du Voyage dii Levant, 
p. 4 ; Du Loir, Voyages, p. 357 ; PouUet, Nouvelles Relations du 
Levant, vol. i. p. 21. 

* The detachment of English soldiers, which had been sent out in 
1618 for the assistance of the Venetian Republic, was under the 
command of Sir Henry Peyton. See p. 92. 

'" Ossero, on the south-west of the island of Cherso. Compare 
Lithgow, Painefull Peregriftations, p. 47, " Valdogosto in the Isle of 
Osero, which is a safe haven for ships and Gallies." The Island of 
Lussin was often called Ossero from the prominent Monte Ossero on 
the North of it. 

^ The narrow Canal d'Ossero which separates Cherso from Lussin. 

■^ Cherso and Lussin are united by a bridge called La Cavanella. 


Sot n Vol 17. 



Conipfled for the HaMLorl Society 

Johii Barthcaoaipw L Cci.3307 


where wee noated that Current ran a quarter of an hower 
one waie and a quarter the other. 

The 2nd. Jidy, 1620. Crossinge a Gulfe\ wee came to 
the Cape of Istria (50 miles)-, and eighteen miles farther, 
wee passed betwene a little Island^ and the Mayne, there 
being a prettie harbour with a little Towne^; But by reason 
of a Gallygrosse or Galleasse® there rideinge, it was thought 
provision would bee scarse. Theis Gallyasses in shape 
doe resemble a small Gaily, but much bigger, And whereas 
an ordinary Gaily hath only Ordinance on her fore Castle, 
which exceede not six or eight att most, theis have them 
before and aloft and also betwene every Oare, soe that they 
carry fifty or sixty peeces of Ordinance*^. Haveing spoken 
with her, wee sett forward and came to a very prettie 
Towne, called Rovigno (12 miles), where, att our arrivall, 
the Captaine of the place invited his Lordshipp and Gentle- 
men home to his howse. 

The '^^rd. July, 1620. Towards night, the wynde come- 
ing faire, wee sett saile from Rovigno, and the next day 
by noone, cuttinge over a gulfe^, wee came to the Cittie 
of Venice, and entred by St. Jno. Delio^, where the boate 

^ The Gulf of Quarnero. 

^ Now generally known as the Punta di Promontore. 

3 Brioni. 

* Through the Canale di Fasana. " The prettie harbour with a 
little Towne" was Pola. 

° i.e., a great galley. A galleass was a heavy low-built vessel, 
larger than a galley, having both sails and oars, and was chiefly 
employed in war. See Murray, Oxford English Dictiotiary, s.v. 
Galiegross and Galliass. Compare Bargrave's Voyages and Jojtrneys 
{Rawl. MS. C. 799), fol. 20, "Tlie [Turkish] Fleet [in 1649]. ..consisted 
then of about 60 Gallies and Gally-grosses and 30 Shipps." 

^ Compare Chiswell, Travels, 1696 {Add. MS. 10623), f^l. 20 f., 
"April 26th Venice... The wee saw a Galiasse near 
finished, they are very great and unwieldy Vessels, carrying 700 
Souldiers and Seamen, besides 300 rowers, and are mounted with 
32 brass demi Cannon." 

^ The Gulf of Venice. 

** St. Jno. Delio appears to be a mistake for S. Andrea del Lido, 
since Port Lido, one of the three main entrances into the lagoons, 


of the Sanita mett with us, and our Certificate of Con- 
tamacia being firmed by g\i signiorii de la Sanita^, 
wee had leave to goe whether wee would. Soe passing 
betwene the two Castles, then which there is noe other 
way for boats and Gallyes^, wee came by St. Markes 

is bounded by Fort S. Andrea on the right and Fort S. Nicolo on 
the left. See Admirahy Chart 1886 (B.M., Sec. V. 1483). 

In a map of 1648 (B.M., K. 75, 78 a) Port Lido is marked as Porto 
di Venetia, and in a map of 1820 (B.M. 22665. 2) it appears as Porto 
di Niccolo del Lido. Bargrave, Voyages a7id Journeys {Rawl. MS. 
C. 799), fol. 161, speaks of the "barr of Lio," and Chiswell, Travels^ 
{Add. MS. 10623), fol. 21, calls the Castle of Lido, i.e. Sant' Andrea, the 
" Key of Venice." 

^ See note 2 on p. 88. The following interesting allusion to 
Contiimacia occurs in Bargrave's Voyages and Jon7-7ieys {Rawl. MS. 
C 799), fol. 171, " We...anchord...near ten miles distant from the 
City of Venice. The next day I went to the Sanita (or Health-house) 
where I was soon dismissed with my sentence from the Lords della 
Sanita, who in regard we came from Turky (which is allways taken 
for an infectious Shoar) we must attend our full Quarantine for 
Prattick ; Yet I had not doubted of more speedy admission, had not a 
Venetian Mariner amongst us. ..sent into the City a bed of WooU... 
and Divers infallibly had suffred but that with bribes to some powerful! 
Officers they were perswaded to countenance a framd Excuse and only 
punishd us with suffi-ing the extremitie of 43 dayes Contumacia." See 
also Coryat's remarks on " Bills of Health," Coryafs Crudities., vol. i. 
p. 214. 

2 In a plan of Venice of 1620 (B.M., S. 6g. 12) Porta delli dua 
castelli is marked, the "dua castelli" being il castel novo (Sant' 
Andrea) on the right or N.E. entrance into the Porto di Lido and 
Fortezza nova on the left or S.W. These seem to be the two castles 
mentioned by the author. S. Pietro da Castello appears in a plan of 
1630 (B.M. 22670. 3). In a plan of 1705 (B.M. 22670. 18) the Canal 
du Chateau is marked between the Church of St Marie des Vierges 
on the right and the Church and Castle of St Pierre on the left. 
Again, in a map circ. 1700 (B.M., K. 75, 80), Li due Castelli o Lido are 
marked ; in 1780 (B.M. 22665. 3) ^^'^ have Castel S. Andrea and 
S. Pietro di Castello ; in 1850 (B.M. 22665. 4) ^^'^ have the Porto del 
Lido marked with Castel S. Andrea on the right and F. del Lido on 
the left; lastly, in the Admiralty Chart of 185 1 (B.M., Sec. V. 1483) 
we find the Forteresse et Porto de Lido with S. Andrea on the right. 
Hence, it seems clear that Mundy entered Venice by the Port of Lido 
and passed between the Fort of S. Andrea and the Fort known at 
different periods as S. Pietro, Lido and S. Nicolo. 

Compare Bargrave's Voyages and Journeys {Raiul. MS. C. 799), 
fol. 160, " The most incomparable Situation of Venice preserved 
from the Violence of the Seae by a barr of land, which lies before it, 
placed by Providence as a Guard to defend it, having only three narrow 
passes through it to let in such Yessells as themselves please, whiles 
others have no possibilitie of Entrance and so dangerous is the Shoare 


places then to Canalgrande, soe to Rioalto bridge^ where 
wee strooke our mast to passe under: Lastly to Canalregio^ 
where wee stayed and landed all our stufife att a verie faire 
howse, which John Clarke* had provided, and most richly 
furnished with hangings, bedds, tables, all rich, and curious 
chaires, linnen, aboundance of plate and necessaries, the 
howse beinge as curious within as it was faire without, 
the Chimnye peeces of fine marble, beinge statues of 
Godds and Goddesses, all of most excellent Carved worke, 
which did wonderfully adorne the roomes. Also a curious 
garden full of fine devices and marble Images. This howse 
belonginge to one of the Privillees^ beinge of the No- 
billitie, himselfe att present in Goverment att Candy*'. 
There was paid to the overseer for use of the house for 

without the Barr that Every Stornie drives a ship to certain Ruine, so 
that no Enemies can anchor there to hinder the City from Supphes ; 
Neither can the smallest boats come to it from the Terra firma, but by 
narrow Channells, in which from severall little mounts used on purpose, 
a few men may stop the Passage to a Multitude of Enemies." 

^ For a contemporary description of Venice, see Coryafs Crudities, 
vol. i. pp. 300 ff. and Bargrave's Voyages and Journeys {Rawl. MS. 
C 799), fols. 159 — 162. 

2 The Ponte di Rialto (Rivo alto) was built in 1588. Compare 
Rawl. MS. D. 120 {Travels by an anonymous author in 1649), 
"Venice. ..On the most part ot this city runnes water so that you may 
goe all by water in boates called gundilowes of which there are as is 
reported 80000. The great bridge is called ponto realtoo which for 
one arch is the largest and biggest that I have seene." 

Compare also Rawl. MS. C. 799, fol. 162, "The Rialto Bridge 
famous above all for the Stately Single Arch it is built on." 

^ i.e. the Cannaregio, or Canale di Mestre, N.E. of the Canal 
Grande. Many important buildings were erected on both banks. 
Mundy's description of the route taken is strictly accurate. 

* John Clarke was released from quarantine at Spalato on the 
22nd of June. See p. 87. 

•5 The author appears to mean that the owner of the house rented 
by Pindar was a member of the privileged classes at Venice. The 
word " Privillees " is probably coined from privilegio. 

" Candia was at this time a Venetian possession. In 1667 it was 
besieged by the Turks, and, after an obstinate resistance, was 
compelled to surrender to the Osmans in 1669. The Governor 
General of Candia in 161 2 was Girolamo Capello, but it is doubtful 
if he were still holding the same office in 1620. 


two monethes, if hee remained soe longe, lOO Venetian 
Ducketts^ att 4s. English each, and to Jevves^ for hyre 
of the furniture, plate, etts., 200 Ducketts more. 

The \th. July, 1620. Came Sir Henry Payton 
(Collonell of the English Companies which now serve 
the Venetians)* to visitt his Lordshipp with divers other 
English Captaines in his Company, vizt. Captaine Lucy*, 
Captaine Theobalds'', Captaine Manneringe®, Captaine 

^ "The Old Ducat of Venice, with the words Ducatus Venetus 
upon it, a Piece of 6 old Livres, afterwards raised I think to 6 Livres 
4 Sols de Piccoli, 4o-5od." Sir Isaac Newton's Tables, in Kelly's 
Universal Cambist, vol. ii. p. 155. This makes the value of a Ducat 
to be 3s. 4|d. in the eighteenth century as against Mundy's estimate 
of 4s. in the seventeenth century. 

Compare Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 423, " Now whereas the 
Venetian duckat is much spoken of you must consider that this word 
duckat doth not signifie any one certaine coyne. But many severall 
pieces doe concurre to make one duckat, namely sixe livers and two 
gazets, which doe countervaille foure shillings and eight pence of our 
money. So that a duckat is sometimes more sometimes lesse." 

^ For the position of the Jews in Venice in the seventeenth century, 
see Yriarte, Venice, p. 41 f 

^ Sir Henry Peyton was appointed to the command of the soldiers 
sent out to assist the Venetian Republic in 1618. From the Calendar 
of State Papers, Domestic Series, 30 March 1718, we learn that "The 
Venetian Ambassador prepares eight ships ; he will have a Venetian 
Admiral, but the real command will rest between Sir Henry Peyton 
and Sir Henry Mainwaring." Among the State Papers, Foreign, 
Venice, vol. 22, there are several letters from Sir Henry Peyton. 
In June 1619 (fol. 130) he writes of the soldiers taken from Zara and 
in December of the same year (fol. 172) he writes from Spalato of 
"disorders" between "two of their ships." In February and June 
of 1620 Peyton is mentioned as being at Venice {ib. vol. 23). He died 
circ. 1622. For an account of his career, see the Dictiotiary of 
National Biography. 

* I have been unsuccessful in tracing the parentage of this 
individual, who probably belonged to the family made notorious 
by Shakspeare's youthful escapade. 

^ This individual seems to be identical with the Captain Henry 
Theobalds, mentioned in the Calendar of State Papers, Domestic 
Series, under date 28 February 1625 (p. 486) as follows : — "The King 
to the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex. Requires them to deliver 
certain reprieved prisoners in Newgate to Captain Henry Theobalds, 
to serve as soldiers in the Low Countries." 

^ See ante, n. 3. Captain (afterwards Sir) Henry Mainwaring 
had made himself notorious in 1616 by taking a ship from Joachim 
Wardeman of Lubeck, who brought a suit against him. In 161 7, 
Mainwaring was pardoned, and, in 1618, he (the "late pirate") was 


Tokely\ etts., they liveing" in Venice and their Soldiers att 

The 20tJi. Jjily, 1620. The Spanish Ambassador came 
to visitt his Lordshipp'^, and the next day my Lord went 
to him. 

The 2\th. July, 1620. The Duke of Savoyes Ambas- 
sador'* came to congratulate his Lordshipps safe arrivall, 
and the next day my Lord gave him Correspondence ; the 
English Captaines every day came one or other. 

The 2,yth. July, 1620. I went with a freind to see the 
famous Arsenall, a place of about two myles in compasse, 
walled round, haveinge but one entrance for a Gaily to 
goe in or out, there beinge within water for two or three 
hundred to ride afloate. Here is alsoe about one hundred 
great roomes open att both ends for building new Gallyes, 
where were some on the Stocks ; from thence to the place 
where they cast Ordinance : Then to great Store howses, 
of which there are many full of the said Ordinance, ready 
mounted on Carriages. In others were Gunns dismounted, 
others full of Carriages ready made, others with bullets 
piled in seemely orders Wee were likewise shewed where 

given the sub-command of the " Venetian troops." See Calendar of 
State Papers^ Domestic Series^ 1616 — 1618, pp. 359, 425, 530, and 531. 
The order for "Sir Henry Mainwaring's shipp" to serve Venice was 
given on the 3:st March 161 8 ; State Pape?-s, Foreign^ Venice^ vol. 22. 

^ I have found no further mention of this individual. 

^ These "soldiers" came from England in 1618. See ante, pp. 88 
and 92. On the 21st August, 1620, the troops from Zara arrived at 
Venice, and were ordered to go to Lombardy. State Papers, Foreign, 
Venice, vol. 23. 

^ The Spanish Ambassador at Venice in 1619 was Don Alfonso 
della Queva. Add. MS. 27332, fol. 109. 

* On the 9th February, 1618, there is a mention of the arrival at 
Venice of Biscina, an extraordinary ambassador from the Duke of 
Savoy. State Papers, Foreigji, Venice, vol. 22. 

^ Compare A Jourjtall of a voyage thro France and Italy {Sloane 
MS. 2142) under date 16 April 1659, "Wee went to see the Arsinal A 
place most famous for the multitude of all things necessary belong[ing] 
to sea and Land. It is at one end of the City engirt about with a 


they made Anchors, Cables and ropes, Rudders, Oares, 
Masts, yards, all sort of Iron for gallies, ground saltpeter, 
Planck, Sawyers, etts., with ware howses where every of 
the aforementioned lay ready made. Then went Wee upp 
staires, where were very faire halls, hung on both sides 
with Armour from the head to the Knees, others with 
swords, Musketts Pikes and Targetts to a very great 
number ; other halls with munition for fifty Gallies ; in 
each Hall their being fifty pertitions, and in every of them 
soe many Guns with match, swords, Pikes, etts. sufficient 
for one Gallie. In other halls were new sailes ready made 
for soe many gallies, and as some spend, there are others 
made new in their roomes, which are sowen by weomen\ 
of whome there were att present greate Companies att 
worked Divers other things there were worth notice which 
to perticularize would require much tyme, As sondry sorts 
of auncient Armes, also compleat Armours of certen 
famous men reserved there for a Monument ; All theis, 

great Wall. It is counted three mile in circuite, there being contin- 
ually both in peace and warre some 2000 men at worke. It was the 
saying of A great General belonging to Charles the fifth that he had 
rather have the Arsenal in his power then four of the best Cittyes in 
Italy. Here are places for Artilery, of powder, of Armes, of Corslets, 
of pikes and al sortes of Armes both for defence and offense both for 
sea and land. Here is a very fine Armory and without doubt the best 
in Italy, being armes enough for 60000 horse and foote, and for above 
30000 men at sea." 

^ Compare "A true Description of what is most worthy to be seen 
in all Italy, orderly set down, and in sure Manner," &c. &c., in The 
Harleiaii Miscellany^ vol. v., "Venice. The House of Artillery. ..Go 
up the Stairs, and you shall come into a Room, wherein are two 
hundred Old Women, daily mending old Sails, and sometimes, when 
need requires, there are seven hundred daily working." 

^ The author has a long marginal note on the Arsenal which runs 
as follows: — "The Arsenall, severall places wherein (i) they build 
gallies, (2) cast Ordinance, (3) where they keepe them mounted, 
(4) dismounted, (5) carriages, (6) Bulletts, (7) they made Cables, 
(8) Anchers, (9) masts, yards, oares, Rudders, etts. (10) iron worke, 
(11) plancks, sawyers, warehouses full. Severall halls aloft full of 
Armour, vizt.. Swords, Pikes, musketts, targetts etts., also munition 
for gallies, sales." 


with the aforesaid kept cleane and in Excellent good Orders 
Then were wee brought to the Bucentero^, a vessell like 
a Gallye, but shorter, thicker and higher, whereon is 
shewed the uttermost of Art for carved Worke, that being 
over layed with Gold, soe that when shee is in the Water, 
shee appeares to be all of pure gold. Shee hath twoe 
decks. On the Lowermost sitt the Rowers, and aloft sitts 
the duke himselfe in a Stately seate made in her very 
Sterne, and the Senators on each side. This Decke beinge 
Curiously inlayd with a Carved guilded rooffe or false 
deck overhead. In this vessell goeth the Duke and 
Nobillitie of Venice to marrie the Sea, an auntient 
Custome observed every yeare on Assention Day, Thus : — 
They are rowed to a certaine place about two or three 
miles out of Venice, where the Duke letteth downe in the 
water a rich ringe by a stringe, holding it soe untill the 
Clergie that goe with him have made an end of their 
Ceremonies. Then hee draweth it upp againe, and soe it 
is finished^ Then they retourne with the greatest musicke 
and Triumph they can Invent, there goeinge in Company 
divers other vessel Is to assist the Marriage, all very 

^ For the history of the Arsenal see Yriarte, Vetiice, p. 46 ff. 
Compare the following descriptions of the place: — "The next thing 
that is worthy of notice is the arsenall (which the world cannot equall) 
environed with a wall and with the sea into which you enter onely by 
one channell and by one gate. Its two miles in circuite. There are 
armes for 1 50000 men and they are able to set forth in a weeke 1 50 
galleyes besides Gallyasses. There workes dayly 2880 men which 
are constantly payed by the state." Rawl. MS. D. 120, fol. 28 
{Travels by an anonymous author in 1649). 

" The Arsinall so famous throughout the world, is about two miles 
in Circumference, and strongly walled Round, Wherein they say that 
2500 Men are continally kept at worke... the Magazine of small Armes 
is very large and Neatly kept." Chiswell, Travels., 1696 {Add. MS 
10623), fol- 20. 

^ See Coryafs Crudities., vol. i. p. 359. 

3 "This by relation of others." Author's marginal note, which 
is omitted in the British Museum copy, Harl. MS. 2286. Mundy 
was not in Venice during Ascension week. 


gallantly sett forth \ Also when there arriveth any for- 
raigne Prince or great Ambassador, the said Bucentoro 
is sent to bring him in. All the rest of the tyme shee 
is layed upp dry in a great buildinge, and besides covered 
over with a linnen Cloth. 

To Conclude with the Arsenall, Haveinge all materialls 
ready e Cutt, measured, squared and framed to their hands, 
they are able in few dayes to build, rigg, furnish, arme and 
sett forth a good fleete of gallies"-. In this Arsenall there 
dwells none but the Guardians or the Keepers, the worke- 
men goeing forth every night, and returne in the morninge, 
the Powder made without, neither may any man goe in 
without lycense or favour. This place in my opinion is 

^ Compare the following allusions to the Marriage of the Doge 
of Venice to the Adriatic Sea. 

1616. "Venice. The Duke of this Adriatick Queene, espouseth 
the sea, every Ascension day, by casting a golden ring into it. Which 
Stultitious ceremony by Pope Alexander the third was graunted, when 
he fled to Venice for succour, being persecuted by Fredericke 
Barbarossa." Lithgow, Painefull P cregrinatio?is ^ p. 40. 

1649. " Heere allso is that Busentowre a gaily in which the duke 
goes to marry the Sea." Rawl. MS. D. 120, fol. 28 {Travels by an 
unknown author). 

1655. "Their Ceremonies upon Ascension day, when theyr 
GaUie-gross of State (calld Buggean d'or) is lanchd to Seae, a vessell 
most richly adornd, and rowed by a multitude of men on the lower 
Deck unseen, whiles the upper Deck is covred, as it were, with a rich 
Canopy of Gold, borne (towards the Sterne) upon the Shoulders of 
Slaves, most artificially resembled in Statues, which lively imitate the 
paine they suffer under the burden, and under this Canopy is Carried 
the Doge (the Duke of Venice) and the whole Senate of Venice as 
farr as the barr of Lio, attended by innumerable Peottas and Gondolas 
filld with Gallants and Ladies... the maine Ceremonie is the espousing 
of the Senat to the Seae, which is effected by the Duke throwing 
a ring into the Seae, at which action are let fly immediatly from the 
adjacent Forts great Gunns and fireworkes without Count." Bargrave, 
Voyages a7id Jotirjieys, Rawl. MS. C. 799, fol. 161. 

1696. "The Vessell called the Baucentoro, whereon the Doge 
and Senate upon Ascention day performe the Ceremony of Marrying 
the Sea." Chiswell, Travels, Add. MS. 10623, fol. 21. 

The Ceremony of "marrying the Adriatic" dates from 11 74. 
It was enjoined by Pope Alexander III. after the victory of the 
Venetians, under Doge Sebastiano Ziani, over the fleet of Frederick 
Barbarossa. The last Bucentaur was destroyed by the French in 1797. 

^ " What great preparation may be done on the suddaine." 
Author's marginal note. 


the most worthy notice of all that is in Venice^ although 
there bee other which deserve some observation, As St. 
Markes faire place neere invironed with stately buildings^, 
only one part open to the Sea ; also St. Marks Tower to 
bee ascended without Stepps'^ (as the Giralda att Sevill 
which is the fairest Tower I have yett seene^): The Bridge 
of Rioalto consistinge of one Arch^, haveing two rowes 
of dwellings on it, a faire way in the midle, and two 
wayes on the backsides, beinge Shopps of severall wares 
and trades, of which there are fowre Rowes, that is to say 
two rowes, on each side of the midle way one, and one 
on each back way. Moreover, the great number of other 
•stone bridges throughout the Cittie®, and faire Channells 
of hewen stone with a passage on either side, soe that you 
may goe to any howse or place throughout the Cittie by 
land or water''. The multitude of Gondolls or Ferrie 
boats, the Curiositie of keepinge them, haveinge Tilts of 
black Cloth, with very curious handsome seats within, 
ordinarily rowed or skulled by one man, whoe standeth 
upright neere the Sterne of the boate, sometymes by two, 
three and fower, accordinge to their occasions of haiste 

1 For a further contemporary description of the Arsenal at 
Venice, see Cory at' s Crudities^ vol. i. pp. 358 — 361. 

^ See Coryafs Crudities^ vol. i. p. 314 ff. 

^ Compare Chiswell, Travels (in 1696), Add. MS. 10623, fol- i^f., 
"The Tower of St. Marke is a square Building of a very considerable 
hight, and its ascent so easy, that I believe tis possible to ride up a 
horse back." See also Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 325 f 

* Mundy paid several visits to Seville. See pp. 14 and 24 and 
Relation III. 

^ See note 2 on p. 91. Compare Chiswell, Travels (in 1696), 
Add. MS. 10623, fol- 19? "the chiefest (bridge) is that over the great 
Canall, called the Riallto. It hath but one Arch and is deservedly 
counted a bold and excellent piece of Architecture." See also 
Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 309 f. 

^ Coryat gives the number of bridges at Venice as 450, Coryafs 
Crudities., vol. i. p. 312. 

'^ See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 312 f. 

M. 7 


and stated The height, strength and beautie and uni- 
formitie of their buildinge in generall, and especially over 
the great Channells, as Canal grand 2, Canal Regio, etts., 
being of the Nobillitie. The aboundance of varyeties and 
dainties tending to sensualitie, and the liberty thereto ; 
As also for Courtisans, of whome there are an incredible 
number by report ; Theis baits drawe many hither, some 
for Curiositie, others for Luxurie, there beinge wayes to 
gett, but many more to spend, I meane of some pro- 
fessions and conditions. 

The ^th. August, Anno 1620. Wee departed from 
Venice in a passage boate of Padoa^ att i liver, or 8d.* 
per man, which boates, after our comeinge into the River ^, 
are drawne with horses. Goeinge upp the said River are 
three Sluces, without which it were impossible to arrive 
neere the Cittie, the water beinge not a foote deepe : Yett, 
with the helpe of the said sluces, Barkes of five or six 
foote draught, yea, prettie Shipps may bee conveyed®. 
Upon either side, As wee passed, were Townes and many 
pleasant Country howses of the Nobillitie and gentlemen 
of Venice, whether they resort in Sommer tyme for re- 

1 See note 2 on p. 91. Compare Chiswell, Travels, Add. MS. 
10623, fol. 20, " There is not a Coach or Horse in this Citty, but 
instead thereof the Gentry keep each a small boat called a Gondalo, 
in which being rowed by one Man, or sometimes two, they performe 
their visitts etc., but at their Country Houses upon the Terra firma, 
many of Them have Coaches and Calashes, severall Thousands of 
those Gondaloes lye allwayes ready to be hired, they are neatly built, 
and light, and are rowed with incredible swiftness and agility." 

^ See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 306. 

^ See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 300 and vol. ii. p. i. 

* Kelly, Universal Cambist, vol. ii. p. 153, has "Venice... Lira 
piccola (in the old coins) 5*07 d.," which is less than the value given by 
Mundy. Also, in "Sir Isaac Newton's Tables," quoted by Kelly in 
vol. ii. p. 155, the value of an "old Livre" is given as a little under 7d. 

^ The Brenta. 

^ Compare Chiswell's allusion to the locks on the Brenta, Travels, 
fol. 20 {Add. MS. 10623), " By an Ingenious method wee were helped 
over a fiatt in this River." 


creation ^ Att three of the clock in the afternoone wee 
came to the Cittie of Padoa (25 miles)'', and lodged att 
the Starr in Piazza de la Paglia^, at five livers'* per man 
per daye. This Cittie is seven miles in Compasse, but 
within are many voyd places and ruynes. It is walled 
about with Two walls. In the markett place is a Hall 
of neere 100 yards longe and about 35 broad to heere 
lawe suites'. 

^ See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 300, and a Tour in France and 
Italy (in 1675), p. 118. 

Compare Bargrave's Voyages and Journeys, Rawl. MS. C. 799, 
fol. 163, "Padoa, where I found observable, first the Site of the City, 
in a fruitfull soile, on a pleasant Plaine, in a healthy Aire, and a 
plentyfull and Cheap Country : It is watred and trenchd by the river 
La Brenta, which affords a delightfull passage doune its Streame even 
to Venice having on its bankes varietie of Gallant Pallaces and 
Villag's, and in the Summer most curious walks from one to the other 
along the river almost the whole way. It is a convenient Retirement 
from Venice of about 20 miles distance." 

^ Compare A Jozirnall of a voyage thro Fraftce and Italy, 
Sloane MS., 2142, "April 21, 1659. Wee departed from Venice and 
lay that night at Padua going by water from thence, being accounted 
about twenty five miles. This Citty is very large, wherein is a Uni- 
versity which entertains gentlemen of all nations." 

^ The Golden Star was a well-known inn for two centui'ies after 
Mundy's visit. Compare the following" allusions : — 

1745. " Padua... When you come thither lodge at Alia Stella, the 
Star." Harleian Miscellany, vol. v. p. 38. 

1775. "At Padua the Golden Star is a good house." A Brief 
Account of the Roads of Italy, p. 47. 

1819. " Padua. ..L'Etoile d'or sur la place des Noli (la meilleure 
auberge et la plus commode de la Ville)." Milan, Itineraire d' Italic. 

In 1789 Taylor, Travels from Englaitd to htdia in 1789, vol. i. 
p. 60 f., mentions the "Aquila d'Oro" at Padua as "an excellent inn." 
There is still a " Stella d'Oro " at Padua in Piazza Garibaldi. 

* See note 4 on p. 98. 

^ See Lithgow, Paiiiefull Peregrinations, p. 415 ; and A Tour in 
France and Italy (in 1675), P- 'i^. The Hall of Audience, which is 
300 ft. long and 100 ft. broad, was begun in 1 172 and finished in 1306. 
Compare the following accounts of this building and of the city of 
Padua : — 

1609. " Padua boasteth of her neighbourhood to the river Padus, 
her Universitie, Antenors foundation, fertillity of ground, strong ram- 
parts, and repineth at her subjection to Venice." Gainsford, Glory of 
England, p. 80. 

1649. "Padua is rather ancient (as being the mother of Venice) 
then beautiful! and frequented rather for its university then for its 



TJie ^th. August, 1620. This morninge my lord went 
to visitt the Earle of Arundells two sonns\ whoe were 
there att Studdie^ and that afternoone they came to see 
his Lordshipp, the eldest being about eighteen yeres of 
age, the other Tenn. 

The 6th. August, 1620. Att Padoa wee hired three 
Caroches^ att 8 dollers each, the doller worth 8 livers 
8 solz*, unto Verona, Mr. RandoU Syms^ accompanyeinge 

pleasant living. It is much frequented by strangers." Rawl. MS. D. 
120 {Travels, by an anonymous author). 

1655. "Padoa, where I found observable... Its Walls all of Stone 
handsomely wrought, and admirably Strong, having a stately walk 
upon the Earth cast up within them.. .the Universitie Great hall, in 
which lie buryed Publius Livie his bones whose Statue stands beside 
them." Bargrave, Voyages and Journeys, Rawl. MS. C. 799, fol. 163. 

1696. " Padua.. .A very Ancient and famous Citty, but now greatly 
declined from its former glor}', both in Number of People, Riches and 
Buildings, also of the University so noted in History, there is now but 
little appearance, its incompassed with an old and new Wall, the latter 
is about six miles in Compass, and was built according to the moderne 
Fortification at the great expence of the Venetians to whome the Citty 
still belongs, and so is their Bulwark on that side... .Wee went to the 
Towne house into which wee ascended by a good number of Staires, 
in length it containes 102 ordinary paces, and in breadth },'^, indeed tis 
a large noble structure, but far inferior to Westminster Hall with 
which they pretend to compare it, at the upper end is the Monument 
of that excellent Historian Titus Livius, who was a Native of this 
Place." Chiswell, Travels, Add. MS. 10623, fol. 20 f. 

^ These were James Lord Maltravers and Henry Frederick, sons of 
Thomas Howard, second Earl of Arundel. The lads were sent to 
Italy in 1619, under the care of Mr Thomas Coke, to complete their 
education. Lord Maltravers died of small-pox at Ghent in 1624. See 
Tiemey, History aftd Antiquities of Arundel, pp. 444 — 487. 

^ Coryat says there were fifteen hundred students at the University 
when he visited Padua. See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 297. Corhpare 
Hart. MS. 288, fol. 284 {Directions to Travellers in France and Italy, 
circ. 1620), "Padua: An Universitie famous for Lawe and phisicke, 
frequented by all nations, who have for each a Consul! whom they 
change each yeare, during which time those of the same nation are 
obhged to obey." 

^ The seventeenth century name of a coach or chariot of a stately 
or luxurious kind. Murray, Oxford EnglisJi Dictionary. See Coryafs 
Crudities, vol. ii. p. 231. 

* i.e. 8 lira 8 soldi. According to the value given for a lira on 
p. 98, note 4, the dollar would be worth 5s. 6gd., reckoning 20 soldi to 
the lira. See Kelly, Universal Cambist, vol. i. p. 244. 

^ "Randall" or " Randalph Symes" was employed by the Levant 
Company at Venice, as agent for the transmission of letters. He is 


my Lord (whoe came to Padoa twoe dayes before us), 
where Thomas Humes remained, haveing Captaine Winge^ 
in his stead, whoe was to come with us for England : 
Alsoe Thomas Constance and Ricardo an Itah'an, bound 
also with us. That eveninge wee came to Vicenza (25 
miles), a small Cittie about two miles in Compasse^, and 
there wee lay att the Three Kings ^ 

The yth. August, 1620. Mr. Randoll Syms tooke his 
leave and returned to Venice, and wee proceeded to Villa 
Nova^, a Towne where wee dyned ; from thence to the 
Cittie of Verona and lodged att the Cavaletteel 

This Cittie is faire and great®, very famous and aun- 
tient, where is to bee scene an Amphitheater, part of the 
Romaine monuments, of an Ovall forme, one third of 
a mile in Compasse without side. And within are thirty- 
five'' degrees or stepps round about, each of some two 
foote high, of hewen stone, part fallen downe, but now 
beginninge to bee repaired againe, and serveth for the 

referred to in that capacity in Siate Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 148, 
under dates 28 March, 1622, 22 July, 1624, and 20 Nov., 1626. 

^ This seems to mean that Captain Winge took Thomas Hume's 
place as one of Sir Paul Pindar's attendants. For Thomas Hume, the 
" Scottishman," see p. 43. There is no further reference in the MS. 
to Captain Winge. 

^ Compare Harl. MS. 288, fol. 284, " From Padua to Vicenza are 
18 mile where they reckon forty thousand Soules." 

3 Other travellers do not mention this inn. Taylor, Travels fi-oin 
England to Itidia, in 1789, says of Vicenza, vol. i. p. 61, "Good 
accommodation and excellent inns." 

* Villa Nuova is a place of little account in the present day. It 
lies between Torre di Confini and Soave, on the old post road from 
Venice to Milan. It appears in a map entitled ''Viaggio da Milano 
a Venezia," in A Brief Account of the Roads of Italy (1775). Coryat 
mentions the place and says it is 17 miles from Vicenza. Coryafs 
Crudities, vol. ii. p. 15. 

^ The Cavaletta. I have not been able to trace the inn here. 
Later writers mention the Due Torri (? the existing Londra e Due 
Torri) at Verona. 

6 Compare Harl. MS. 288, fol. 284, " Farther [from Vicenza] 30 
Miles is Verano, a brave citie, 7 Miles in compasse." 

7 The British Museum copy, Harl. MS. 2286, has "Forty-five 


Citties use and recreation ^ But in auntient tyme publique 
shewes were presented to the people in such as these, 
Amonge the rest, Condempned men exposed to fight and 
strugle for their hves with wilde beasts, as lyons, beares, 
Tigers, wolves, etts., kept there of purpose, where, lett 
them behave them selves never soe valiently, yett att 
length nothing but their misserable deathes must make 
upp the multitudes pastime, whoe in those dayes delighted 
in such Inhumaine Spectacles, as wee may read in the 
Romaine History. 

And, for the better understandinge of an Amphi- 
theater, I have on the other side sett the designe of one, 
and although not the true draught of this, yett some what 
resemblinge the same when entire^. 

An Amphitheater^ consists of two Joined Theaters, 
and is therefore soe called, conteyning no stage, consecrated 
commonly to Mars, in that Spectacles of bloud and Death 
were in them exhibited to the people, as sword-playing, 
combatting with wilde beasts, compelling the condemned 
to personate tragedies and acts butt fained, to performe 
them in earnests Those that were condemned to fight 
with Wild beasts Were exhibited'^ in the Mornings. The 
horror was such, as weomen were forbidden to behold 
them, where the killers in the end were killed, and no 
Way left to avoid destruction". Some allsoe for hire and 
some for bravery undertooke to encounter with such 

1 The Amphitheatre was built in 284 a.d. See Coryafs Crudities, 
vol. ii. p. 19. 

Compare Rawl. MS. D. 120 {Trai'els, by an anonymous author, in 
1649), "From hence [Vicenza] I went to Verona. This is a very beauti- 
full and pleasant city both for cituation and building... it has three 
fortresses and an amphitheatre, the most entire of any I have seen." 

2 There is no illustration in the MS. Coryat has a representation of 
the Amphitheatre at Verona. See Coryafs Crudities, vol. ii., ill. facing 
p. 24. 

3 The whole of this paragraph is taken from Sandys' Travels. 
Mundy has quoted pretty accurately, for the most part, but has re- 
tained his own spelling and has omitted several passages. 

* Here, half a page is omitted. ^ Sandys has "produced." 

*> Here, two sentences are omitted. 


beasts, who either perished or made way by victory unto 
safifety. One hundred lyons were often at once let forth 
in the court of the Amphitheater, and often beasts were 
sett against beasts, a less savage spectacle. Butt oh the 
wicked delight of those barbarous tyrants, worthy to suffer 
what they inflicted ! Who caused Miserable Wretches to 
make histories of fables, and putt in Act Imaginary 
miseries. They being most praised of the Dry-eyed be- 
holders that exposed themselves unto Death without 
terror, either by taking it from the Weapon of another, 
or falling on their owne\ Nor matterd it who had the 
part to survive, hee being butt reserved for another daies 
slaughter^. The floore was covered with sand to drinck 
up the bloud that was shed thereon. Vid. Mr. Sands : 
page 70: 71 : and J 2^. 

The Area or space within, Ovall, in length 39 perches, 
in breadth 22, att 10 foote to the perche is 390 foote long 
and 220 broad. Read at large C.C.^ 

Alleppo Merchant, August 2d., Anno I655^ 

Since the writing hereof I got the print of it here 

The ^tJi. August, 1620. Wee came to Cavalsella (15 
miles)^ a Towne, thence to Lonatt (12 miles), a little 
Cittie, and lodged att St. Markes, or the Venetian Armes*. 

1 Sandys completes the sentence with " as the fable required." 

^ Here a paragraph is omitted. 

3 The extracts are taken from pp. 270 — 272 of the 161 5 edition of 
Sandys' Travels. 

* "C.C." is apparently meant for Coryafs Crudities which first 
appeared in 161 1. Coryat has a long description of the amphitheatre 
at Verona. 

s Mundy made his third voyage to India in the Aleppo Merchant., in 
1655. He appears to have revised his MS. during the voyage and to 
have added the Supplement to Relation I. as well as several notes. 
The extract from Sandys is in Mundy's own writing. 

6 This "print" has either been lost or was removed by the author 
at a later date. 

'' Cavalcaselle, fourteen miles west of Verona. 

8 Lonato. I have found no other reference to the inn mentioned 
by Mundy. 


Betwene theis is Lago de Garda, a great lake, as they 
say, about fifty miles in length and seven or eight miles 
broade in some places, of Fresh water, wherein are vessells 
both for fishinge and transportation^. Att the end whereof 
wee passed through a stronge Castle called Peskera^. 

The gth. Atigiist, 1620. Att Evening wee came to 
Brescia (15 miles), a faire Cittie and verye stronge, with 
a good Castle, which is noe more then needs^ ; it standing 
soe neare the Spanish Dominions^ Wee dyned att the 
signe of the Tower, a very faire Hosteria or Innel To 
bee noted, as well in this Cittie as also before wee came 
neere it, wee saw many people with great Wenns or 
swellings under their throats, as bigg as two fists, which 
some say is ocasioned by drinckinge the snovve water that 
continuallie cometh downe the mountaines*^. From thence 

1 The lake is 34 miles long and 3 to 1 1 miles wide. Coryat gives 
its dimensions as 35 miles long and 14 broad. Coryafs Crudities^ vol. 
ii. p. 40. Compare Harl. MS. 288, fol. 284 lyDirections to Travellers, 
arc. 1620), " Fifteen miles thence T Verona] is Peschiera : hard by here 
is the Lake de gard well stored with fish, 36 miles long and 14 broade." 

^ Peschiera. See Coryafs Crudities, vol. ii. p. 39. 

^ See Coryafs Crudities, vol. ii. p. 42 fif. Compare the following 
remarks on Brescia : — 

1609. " Brescia... where the language is corrupt; for belike they 
have beat out the fineness with hammering their armours." Gainsford, 
Glo7y of Ejigland, p. 90. 

1620. "Hence [from Peschiera] 25 miles to Brescia, famous for 
tunnes." Harl. MS. 288, fol. 284. 

1648. " Brescia is a pretty towne, famous over most part of Europe 
for making of Armes, the mettle of which is treason to transport out. 
It has a strong fortresse strong both in its Cituation As being built on 
a hill as allso on a rocke." Rawl. MS. D. 120, fol. 30. 

1659. "Brescia, a great and large Citty, and subject to the Vene- 
tians. The inhabitants in former tymes have raised many warres and 
commotions... the people retaine some markes of their ancient fierce- 
nesse, both by the cruelty of their lookes and guns and swords which 
they continually carry about them." Sloane MS. 2142, under date 
25 April, 1659. 

* Brescia was on the borders of the Duchy of Milan, then a Spanish 

^ The "Torre" Inn or the "Auberge La Tour'' at Brescia is men- 
tioned in Guides to Italy of 1787, 1819, and 1829. It perhaps survives 
in the existing "Due Torri." 

'' Mundy was particularly impressed by the sufferers from goitre. 
He has further allusions to the disease later on. 


wee came to Orsovechio, a little Tovvne, and lay att the 
Spred Eaglet 

TJie loth. Ajigiist, 1620. From Orsovechio wee past 
by Orsonovo" (2 miles), a very strong walled and well 
kept Town: from thence, over the River Olio (i^ miles)=* 
by boate. From Venice hither wee had extraordinary 
pleasaunt travellinge, the way plaine, as was all the 
Countrie hereabouts, Corne feilds and pleasant meadows 
continually on either side. Amidst their Corne, fruite trees 
in Rancks, and att the foote of them againe are vines 
which Creep upp into the said trees. Then take they the 
vine branches of the one tree, and twist them with the 
vyne branches of the next, and of that which is the next to 
it, soe that the Trees, through meanes of the vines, seeme 
to daunce hand in hand all over the feild*. Other vynes 
then theis they have not hereabouts that I could see ; also 
many prettie brookes and Rilletts runninge every waie, 
with divers Townes That I have not named. From the 
River-' wee came to Sumseenee (i^ miles), a walled Towne 
under the Spaniard''; then to Crema (5 miles), a walled 
Towne of the Venetians^ Fowre miles beyond this is 
the Venetian Territories ; and then begineth the Dutchy 
of Millan under the Spaniard*, they haveinge Sumseenee 

^ Orzivechi. I have found no other reference to Mundy's "Spred 

^ Orzi Nuovi. ^ The Oglio. 

* Here the author has a marginal note, "Curious conceived hus- 
bandrie." See also Symonds' description of the vineyards near Turin, 
quoted in Appendix G. The above is a fair description of the viti- 
culture of Northern Italy at the present day. 

^ i.e. the Oglio. 

^ Soncino, in the Duchy of Milan in Mundy's day. 

"■ "Crema, the last towne of the Venetians." Rawl. MS. D. 120, 
fol. 30. 

* Philip II. of Spain was invested with the Duchy of Milan by his 
father, the Emperor Charles V. in 1540. The Spanish line of Haps- 
burg retained the province until 1700. By the treaties of Utrecht and 
Baden, 17 13 — 17 14, Milan was annexed to the possessions of the House 
of Austria. 


within the Venetian Dominion, as aforesaid. Then came 
wee to Lotho (lo miles), a walled Cittie^ before which 
runneth the River Sera^ bearinge small vessells, with a 
broken wooden bridge, soe past it over by boate (lO miles), 
and dyned att the Catt and the bell. From thence to 
Mallignano, a small Towne, and lodged att the Eagle 
and Hornel 

The nth. August, 1620. Att Eveninge wee came to 
the greate Cittie of Millan (20 miles), and dyned att the 
Three Kings^, after which, my Lord beinge in his Coach 
and on his way, was mett by El Conde de Leria, Governor 
of this Cittie and Dukedome under the King of Spaine% 
soe that our Journey was stopped for that tyme, my Lord 
goeing back to our lodging with him, where hee stayed 
a quarter of an hower and departed. Towards night my 
Lord went to visitt him, and then to proceede next 
morninge. In this short space and in this famous Cittie, 
I went to the Domo" or high Church, where lay the bodie 
of Carolus Boromeo, late Cardinall of this Cittie, whoe 
dyed about thirty-six yeres since, and was Canonized for 
a Saint some twelve yeres agoe'', now in great reverence 

1 Lodi. See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 254 f. Compare Rawl. MS. 
D. 120, fol. 30, "Lodi, the first towne of the Duchy of Milan." 

2 The Serio. Lodi is, however, on the Adda, of which the Serio is 
a tributary. 

^ Malegnano. I have found no other reference to the inn at this 
place nor to the one at Lodi. 

* "Milan... When you come thither, I would wish you lodged at the 
Three Kings... where you shall be exceeding well entertained." Har- 
leian Miscellany., vol. v. p. 37, "At Milan... there is... a house the sign 
of the Three Kings." A Brief Account of the Roads of Italy (yd 1775). 
The Auberge des Trois Rois at Milan is mentioned in an Itifteraire of 
18 19, and the Tre Re at Milan appears in a Nouveau Guide of 1829. 

^ Leria appears to be a copyist's error for Feria. In State Papers., 
Foreign., vol. 23, the Duke of Feria is mentioned, in June, 1621, in 
connection with a strife as to the right of passage of armed Spanish 
Soldiers between Crema and Corvasco. Feria, who was Governor of 
Milan and commander of the Spanish troops in Germany, died in 
Bavaria, in 1634. 

^ The Duomo or Cathedral of Milan. 

^ " Carolus Boromeo, a New Saint in Millan." Author's Index. 


hereabouts, haveinge (as they say) done many Miracles 
both alive and dead. He lyes in a vault before the high 
alter, there beinge another little Alter over his body with 
lights continually burninge. About the south of the vault 
is a raile of Iron, where men may looke downe through 
a grate ; and great concourse of people doe continually 
flow to it, where they make their requests and Prayers. 

The \2tJi. August, 1620. Goeinge, wee past by the 
Castle, accounted one of the strongest in Christendome^: 
Soe crossed over the River Biufalore^, which runneth to 

See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 244, and Johnson, Travellers Guide 
for an account of the Saint of this famous family and his tomb. The 
Cardinal died in 1584, aged 46. 

Compare Lithgow, Paiiiefiill Peregrinations, p. 410, "A false 
canonized Saint. 1 remember about twenty yeares ago [from 161 6] 
Paulo Papa quinto Canonized Carolo Borrameo, the late Bishop of 
Milane for a notable Saint, being knowne to bee a notorious and 
scelerate liver ; done sooner by fifteene yeares then their ordinary 
time, and that for the touch of forty thousand Duckats ; allotting 
Prayers Miracles, Pardons and Pilgrimages to him, and erecting a 
new Order of Friers, and Monasteries unto him. And yet the poore 
Bishop of Lodi, a good and charitable liver by all reports, could never, 
nor cannot attayne to the dignity of a Saint, his meanes was so small 
when dead, and his friends so poore being alive." Compare also 
Sloane MS. 4217 (An account of the Journey of Lady Catherine 
Whetenall from Brussels to Italy in 1650), fol. 18, "Milan. ..the Domo 
or greate Church, where St. Charles of Boromeos body lyes enterd in 
the Middest of the Church before the Cuire. Hee was Arch Bishopp 
of the Towne some Three score yeares agoe and a man of Singular 
Sanctitie. His body is inclosed now in a most Curious Christall case 
(given by the King of Spaine) and it is intire all but a Little of his 
nose end." 

Mundy seems to have verified the date of death of the saint when 
he revised his MS. The copyist wrote "about thirty four years ago,'' 
and the B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, has the same. The correction 
to "thirty six" in the Raivl. MS. is in Mundy's own writing. 

^ Compare Rami. MS. D. 120, fol. 30, " Milan. ..this is one of the 
four greate cityes of Italy, but wheither it deserve the title of Milano 
le grando, it being the lest of the four, I know not. The things 
remarkable heere the great Church... the fort or fortresse esteemed 
and deservedly one of the strongest of Christendome both in respect 
of its cituation...and it is the best furnished with all sorts of ammunition 
of warre as also with a garrison of 4000 men." 

See also Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 247 f , and A Tour in Fj'ance 
and Italy, p. 30. 

2 The town of Bufifaloro is situated about three miles from the 
river Ticino. There is no river of that name, but the Canal of 
Naviglio-Grande intersects the town of Bufifaloro and was evidently 
mistaken by the author for a river. 


the Cittie, wherein are great flatt bottomed Boates, which 
supply it with provision, fruites, etts. from the Countrye. 
This wee passed by bridge ; but two myles further, wee 
crossed the river Tezin^ by boate, being verye great and 
swifte. Soe to Nowarra (25 miles)^, and dyned att the 
Three Kings^ From thence to Varselly (10 miles)*. About 
two miles before wee came hither, in our waye, wee past 
by a small fortification of the Spaniards, or rather a mount 
of Earth, it being the end of the Dutchye of Millan, and 
their Jurisdiction this way, Varselly being in Piedmont, 
and subject to the Duke of Savoyl It haveing bene 
lately beseidged and taken by the King of Spaines forces, 
about some difference betwene the Two princes, but sur- 
rendred againe to the Duke upon agreement^ Effects of 
the Seidge wee sawe ; for, about a mile from the Towne, 
were a great number of dwellings, etts. buildings battered 
downe and levelled with the ground. The Cittie of it 
selfe is reasonable well and strongly walled Round about, 

^ The Ticino. 

^ Novara. See Coiyai's Crudities, vol. i. p. 239. 

3 The Tre Re at Novara is described, in 1842, as "a tolerable 
Italian Inn." The inn is also mentioned in Guide books of 1787, 
1819 and 1829. 

* Vercelli. See Coryafs Criidities, vol. i. pp. 234 — 237. 

^ Compare Add. MS. 34177 i^Accotcnt of a Journey over Mt. Cenis 
etc.), fol. 52, "A little beyond it [Vercelli] wee rode through a little 
river. ..and then were in the Dutchy of Milan. ...Verceil is the last 
towne of the Duke of Savoy towards Milan." 

See Coryafs Crudities., vol. i. p. 234, where this statement is 

^ Vercelli was besieged and taken by Spanish forces in 161 7. 
In July of that year Sir Henry Wotton, the English ambassador 
at Venice, writes, " We stand in a quotidian feaver about Vercelles 
and extreamly doubtfull of the event of that important Seige." {State 
Papers, Foreig7i, Venice, vol. 22, fol. 233.) In August, news reached 
Venice of the fall of Vercelli and a treaty was proposed between Spain 
and Savoy. Sir Henry Wotton wrote that if Vercelli were not restored, 
" the Duke of Savoye will not be quiet nor the Venetians without him." 
{Ibid. fol. 241). On March, 1618, there was no change in the situation, 
" In Lombardie thinges stand as they did, and so shalbe my song till 
Vercelli be restored." {Ibid. fol. 249.) The surrender of the town to 
Savoy took place shortly after. It was re-taken by the Spaniards 
in 1638. 


although not very bigg nor faire. Wee lodged att the 
Cardinalls hatt. 

The i^th. Aiigiist, 1620. Wee came to Seean (16 
miles)\ and dyned att the Angell (10 miles), and from 
thence to the Citty Cheebas^ and lodged att the golden 
lyon without the Gates. 

The 14th. August, 1620. From Cheebas wee came to 
the Cittie of Turin (14 miles), the principall seate of the 
Duke of Savoy'\ himselfe was now absenf. Within two 
miles of the Cittie wee past a greate River® by boate, 
where mett us two Footemen whoe, haveinge spoken with 
my Lord, returned with all speede". One mile farther, 
there mett him in a Coach Sir Isaack Wake, our Kings 
Ambassador to this Duke^, and halfe a mile farther wee 
mett the Dukes generall, and with him twenty five Knights 
in Compleat Armour, whoe came to conduct my Lord into 
the Cittie, and soe to his lodginge, being a very faire 
howse of the Dukes ready furnished. There beinge also 

1 See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 233. He gives the distance 
from Sian to Turin as 24 miles, i.e. four miles less than Mundy's 

^ Chivasso. 

3 "Turin, the Cheifif Citty of Piedmont." Author's Index. See 
Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 230, for a description of Turin. From 
Turin to Paris, Mundy followed almost the same route as that taken 
by Richard Sj^monds from Paris to Turin in 1648. Symonds' Note 
Books, Ha7-l. MSS. 943 and 1278, contain much valuable contemporary 
information and are freely used in this volume. The greater part of 
Harl. MS. 943 has been reproduced in Appendix G, where Symonds' 
remarks on Turin will be found. 

* The Duke of Savoy at this period was Charles Emanuel IL, who 
governed Savoy and Piedmont ; his eldest son took the title of Prince 
of Piedmont. 

s The Po. 

'' In the Rawl. MS. there is inserted, at this point, a double-page 
map of the Duchy of Savoy by Hondius (undated) with Mundy's 
route marked in red dotted lines. 

"^ Sir Isaac Wake, ?i58o — 1632, was the British representative 
at the Court of Savoy from 161 5 until his death in 1632. He was 
knighted, while on a visit to England, in 1619. For a full account 
of his career see the Diet, of Nat. Biog. 


appoynted to attend him twelve Switzers^ att the Gate, 
six footemen, six of the Dukes owne Pages, Usher, 
Steward, Carver, Pantler^ Butler, Cookes, Jester, as if it 
were for the Dukes owne person : Also the provisions 
att the Dukes charge*. 

The i^tJi. AtigHst, 1620. His Lordshipp went to visit 
the Kinge of France his Sister, married to the Dukes 
eldest Sonne Prince of Peidmont'*, whoe had her lodginge 
a part : from thence to the Dukes three daughters, two of 
them virgines and the third a widowe, being married to 
the Duke of Mantua deceased, about which befell the 
difference betwene the Kinge of Spaine and this Duke, 
as is before touched^: From thence to the Dukes three 
Sonnes, one of them beinge a CardinalP: Afterwards 

^ i.e.^ as a body-guard. The Swiss mercenaries dated from 1464, 
when 500 Swiss footmen were brought by the Duke of Calabria, son 
of Rene, King of Sicily, to serve in the French army. 

2 Now obsolete. Originally, the duties of the pantler or pantryman 
were associated only with food, as those of the butler were exclusively 
confined to liquors. 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, " My Lord conducted in 
State into the Cittie, my lords honourable entertainment att Turin 
by the Dukes order." 

* Christine, second sister of Louis XIII. of France was given in 
marriage to Victor-Amadeus of Piedmont in 1619. Symonds, who 
visited Turin in 1649, says that the inhabitants of the city were 
composed of "as many French as Italian by reason of the Dutches 
of Savoy who is sister to the late King of France." Vide Appendix Q. 

^ Charles Emanuel I., Duke of Savoy (who was fifty-eight years 
old at the time of Mundy's visit), had ten children by his wife, the 
Infanta Catherine, daughter of Philip II. of Spain, five sons and five 
daughters. Margaret, the eldest daughter, was married to Francis 
de Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, in 1608, in order to cement a treaty 
with Spain. He died in 161 2, leaving only one surviving child, a 
daughter. The guardianship of the little princess of Mantua led to 
the most unfriendly relations between Spain and Savoy. There were 
frequent hostilities, one of the aggressive acts of the Spaniards being 
the siege of Vercelli, as noted by the author (see ante^ p. 108). 

Of the other four daughters of Charles Emanuel, two, Marie and 
Frangoise-Catherine, became nuns : the second, Isabella, married the 
Duke of Modena and died in 1626, and the youngest died in infancy. 

^ Of the five sons of Charles Emanuel, the eldest died in 1605, and 
the youngest was Grand Prior of the Abbey of Castile. The three 


conveyed through the Cittie, accompanied by the Generall 
and Sir Isaake Wake etts.' 

The \6tJi. August, 1620. This morninge my lord went 
to see the Dukes great Gallerye^ beinge about 130 yards 
longe, adorned with Curious statues and Pictures, with 48 
presses of bookes and great store of Armour^ 

About one a Clocke in the Afternoone my lord de- 
parted Turin, haveinge taken his leave of the Dukes 
Children and largely gratefied all the officers and Dukes 
servants, beinge accompanied out of the Cittie in the same 
manner hee was received in. And att about a myles end, 
the Generall and Knights tooke their leaves and returned : 
but Sir Isaak Wake kept him Company (being both in 
one Coach) to our lodgings att Viana (10 miles)"*, which 
was att the three flowre de Luces. Hard by the Towne 
is a Castle on the Topp of a very highe Rock^ 

The lyth. August, 1620. Sir Isaak Wake haveing 
taken his leave of my Lord, returned to Turin, but wee 

sons whom Pindar visited were, Victor-Amadeus, who succeeded his 
father, Maurice, a Cardinal, who, in 1642, left the Church and married 
his niece, and Thomas-Francis, Prince of Carignan. For a full account 
of Charles Emanuel I. and his family, see Le Grand Diclionnatre 
Historique, par Louis Moreri. 
^ See note 3 on p. 1 10. 

^ Compare Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 36, " La galerie de son Altesse 
qui est remply et orne de plusieurs chose singulieres et exquises." 
See also Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 231. 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, "This by relation." 
Compare Dumont, A New Voyage to the Levant (in 1689), p. 55, 
"Turin...! cou'd not. any other Antiquities than those m 
the Duke's Gallery, which is full of all sorts of fine Paintings, rare 
Manuscripts, Medals, Vases, and other Curiosities of that Nature." 

* Avigliana. Compare Lattsdowne MS. 720, fol. 34, " Avigliana 
Petite Ville par le milieu de laquelle il fault passer, situee sur une 
montaigne non toutesfoys gueres haulte." Compare also Raivl. MS. 
D. 207, fol. 18 {Passage over the Alpes, in 1688), "I took horse at 
the three Kings. Turin. ..we. ..had a sight of Avigliano, a place of 
pleasure belonging to the Duke of Savoy and finely situate on the 
rising of a hill." 

^ This appears to be the Castle alluded to by Symonds as Villiano. 
Vide Appendix G. 


proceeded to Burchelleena (lo miles)', the way plaine 
although wee began to enter the Alpes, haveing high 
mountaines on either side. Wee dyned att the three 
Pigeons, and from thence to Novellesa and lodged att 
the Posthovvse^ The Towne standeth att the foote of 
a very high Mountain e^. 

^ Bussoleno. In the early part of the 19th century this was the 
usual halting-place for the night for travellers who had crossed 
Mt. Cenis and were bound for Turin. See Galignani's T7-avelle'r's 
Gtnde (1819), p. xx., whei^e, however, the "Three Pigeons" is not 

^ Novalese was also one of the regular halting-places for travellers 
between France and Italy up to the early part of the 19th century. 
Compare the following accounts of the place and the country around 
it :— 

1575. "Aupiedde la montaigne [Mt. Cenis] La Novareze...qui est 
un gros bourg que ceux de Lanebourg qui parlent francoys nomment 
La Novalaise et est la pose ordinaire de ceux qui ont passe la 
montaigne, ainsy que Lanebourg de I'aultre cost^ de Savoye....Icy se 
commence a parler Italien Piedmontoys qui est une langage fort 
corrompu...a la sortye de ce bourg Ion commence a cheminer par 
cjuelques petits plaines pierreuses enserrees de montaignes d'un coste 
et d'autre." Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 31 f 

1688. "We rode all the afternoon upon rocky ground between the 
Mountains which were on both sides of a vast height. From the Top 
of 'em there fell down little Rivulets of snow water, which dividing 
them selves in falling into severall Channels or Cascades made a 
rabbling in their discents which added much to the horror of the 
place, the sight being on all sides terminated with the Prospect of 
barren Rocks, very high and very steep.... Wee lodged that night at 
Novalese a wretched little Town aboute three miles from Suse... 
scituate at the foot of Mount Cenis.... The inhabitants of Novalese get 
their living by accommodating Strangers with Mules or Chairs for the 
passage of this Mountain.. ..They are most Notorious Knaves, and lye 
continually upon the Catch to cheat strangers in their bargains.'' 
Rawl. MS. D. 207. 

See also Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 225 ff., where the place is 
called Novalaise, and Symonds' account in Appendix G, where it is 
La Novaleze. In the GentleincDfs Guide of 1787, the Post is mentioned 
as the chief inn at Novaleze, and in Galignani's Travellefs Guide of 
1 8 19 Novalezza is mentioned as the place for dining after the descent 
of Mt. Cenis into Italy. 

^ Mt. Cenis. Here the author has a marginal note, "Entrance 
of the Alpes." Compare Gainsford, Glory of E}tgla?id, p. 9 f , for a 
fanciful derivation of the name : — " Mount Sinese, the onely passage 
of the Alpes into Italy. It is called Sinese, quasi nunquam sifie fteve, 
never without snow, and is indeed a dangerous, tedious and cold 
travell even in the midst of summer." 

Ser. n. Vol. 17 

Longitude West 2 of GreenMch 

Longitude East 2 of Greenwich 

Compiled for the Haklujl Society- 

John Bartholomew &CoJ907 


The \2)th. August, 1620. Wee began to ascend the 
Mountaine aforesaid, which wee found to be steepie and 
Rockey. Att three miles wee passed over a litle bridge 
which divideth Savoy from Piedmont, wee now entringe 
into Savoy^ The ascent may bee about five miles. On 
the topp is a plaine of two miles and a halfe longe and 
a faire, cleire Lake of about a mile and a halfe in Com- 
passed. By the lake is a howse built purposelye when 
the Kinge of Fraunce his Sister came to be married to 
the Dukes sonne (as before mentioned^) that they might 
heere refresh themselves after their wearie ascendinge the 
Mountaine. The Duke himselfe, returninge from his pro- 
gresse, was then in the said howse where hee stayed to 
meete my Lord, hearinge of his departure from Turin, 
and haveing mett great Companies of his followers in our 
ascendinge the Hill and on the Plaine. Att our arrivall 
to the howse, his Lordshipp went to visitt and thanck his 
highnes for the great honour and loveinge entertainement 
which hee had received att Turin ^. And soe, haveing 
taken his leave, wee departed and came to the discent 
of the mountaine, which was wonderfull Steepie, soe that 
every man allighted^ my Lord being carried downe in 

^ In the map of Savoy by Hondius mentioned in note 6 on p. 109, 
"La grand +" is marked at the boundary between Savoy and Piedmont. 

2 Compare Laiisdowne MS. 720, fol. 28, ''En ceste plaine du Mont 
Senys y a deux lacs le grand et le petit, esquelz y a poisson." 

Compare ?\so Rawl. MS. D. 207, " Mount the highest and 
difficultest to passe of all the Alpes : Tis Computed to bee three miles 
in its ascent, three upon the Plain and four in its discent, the top is 
covered with Snow all Moneths in the year except from the latter end 
of June to the beginning of August, from which time it begins to fall 
and continues by fits all the Winter." 

See Symonds' account of " Mont Sinnys " in Appendix G, and 
Dumont, A New Voyage to the Levant., p. 54 ; see also A Tour in 
France and Italy., p. 24. 

^ See note 4 on p. no. 
* See pp. 109 — III. 

° Compare Gainsford's remarks on Mt. Cenis and its neighbour- 
hood. Glory of England., p. 98 f., " The passages to all these places 
are somewhat fearfuU to strangers, For to ride under, and behold such 

M. 8 


a chaire betwene Two men, there being those that attend 
there for that purpose, whoe gett their liveing thereby^ 
The Descent is three miles. Att the bottome lyes Lam- 
bort (lo miles)^, a small Towne, and wee dined att the 
three Kings I 

Note that in all the Countrie of Piedmont the people 
began to alter the Italian tongue, it being hard for us to 
understand their language, but on this side the mountaine 

mighty mountaines and rockes, to see the snow dissolve and runne 
downe with that impetuous force... is a thing both of admiration and 
pleasure. But for mine owne part, it startled me not at all, in regard 
I had marched over some mountaines and places in Ireland, especially 
Pen men m.awre in Wales, which for the length of the passage is the 
fearefullest that ever I saw... and indeed surmounteth any place of 
Savoy or the Alpes." 

See Coryat's Crudities^ vol. i. p. 224, see also Symonds' remarks, 
quoted in Appendix G, and Dumont, A New Voyage to the Levant, 
P- 54- 

' Compare Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 26 f., " Sur le hault de la 
montaigne y a hommes avec chaires esquelles Ion se met et assist. 
L'un d'lcieux va devant... tenant comme deux brancards en ses mains 
lesquelz tirent la chaire, et derrier Icelle y a un aultre homme qui... 
tient la chaire droicte qu'elle ne renverse....Par ce moyen se faict una 
lieue entiere en peu de temps estant avec ce bien a son Aise en mauvais 
chemin. Et d'aultant que premierement Ion usoit de grands rameaux 
au lieu de Chaires, Ion appelloit cela Ramasser." 

Compare also Sloane MS. 4217, Travels (in 1650), fol. 14, "Mont 
Cenis...the highest hill in Italy.. .wee ventured upon it being covered 
with ice and snow. Her Ladyship and her husband were carryed by 
Morans, that is men who have noe other trade but to carry men in 
Chaires made for the purpose up and downe that hill, fower to every 
chaire to rest and guide the chaire, whiles the other two beare the 
burthen ; they have Irons in the midst of theire shoes which hinder 
them from slipping." Symonds says the cost of descending the 
Italian side of the Mountain in a "Chaire" was five shillings. Vide 
Appendix G. 

^ Lanslebourg. The name of this town seems to have been a 
puzzle to travellers. Compare the following : — 

1575. " Lanebourg, gros bourg au pied du mont Senys...ou Ion 
parle Francoys Savoyart." Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 24 i. 

161 1. Coryat has Lasnebourg. Co?yafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 224. 

1 648. Symonds has " Lanbourg, a small village." Vide Appendix G. 

1650. "Lanebourg att the foote of Mont Cenis." Sloane MS. 
4217, fol. 14. 

1787. "Lanebourg the best place to repose at." Tlie Gejitleman's 

3 In none of the MSS. that I have seen is the Three Kings 


they speake broken French \ From Lambort wee came to 
Bramant (6 miles), alwaies betwene the Hills, and lodged 
att the three flower de Luces I From Lambort hither 
wee came alonge by a swifte River^, there beinge all the 
way great falls of Water^ which tumbleinge downe the 
hills maketh the said River, which runneth with great 
violence and noyse betwene the Mountaines. 

The igt/i. August, 1620. From Bramont wee came to 
St. Michells (8 miles)^, where haveinge dyned, wee pro- 
ceeded to St. Johns (4 miles), a Stronge walled Towne 
and lodged att the Blackemores head"; this day all alonge 
by the river afore mentioned". Heere his Lordshipp had 

^ See Appendix G for Symonds' remarks on the "corrupted 
Italian" and "such kind of French" as he heard in his Journey 
over Mt. Cenis. 

"In Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 24, this place appears as Bremont, 
and in the map of Savoy by Hondius (see note 6 on p. 109) it occurs as 
Branault. Compare Gainsford, Glory of Ejigland., p. 98, " Bramont, 
a city of that antiquity, that Caesar filleth some part of his Commen- 
taries with her relations." 

I have found no reference to the inn where Mundy lodged. 

^ The Arc. Compare La7tsdorvne MS. 720, fol. 21, "A la sortye 
du Montmillian se trouve un pont du boys, long de deux traicts d'arc... 
sur lequel il fault passer, et soubz iceluy cousle une riviere qui vient du 
mont Senyz, laquelle depuis sa source, Jusques icy est appellee pour sa 
rapacite Arc et d'icy descendant plus bas est nommee Lisere." 

* Coryat says that he saw "at the least a thousand torrents" 
between " Aiguegbelette and Novalese." See Coryafs Crudities., 
vol. i. p. 221. 

^ " St. Michel, Petite Ville bastye sur le declin d'une fort haulte 
roche." Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 23. Symonds calls it "a close 
nasty bourg." Vide Appendix G. 

^ St Jean de Maurienne. Compare La?tsdowne MS. 720, fol. 23, 
"Sainct Jehan de Morienne....Ceste ville n'est forte ny de murailles, 
ny de fossez, hors icelle est I'evesche." Du Verdier, Voyage de France, 
p. 399, calls the place S. Jean de Montane. In the map of Savoy by 
Hondius (see note 6 on p. 109) it is marked as S. Jean de Muriane. 
See Symonds' description of the place, quoted in Appendix G. See 
also Coryafs Crudities., vol. i. p. 223, and Dumont, A New Voyage 
to the Levant., P- 53- I have found no other reference to the 
" Blackemores head." In The Gentleman' s Gidde of 1787 the inns 
of the Mt. Cenis district are said to be "abominable" and, in 1828, 
Johnson, Traveller's Guide, p. 39, remarks, " Slept at St. Jean de 
Maurienne, a miserable inn." 

'' The Arc. See ante, note 3. 


a present sent him in the Princes name^ himselfe not 
there but expected the next day from Turin. This is 
a Bishopps Sea. 

The 20th. August, 1620. Wee came to Gabella^, and 
lay att the signe of the Rammed My Lord and Gentle- 
men past forward to Mummelan\ Servants and stuffe 
remained heere^ 

The 2ist. August, 1620. Att our arrivall heere (Sham- 
berly, 12 miles)®, my Lord etts. were passed forward to 

^ i.e. the Prince of Piedmont, Victor- Amadeus, eldest surviving son 
of Charles Emanuel, Duke of Savoy. See p. 1 10, notes 4 and 6. 

^ Aiguebelle. Mundy's spelling of the name of this place and also 
of Aiguebelette is peculiar. Compare Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 532, 
"Aiguebelle.... Petite ville apres laquelle s'eslargit une petite plaine 
entouree de montaignes par laquelle on va k Montmillan tenant le 
droict cliemin." Compare also Gainsford, Glory of hngland, p. 27, 
"The towne of Aguabelle is scituated at the foot of a great rocke, 
as if it lay asleepe in the lap of security. By it runnes the river of 
Arck." Symonds calls the place Egbelle {vide Appendix G). 

^ Symonds and other contemporary travellers do not mention this 
inn. When Johnson visited the place in 1828, Traveller's Guide., 
p. 38, he " endeavoured to get shelter for the night but the inn was too 
wretched." Pindar's train does not appear to have stopped at La 
Chambre, the usual halting place between St Jean de Maurienne and 

^ Montmelian. Compare Za/w^fc^/^^ ^6". 720, fol. 20, "Montmillian. 
...Petite ville sur le pied d'une haulte montaigne, 011 y a un chasteau sur 
le sommet d'un roc." Compare also Sloane MS. 4217, fol. 14, "From 
Chambery we passed by the strong fort of Montemelian... commanding 
all the valley front." See Gainsford's description, Glory of Etiglarid^ 
p. 96, and Symonds' remarks quoted in Appendix G. 

^ In the Rawl. copy of Mundy's Travels, here follows a double- 
page map of France and the South of England, by Hondius, undated, 
showing Mundy's various routes by sea and land. On the reverse of 
the second page of the map are the following remarks in the author's 
own handwriting : — "Whereas in this mappe are two passages through 
the whole kingdome of Fraunce described by two red lines, one from 
Pont debeauvoisin on the borders of Savoy, and the other from Diep 
unto Bayon : the first is punctually deciphered from place to place : 
But the other wee Rid post and took no perticuler notice of places. 
Only I remember wee past through Roan, Paris, Orleauns, Burdeaux 
and Bayon. Therefore I drew a Red line at all adventure from either 
of these places to the other. But I Remember that one night wee 
went downe a River in a boate, and that wee saw the Citty of Poitiers 
on our Right hand standing on a hill. I conceave wee came downe 
the River Loire from Orleauns, for heere the River maketh an angle." 

6 In the margin the author has " Schamberly = Shambery," and,, 
in his Index, " Shamberree, a nett Citty, the Cheifest in Savoy." 


Gabelletta^ Wee lodged att the Golden Aple without 
the Gate^ a Compleat howse and very good entertaine- 
ment, this Cittie being the fairest wee saw within the 
Alpes and the laste, handsome comely buildings tiled 
with slates, makeinge a beautifull shew, and great store 
of good ground round about. All the Townes wee sawe 
among the Alpes (this and St. Johns^ excepted) were very 
poorely built and as poorely inhabited, beinge all Labourers 
of that little ground which lyes amonge the Rockey 
Mountaines, there lowe howses covered with greate Slates'* 
of stone, the poore people many of them haveing greate 
Wenns under their Chinns, ordinarily as bigg as two fists, 
but some of them as bigg as a mans headl Schamberly 
differs altogether, haveing faire, great, stronge buildings, 
comely people, beinge plentifull of all things and very 
populous, scituated in a valley with a pleasant peece of 
Countrey round about**. There being yett one Mountaine 

^ Aiguebelette. 

^ I have found no other reference to this inn. The Gentlematfs 
Guide of 1787, which characterises all the inns on this route as 
" abominable," says that Chambery is one of " the best places to 
repose at." 

^ i.e. St Jean de Maurienne. 

* The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, has " Plates." 

° Symonds has some very amusing remarks with regard to the 
prevalence of goitre and the cause of the disease {vide Appendix G). 
Compare Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 531, " Ceux de ce pays ont la plus 
grand part (comme aussy par toute la Savoye) une louppe soubs la gorge 
qui n'est moins grosse des deux poings ensemble k cause de quoy 
ils sont appellez les Gouns de Savoye, et ceste enfleure la goetre 
laquelle ne procedde que de la grande froiddeur des eaux qu'ilz 
boivent qui ne viennent que de nieges fondues, estimee la pire de 
toutes les eaux avec celle de glace." Compare also Coulon, Les 
Rivieres de France., vol. ii. p. 123, " Chambery... est embellie de 
plusieurs fontaines d'eau vive...cela n'empesche pas que plusieurs des 
habitants n'ayent une enfleure de gorge, qu'on nomme Goitre, qui est 
une incommodite presque commune a tous les .Savoyards, causae par 
la froideur des eaux." See also Coryat, who describes the swelling 
as of the size of a "foote-ball." Coryafs Crudities., vol. i. p. 223. 

'' Compare Rawl. MS. D. 1685 {Sir Thomas Abdfs Travels)., 
"July 1633, Chambei'y, capitale ville de la Savoye, qui est au Due 
d'icelle en tiltre, mais au Roy de P'rance en effet, le Frere naturel 
de ce Due y gouverne pour le present." For other descriptions of 


to crosse over, att one end whereof is a Lake stored 
with fish\ 

TJie 2,2nd. AugiLst, 1620. Haveinge passed over the 
Mountaine", being very steepy upp and downe, wee came 
to Gabelletta (6 miles), lyeing att the foote thereof on the 
other side, and there wee dined att the Posthowse^ From 
thence to Pont de Beauvoisin, where my Lord tarried for 
us. In the midle of this Towne is a bridge over a Httle 
River^ which parteth France and Savoy, halfe of the said 
bridge belonging to the one, and thother halfe to thother 
with the Lihabitants that dwell on their sides ^ 

The 2yd. August, 1620. About noone wee came to 
Bargueen (10 miles)**, and dined att the Posthowse''; from 
thence to Avertpiller (4 miles)^, and lay also att the 

Chambdry see Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 217; Dumont, A New 
Voyage to the Levant, p. 53 ; A Tour in France and Italy, p. 23 ; and 
Symonds' description, quoted in Appendix G. 

' i.e. The Lac d'Aiguebelette. Coryat describes it as "an ex- 
ceeding great standing poole.'' Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 215. 
Compare Coulon, Les Rivieres de France, vol. ii. p. 49, " II y a...quel- 
ques lacs qui nourissent force poissons, dont les plus renommez sont 
ceux de d'Aiguebelette." 

^ Compare Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 215, " Aiguebelette, which 
is the first Alp"; and Sloane MS. 4217, foL 14, "A very high hill 
called le Mont Aiguebelette." In the map of Savoy by Hondius 
(see note 6 on p. 109) the mountain is marked as the " Col de 
I'Aiguebelette." Symonds calls it " Le Montagne de Gibelet" {vide 
Appendix G). 

^ Compare Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 18, "Aiguebelette.,.. Petite 
ville autrement appellee La Guybelette." This spelling probably 
accounts for the author's "Gabelletta." There is still an inn at 
Aiguebelette called La Poste. 

* The Guier, a tributary of the Rhone. 

^ See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 215. See also Symonds' remarks, 
quoted in Appe7idix G. 

^ Bourgoin. The author has " Barguin " in the margin. 

'' La Poste was still the chief inn at Bourgoin as late as 1828 when 
Johnson dined there. See Traveller's Guide, p. 33. 

* La Verpilliere. In Z^z/j-^'icww^iT/.S'. 720, fol. 17, this place is called 
La Volpiliere. Coryat has Vorpillere, Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 214. 


The 2Afth. August, 1620. Wee came to the Cittie of 
Lyons (12 miles)\ great and populous, through which 
runneth two Rivers", one of them haveinge twenty and 
odd floatinge mills^, h'ke to those of Belgrade although 
they are much inferior in Beautie and bignes. This place 
is of great Trafifique, aboundinge with Merchants and 
Shoppkeepers^ Wee lodged at the three flowre de Luces', 
a very faire and well furnished howse. The hyre of 
our horses from Turin hither cost nine Venetian Che- 
keens® each. 

The 2$th. Ajigiist, 1620. This eveninge all the Atten- 
dants departed Lyons, and that night wee came to Tarrara 
(18 miles)'^, haveing ridd post att 20 solz^ or 2s. per horse 
per stage, and a Stage some four, some five English miles ; 
my Lord etts. being to come after. 

^ The author has "Lions" in the margin. 

2 " Two rivers, viz. Saone and Rhosne or Rhodanus ; the last 
runneth downe by Marseilles both meeting in one." Author's 
marginal note, added in his own writing and not found in the B.M. 
copy, Harl. MS. 2286. 

^ Compare Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 206, " Over this River 
(Rhodanus) also there is a very faire Bridge, and ten pretie water 
Milles I sawe on the water neere to the Bridge, seven on one side, 
and three on the other." For the mills at Belgrade, see p. 73. 

* See Symonds' description of Lyons, quoted in Appendix G. 
Compare also Rawl. MS. D. 120, fol. 32, Travels (in 1648), " Lyons.... 
This city which surpasseth most townes of Europe... comprehends 
within the circuit of her walls, mountaines and plaines, gardens, 
vineyards &c....for a city so remote from the sea it is the richest 
of France." 

^ Coryat, in 1608, "lay at the signe of the three Kings, which is 
the biggest Inne in the whole citie." {Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. 
p. 211.) In 1675, Englefield {Rawl. MS. D. 197) remarks, "Our 
Lodging att Lions... was the white Lionn att one Mr Lafrueurs a 
coukes shop." I have found no other mention of the inn where 
Mundy lodged. 

^ See note 2 on p. 26. Reckoning the sequin at nine shillings, the 
cost of travelling from Turin to Lyons (no miles according to the 
author's computation) was about £^ per horse. 

'' Tarare. Symonds {vide Appendix G) says, "Wee lay at Terrara 
in a hole, a little bourg unwald." 

* The sol, or sou, a coin worth 12 deniers or about ifd. English. 


The 26th. August, 1620. With Posthorses also, wee came 
to Rovana\ a Towne on the River of Loire, where my 
Lord and gentlemen overtooke us. 

The 2'jth. August, 1620. There were two boates hired 
from hence to Orleance- att Ten French Crownes^ per 
boate, one for my Lord and gentlemen and the other 
for the Attendants, in which wee departed, and that 
Eveninge wee came to Marseenee (10 miles)*, haveing 
bene aground noe lesse then twentie tymes this day. 
The River of Loire att present very shallowe but in 
winter exceedinge broad and deepe. 

The 28///. Aug?(st, 1620. In our way hither (St. Albuins, 
20 miles)^ wee were a ground as many tymes to day as 
wee were Yesterdaye. 

The 2gth. Augiist, 1620. This (Deseesa, 20 miles)® is 
a stronge walled Towne with a stone bridge, and by reason 
wee came late, wee lodged without the walls. 

The ydth. August, 1620. Wee came to Novers (12 
miles), a faire and stronge Cittie with a stone bridge 

^ Roanne. See Symonds' account of Roanne, quoted in Appendix 
G. He mentions the two chief inns of the place. 

2 Compare Rawl. MS. D. 120, fol. 32, Ti'aveh (in 1648), "Roane, 
buih on the river Loire, and is the first towne where the river beares 
boates." Compare also Du Verdier, Le Voyage de France, p. loi, 
"Roane. ..est assis sur la rive gauche de Loire, et commence la de 
porter bateau, bien que ce soit trente lieues de la source. On s'y 
embarque pour Orleans." See also Coulon, Les Rivieres de France, 
vol. i. p. 254. 

^ The common English name, in the seventeenth century, for the 
French ^cu, worth about 4s. 6d. The cost of boat hire from Roanne 
to Orleans was higher when Symonds made the journey in 1648 
{vide Appendix G). 

* Marcigny. " Marsigni, celebre Monastere des religieuses de 
Cluny." Coulon, Les Rivieres de France, vol. i. p. 254. 

^ i.e. St Aubin-sur-Loire. 

^ Decize. Compare Coulon, Les Rivie7'es de France, vol. i. p. 259, 
" Decise est une ville ainsi nommee pour avoir este bastie sur le fonds 
d'une petite Isle, detach^e de terre ferme par artifice, pour la rendre 
plus forte." 


also^ Wee stayed not, but proceeded to another stronge 
Towne called La Charite (12 miles) with a stone bridge", 
where wee went on shoare that night ; and this day I gott 
an Ague because I tooke a little too much paines in 
roweing for my pleasure. 

The iit/i. August, 1620. A myle from the River stands 
Sansare (10 miles), upon a little hill, A Castle of Pro- 
testants, accounted one of the strongest holds they have 
in France^: From thence to Severall Towns as they stand 
in the Margent (Cone, 4 miles^; Neuce, 8 miles^; Bone, 
2 miles®; Ossun, 2 miles'^; Brearee, 4 miles ^), Lastly to 

^ Nevers. Compare Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 3, "Nevers...en 
laquelle y a...pont de pierre." Compare also Gainsford, Glory of 
England, p. 1 1 7, " On the river of Loire washing clean the fields with his 
strange overflowings are erected Cosme, Le Charity, the Citie of Nevers 
with her long bridge... and many other towns." Coulon, in his Fidele 
Conducteur, p. 123, writes of Nevers, "Son pont est magnifique, basty 
de pierres de tallies, et soutenu de vingt arcades, d'une riche structure, 
avec des pont-levis aux deux bouts, et des tours pour battre aux 
avenues." See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 198, where the bridge is 
described as of wood, and Uu Verdier, Le Voyage de France, p. 103. 

^ " La Charite... ou y a un fort beau et long pont de pierre de taille." 
Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. 2. Compare Coulon, Le Fidele Condncteur, 
p. 122, "La Charitd merita de porter ce beau nom pour les grandes 
liberalitez, qu'y exercoient autrefois les Moynes de Cluny envers les 
pauvres et les Pelerins. On y voit un beau pont de pierre sur le 
Loire." For Symonds' description of La Charitd see Appendix G. 

^ Sancerre. Compare Coulon, Le Fidele Conducteur, p. 273, " San- 
cerrc.cette ville estoit assez recommandable dans les escrits des 
Anciens sous le nom de Sacrum Cereris, pource qu'on y adoroit 
Ceres, la Deese des bleds ; ou plustost sous celui de Sacrum Caesaris, 
comme qui diroit I'Oratoire de Cesar." See also Du Verdier, Le 
Voyage de France, p. 104. Symonds calls the place Sainct Loire 
and says it was known as " Papaute des Huguenots" {vide Ap- 
pendix G). 

* Cosne. Symonds has "Coane" and "Cone sur Loyre" {vide 
Appendix G). 

^ i.e. Neuvy-sur-Loire. The place is marked as Neuvy in a map 
of 1701 (B.M. 1063. 2). 

^ i.e. Bonny. Symonds has "Bone" and "Bony" {vide Ap- 
pendix G). 

"^ The modern spelling of this place is Ousson. 

^ i.e. Briare. In Hondius' map of France (see note 5 on p. 116) 
this place is marked as Briart. See Symonds' remarks on Briare, 
quoted in Appendix G. 


Gean (4 miles)\ a stronge Towne. Here wee lodged att 
a Protestants howse. All the Townes aforesaid, excepting 
Sansare, stand close to the Rivers side. 

The First September^ 1620. From Gean wee came to 
Sulitt (10 miles)-; from thence to San Benitt (4 miles)^; 
from thence to Chasteau Neufe (6 miles)^, where was 
a Castle, from thence to Gerseaue (4 miles)^; and from 
thence to the Cittie of Orleaunce (10 miles). Wee came 
from Rouana hither downe the river of Loire, whereon 
wee sawe in our way att least one hundred and fifty 
floatinge Mills'^, and were aground twenty or thirty tymes 
every day. On this river are great store of protestants, 
and whole Townes of them. In this Cittie is a very faire 
stone bridge with shopps and buildings on it ; Alsoe the 
Image of the Maid of Orleaunce kneeling on the one side 
of the Image of our Lady, and the Kinge kneeling on 
the other side, all artificially cast in brasse''. Of this 

1 i.e. Gien. Coulon, Les Rivieres de France., gives the route from 
Sancerre as follows : — " De Sancerre on vogues jusques a Cosne sur 
les frontiers du de Cosne a Neuvy....De Neuvy on 

descend a Briare...on se rend a Bonny De Bonny 

on coule k Giem ville tres ancienne et garnie d'un beau pont sur 
le Loire.... Les Protestants s'en saisirent au commencement de leur 
revoke, mais les Catholiques la reprirent bien tost." 

2 Sully. Lansdowne MS. 720, fol. i, has "Sully, petite ville assez 
forte." Compare Coulon, Les Rivieres de Fratice^ vol. i. p. 277, " Entre 
Giem et Jergeau I'on void sur la main gauche la Duche de Suilly avec 
les vestiges d'un ancien pont." 

3 St Benoit, named from its Abbey. 
* Chateauneuf-sur-Loire. 

^ Jargeau. In Hondius' map of France (see note 5 on p. 116) this 
place is marked as Gergeant. 

^ See pp. T}) and 1 19. 

'' Compare Harl. MS. 288, fol. 284, Directions to Travelters {circ. 
1620), " Orleans.. -where you may see. ..a statue of brasse of the Pucel 
de Orleans." Compare also Rawl. MS. D. 120, fol. 2, Travels (in 
1648), " Orleuns. This City in the account of many is reconned 
the second of France though (in my Judgement) it may content it 
selfe with a third or fourth place ; its seated on the river Loire, the 
streets are the brodest of any that I have scene in France, the buildings 
but ordinary." For full descriptions of the statues on the bridge at 
Orleans see Du Verdier, Le Voyage de France., p. 83, and Coulon, Le 
Fidele Condiicteur., p. 126. 


Mayde the French report miraculous exploits done by 
her against the English att, and after there beseidging 
of the Cittie. Our comeinge late and departinge early 
occaisoned brevitie in relateinge^ other perticulers worth 
notice in this famous place. 

Heere were Coaches hyred for Paris att 4 livers 4 solz^ 
per man, and i solz per pound weight lumberment. The 
Boatemen that come downe from Rouana, as others that 
come downe the River, att their arrival! heere sell their 
boates, because they are not worth the labour to be carried 
backe against the streame, being but slightlie made. All 
the Countrey downe the River very pleasant and full 
of Citties, Townes, villages and buildings, meadowes, 
gardens, etts. 

The 2d. September, 1620. Wee came to Artenee (12 
miles)^, and from thence to Tore (8 miles)*, where wee 
lay att the three flowre de Luces ^ All the way hither 
on a Cawsye, and the Countrie on both sides soe pleasant, 
plaine and Levell as I never sawe the like, all tillage 
ground*'. Halfe a mile from Orleaunce were two men 
executed, one hanged on a Tree, and the other layd on 
a wheele. 

The "i^d. September, 1620. In the morninge wee departed 
and came to Angere (8 miles)'', and from thence to Estant 

1 In the margin Mundy has written, " Omission in observing." 
This note is not in the B.M. copy, Hart. MS. 2286. 

^ See note 4 on p. 98, and note 4 on p. 100. 

^ Artenay. Pindar and his train left the Loire at Orleans and 
travelled direct to Paris by the route now followed by the railway. 

* Toury. 

^ I have found no other mention of this inn. 

^ Compare Du Verdier, Le Voyage de France, p. 'j'j f., " Le chemin 
de Paris a Orleans est pav^ la plus grand part, et sur iceluy se voyent 
plusieurs villes et Rourgs bien agreables, comme Longjumeau... 
Chastres...Estampes...on void apr^s plusieurs lieux moindres, et 
entr'autres Angerville, Thoury et Artenay, le chemin qu'on fait d'icy 
k Orleans est fort agreable en son vignoble et comme plants de 
quantity d'arbres." "^ Angerville. 


(i2 miles)\ where wee dined, and then to Chatres, where 
wee lay att the three Blacke mooresl Halfe the way as 
plaine as yesterdayes, but the other halfe a little Hillie, 
though pleasant, fruitefull, and full of Townes''. 

The d^tJi. September, 1620. Wee came to Longmewe 
(6 miles)^, and then to Belarena (4 miles)^, and from 
thence to the Cittie of Paris (4 miles). Halfe a mile 
before wee came neere, were four men on wheeles", two 
whereof were gentlemen that had killed a Couzin of 
Mounseir le Grande". Hereabouts I had like to have 
bene served a prettie trick with a Copper Chaine. From 
Chatres hither all the way wonderfully peopled and In- 
habited, whereof most walled Townes. I my selfe from 
a little riseinge did tell neere 100 Townes small and 
greate, all in sight att one tyme. Wee lodged att the 
Iron Crosse in St. Martins streete*^. 

The ^th. September, 1620. Mr Davis^ Mr Wilson^" and 
my selfe went to see the Cittie ; and first wee sawe one 
of the Bridges over which we passed, not knoweinge then 
but it was a streete, having shopps and dwellings on either 
side from end to end, lyeing levill with the rest of the 

^ Etampes. 

^ The modern Arpajon. Chatres, on the river Orge, eight leagues 
from Paris, was, a hundred years after Mundy's visit, adjudged to be 
comprised within the Marquisate of Arpajon and thenceforth became 
generally known under the latter designation. It, however, appears 
as Chatres as late as 1770. See the map prefixed to The Gentleinan^ s 
Guide in his Tour through France. 

^ See ante., p. 123, note 6. * Longjumeau. 

^ Bourg-la-Reine. Coryat calls the place Chappel de la Royne, 
Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 195. 

^ See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 196. 

^ Gaston-Jean-Baptiste de France, Duke of Orleans (1608 — 1660), 
brother of Louis XIIL, known by the title of Monsieur. 

* " Paris. ..vous entrerez dans cette ville...pour y prendre tel logis 
que vous aviserez...en la rue Saint Martin, ou autre qui ne manquera 
non plus que celle-la de vous presenter logis commode." Du Verdier, 
Le Voyage de France, p. ']■}>■ 

^ See pp. 41 and 46. 10 gee pp. 41, 44, 48 and 76. 


Cittie^ : likewise the new bridge'"', beinge very stronge 
large and faire, on the which is an Ingenious howse for 
conveyance of water, curiously built and beautified with 
Turretts, fine devices, etts., a Clock and dyall ; also the 
Statue of a maide cast in brasse with a buckett in her 
hand, wherewith shee seemeth to powre out the water, 
which indeed runneth with a very full streame'^ out of 
the said Buckett and by Pipes is conveyed to the Loure* 
or Kings howse. Att one end of the said bridge is the 
Statue of king Henry 4th. mounted on horseback of 
exceedinge greatnes, and workemanshipp of brasse also, 
sent him by the Duke of Florence^ 

^ This bridge was either the Pont Notre-Dame or the Pont Saint 
Michel. Compare Du Verdier, Le Voyage de Fraftce, p. 228, " Le Pont 
Nostre-Dame, et celuy de saint Michel ont este bastis de pierre, le 
premier depuis I'an 1507, sous le Roy Louis XII. Avec six arches 
et 68 maisons de mesme hauteur et largeur aux deux costez : Aux 
quatre coins sont des tourelles, et au milieu des Images de Nostre- 
Dame et de saint Denys, avec les annes de Paris au dessous, il a este 
tres-bien pave de nouveau. Le Pont Saint Michel ayant este basty 
sous Charles VI. s'abbatit I'an 1546, et fut depuis refait avec des 
maisons basties aux deux costez de hauteur ^gale." See also Coryafs 
Crudities^ vol. i. p. 171, Heylyn, A Full Relation of Two Journeys, 
p. 90, and Coulon, Le Fidel e Conducteur, p. 28. 

^ The Pont Neuf was not quite finished when Coryat visited Paris 
in 1608. See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 171. 

^ In the British Museum copy, Harl. MS. 2286, the words "out of 
the said Buckett and by Pipes is conveyed" are omitted. 

* The Louvre. 

5 Compare Rawl.MS. D. 197, Trai'els (in 1648), "The river Senne 
crosses the new brige of Paris of a greate bredthe and Lengthe, on 
both sides are Large high walks paved with frie stone for people tow 
walke ovre. Their is the pictur of Hennery the 4 of France on 
horsback upon a greatt breson horse with 4 sclaves chained tow his 
horse all of brass. The horse stands upon a high mount of white 
and black marble. Round itt are Iron bars soe that noe man can 
tutch itt." Compai^e also Sloane MS. 2142, Jour7ial of a Voyage (in 
1658), fol. 2 f. : — "The Pont Neufe which is between the Louvre and 
the Convent of Augustins was begun to be built under Henry the 
third, 1578. It contains twelve Arches. At the 12th. Arch of that 
Bridge on the side of the Louvre is erected a Pomp which mounts 
the water from the River and represents the Samaratine pouring out 
water to Christ. Upon it is a Clocke which markes the houres in 
the forenoone in ascending, and after dinner in descending. In the 
middle of the Arch is a statue of Brasse representing Henry the 


From thence to Rue Toroone\ where resideth the 
EngHsh Ambassador^, And a stately Pallace now building 
for the Queene mother^ 

From thence to the Loured where first wee sawe a very 
rich hall, the walls of Marble and Jasper, the floore 
Marble, white and black, adorned with Jasper pillars, 
the roofife most richly guilt and excellently painted with 
the twelve signes-', seven Plannetts and four Seasons of 
the yeare. Att the one end stood a marble Statue of 
Diana, the same that was att Ephesus (as they say), with 
the one hand on the Homes of a deere (standinge Close 

great on horse backe. On the four sides of the marble Pillar on 
which the statue is placed, are graven the Principal victoryes of 
the King." 

"The yeare i6i4....The Statue of Brasse of Henry the Great, 
was by the great Duke of Tuscany sent to Paris, and placed with 
the Horse of Brasse, upon the midst of the New Bridge." An Epi- 
tome of All the Lives of the Kings of France, p. 338. 

For other seventeenth century descriptions of the Pont Neuf see 
Coulon, Le Fidele Conductetir, p. 27 ; Du Verdier, Le Voyage de 
France, p. 236; Heylyn, A Full Relation of Two Journeys, p. 90; and 
A Tour iti France and Italy (1675), P- 6. 

1 i.e. the Rue de Tournon in the Faubourg St Germain. The 
street still bears the same name. 

2 The Enghsh Ambassador in Paris at the time of Mundy's visit 
was Edward Herbert, first Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1583 — 1648), 
who had been appointed in 1619. He furnished a house at great 
expense in the Faubourg St Germain. For a full account of his 
life and diplomatic career see the Diet, of Nat. Biography. 

3 The Luxembourg or Palais d'Orleans, built by Jacques Delrosse 
for Marie de Medicis. Compare Abdy's description of the palace in 
1633, Rawl. MS. D. 1285, "Wee. ..came to Paris, where we saw the 
Queenes Mothers house, a worke not yet finished, but yet of excellent 
raritie, there being one walke before the front of the house pavd with 
blacke and white marble, the pillars encompassing it being also of 
the same, a gallerie of competent height hung with pictures all re- 
presenting the story of the life of the Queene Mother even from her 
infancie to this present. There we saw roomes richly Gilded even 
beyond admiration." Compare also Du Verdier, Lc Voyage de Fra72ce, 
p. 75, " L'Hostel de Luxembourg, basty par la Reine, Ayeule de Roy, 
Marie de Medecis, qui est sans difificulte le plus beau logis qui soit 
dans Paris." 

See also Coulon, Le Fidele Conductenr, p. 2)0. 

* " Loure, the kings howse in Paris." Author's Index. 
■5 i.e. of the Zodiac. 


by her), and the other on her quiver^ There were divers 
other Statues of Gods and Godesses of great Antiquitie, 
as appeared by their Duskie coulour of Marble^, also, in 
the midle, there hunge downe from the roofife a Spheire 
which (as they say) would shew the moveings of the 
Heavens, Ecclipses, etts. motions of the Sunn, Moone and 
Starrs ; but then it was out of frame. 

From thence to an other large Hall, where were pictured 
divers Kings and Queenes of France, The Kings with their 
Sonnes on th' one side, and the Queenes with their daughters 
on the others Att the upper end stood King Henry 4th. 
with his Queene Marie de Medicis, on whose gowne the 
Painter had soe farr strained his Art that it almost de- 
ceaved the sight, soe exquisitly shadowed that it really 
appeared to bee blew velvett. Her picture by report cost 
6000 Crownes the makeinge*. 

From thence to the longe Gallery, conteyning from 
one end to an other about 600 ordinary stepps of a man, 
the one side full of windowes, lookeing downe into the 
River and the Kings Gardens^, full of curious knotts and 
rare Inventions, the other side of the said Gallery was 
plaine, but intended to bee adorned with excellent Statues 

1 " Diane a la biche," among the "Ancient Sculptures," in the Salle 
du Tibre. Compare Coulon, Le Fidele Conducteur, p. 49, " Le 
Louvre.... On y void une sale des Antiques remplie de pieces curieuses, 
comme est une Diane d'Ephese.' 

2 The author is alluding to the "Ancient Sculptures" in the Musee 
des marbres antiques. See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 173. 

^ See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 174, and Symonds' description 
of the Louvre, quoted in Appendix G. See also Coulon, Le Fidele 
Conducteur, pp. 25 and 49. 

* This full length portrait of Marie de Medicis, which is still in the 
Louvre, was painted by Pourbus (1540 — 1622). 

^ Compare Sloa7ie MS. 2142, fol. 3 (1658), "There is a very fine 
garden belonging to it [the Louvre], at one side whereof is a high 
Alley al paved with stone, and set al along with Orange trees. There 
is also a very faire gallery on another part of the house furnished 
with the Pictures of many of the Kings and Queenes of France. Out 
of this gallery there is another, which goes al along the River and 
is soe long that the end of it can be very hardly discovered." See 
also Coulon, Le Fidele Conducteiir, p. 39. 


and pictures, but not yett finished \ From thence to other 
the kings roomes, all carved, painted, guilded, and hunge 
with Cloth of Arras^. From thence to the Queenes 
Cabbinett, being a litle square roome exceedinge all the 
rest for admirable workemanshipp in paintinge and guild- 
inge, there beinge the Younge Kinge and Queenes picture, 
also of King Henry his father and the Queene his Mother, 
with divers other curiosities^ (The King, the Queene, as 
also the English Ambassador then att Potiers)^ 

^ Compare A Tour in France and Italy (1675), p. 3, "The Louvre 
has only one end, and one side of it finish'd ; and when the rest shall 
be added, will be one of the most extraordinary Pallaces in the 
World, both as to its Greatness and Figure, not any in Italy re- 
sembling it in either : Behind it is the great Garden of the Tuilleries, 
which is near half as long as St. James's Park: Is prettily planted 
with Firr-Trees, Cypress, etc., and would be very fine, were they 
grown up, and that it had Gravel- Walks. Beyond this, is the Cour 
de la Reyne, a place by the River-side, set with Trees about a Mile 
long, like the great Walk in St. James's Park : wherein the Coaches 
take the Air in the Evening, and with some jostling, pass and turn, 
there being in the middle, and at the end, round places for that 
purpose." See also Coryafs Crudities^ vol. i. p. 175. 

^ Compare Sloane MS. ^\i!i,i., fol. 3 (1658), "The Louvre is the 
Lodging ordinarily of the King when he is at Paris. The building 
is one of the statelyest of France and the Kings Lodgings as thick 
as any mortal man can be ambitious off. In the Chamber where 
he lyes is a place where his bed stands, which is al raild in with great 
rayles of massy silver." See also A I our in France and Italy., p. 3. 

2 Compare Raivl. MS. D. 197, fol. 4 f , Travels (in 1648), "I went 
in the morneing tow see the Louer the Kings pallace itt is a vast 
Sumtius Building of polliched stone the bigest and finest home in 
Europe. Wee saw the Kings the Quines the Dauphins and the 
young Duke of Orlianes Quarters all which are for the most part 
wennescoted butt excellently carved and gilt and painted by the best 
masters of France most of Romantick storis and fables. The seating 
of the roumes are the like butt much finer.... The Roume of Audience 
is very Long, most excellently well gilt, painted and foull of great 
rich Chints, the hangings are of cloth of Goulde imbraded with silver, 
the flower of the Louer is all of wood excellently in Laide."... 

Compare also Sloane MS. 2142, fol. 3* " The Chamber and Cabinett 
of the Queenes are as stately and rich as that of the Kings and 
replenished with very fine and rare Pictures." For further accounts 
see Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 173 and A Tour in France a?id Italy 

(i675)> P- 3- 

* After the reconciliation of Louis XIII. with his mother, Marie 
de Medicis, at Brissac, in August, 1620, the king went to Poitiers to 
put the affairs of Guienne in order. See Abrege Chronologique de 
VHistoire de Fra7tce sous les Regnes de Louis XIII. et Louis XIV., 
vol. i. p. 185. 


Then wee past over the drawe bridge where the 
Marquesse de Ancres was slaine by the Kings Com- 
maundement^: Soe to Rue Pharaon, where the last King 
was Killed by Ravilliacke^. Hard by stands Innocents 
church, rounde about whose Churchyard were great Store- 
howses full of Deadmens bones, manifest to sight through 
the Barrs, also many of them made into a wall with 
morter ; others lay scattered heere and there under mens 
feete. They report that the earth of this Church yard 
hath this quallitie more then others, that in few dayes it 
consumes the dead bodyes of those that are layed therein, 
leaveinge nothinge but the very bonesl 

Afterwards to the Exchange, of which little can bee 
said, it consistinge only of a fiew shopps, where they sell 
bands, gloves, girdles, Garters etts/ And from thence to 

^ The Marechal d'Ancre met his death by the orders of Louis XI IL 
on the 24th April, 161 7. He was attacked by Vitri and his followers 
in the middle of the drawbridge over the fosse of the Louvre. Coin- 
pare Rawl. MS. D. 1285 Travels (in 1633), "We were showen the 
place where Le Marsheshall d'Ancre was pistold by Monsieur de 
Vitry the King himselfe being at the window and looking on." For an 
account of the town house of the Marechal d'Ancre, see Appendix G. 

2 Henri IV. was assassinated by Frangois Ravaillac on the 14th 
May, 1610, in the Rue de la Ferronerie. The following quaint 
account of the murder is given in A71 Epitome of all the Lives of 
the Kings of France^ p. 339 f , " This great King [Henri IV.] was 
on Friday the 14. of May, 1610 about foure in the afternoon most 
trayterously murthered in his Caroch with two stabbs with a knife 
neare the region of his heart, passing in the Streete of the Ferronery 
neare the Charnells of the Innocents Churchyard, by Francis Ravaillac 
borne in Angolesme." 

Compare Pococke, Travels (in 1733), -Add. MS. 22078, fol. y)., " We 
went to see the Street Ferronerie where Harry 4 was assassinated." 
The Rue de la Ferronerie hes between the Rue des Halles and the 
Rue St. Denis. 

^ Compare Raiul. MS. D. 120, fol. 2, Travels (in 1648), "Paris... 
I say [saw] the churchyard of St. Innocents which devoures and 
digests dead bodyes (all but the bones) in 24 howres." See also 
Symonds' description, quoted in Appendix G. 

* Compare the two following widely different opinions about the 
Exchange at Paris: — "As for their exchange where they sell many 
fine and curious things, there are two or three pretty walks in it, but 
neither for length, nor for the roofe nor the exquisite workmanship 

M. Q 


the great Church of our Lady with two great Steeples, 
one of which wee ascended \ from whence wee saw the 
prospect of the whole Cittie to our great wonder, as well 
for the greatnesse as beautie thereof, being neere to 
roundnes, very thick and close built, with few wast places. 
Att the topp of this Tower is a Gallery to passe to thother, 
but the passage stopt upp. In this were fowre great Bells. 
AUmost all the Townes from Orleaunce hitherto, both 
small and great, were walled, some but slightly, and others 
more stronglie. 

The 6th. September, 1620. Haveinge hired Coaches from 
Paris to Callis, at 40 Crownes- per Coach, wee departed, 
leveing Signor Dominico behinde with a feavour*, and 
Vincentio^ to attend him ; and passinge through sundery 
Townes vizt. St. Deenes (4 miles)^, Pierra feeta (2 miles)", 

is it any way to be compared with ours in London." Coryafs Cru- 
dities, vol. i. p. 172. 

"The exchange which is a greatt Hall paved with a stone like 
white and black marble, itt is nerely braude and long, the chops are 
roung greate heigh pillars so that itt Loukes with inn finer then our 
exchange, their are close by Sum Long walkes foull of boukecellers 
chops and other sort of things." Rawl. MS. D. 197, fol. 5. 

1 Coulon, Le Fidele Condiicteiir, p. 36, has a long description of 
Notre Dame. He mentions "les deux Grandes Tours, ou Ton monte 
par 389 degrez." 

Compare Heylyn, A Full Relation of two Journeys, p. 69, " Nostra 
Dame... hath.. .at the front two Towers of admirable beauty; they 
are both of an equal height, and are each of them y]'] steps in the 
ascent. From hence we could clearly see the whole circuite of Paris, 
and each severall street of it." See also Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 172 
and Symonds' description, quoted in Appe7idix G. 

2 See note 3 on p. 120. 

^ The Dragoman. See p. 42. 

* A Greek. See p. 43, where he is called Vincento Castello. 

5 St Denis. See Coryafs Crudities, vol. i. p. 169 and Symonds' 
remarks, quoted in Appendix G. Compare Heylyn's droll description 
of the place, A Full Relation of two fou7-neys, p. 54, " St. Denis has 
a wall of a large circuit, and very much unproportionable to the 
Town, which standeth in it, for all the world like a Spaniards little 
face in his great ruffe, or like a small chop of Mutton in a large dish 
of pottage at the three penny Ordinary." 

" Pierrefitte. Du Verdier, Le Voyage de France, p. 321, has 
" Pierre fricte ou ficte, une lieue de Saint Dennys." 


St. Breesa (2 miles)\ Moisea (2 miles)^ Beaumont (6 
miles), a faire Towne with a river ^ and so from thence 
att Eveninge to Pisew (4 miles)*, where wee lodged att 
the Crowne. 

The jth. September, 1620. From Pisew wee came to 
Tilliare (6 miles)^ ; from thence to the Cittie of Beauvais 
(6 miles)^ and dined att the Christopher ; from whence 
wee came to a poorc Towne called Lehero (10 miles)'', 
where wee had as poore entertainment. 

The 2>th. September, 1620. Wee came to Pouy (10 
miles)®, and dined att the Dolphine, and from thence to 
Pondormy (14 miles), a walled Towne ^, and lay att the 

The gth. September, 1620. Wee came to the Cittie of 

^ St Brice. See Coryafs Cricdities, vol. i. p. 168. Du Verdier, Le 
Voyage de Fra7ice, p. 321, has " Saint Prix." 

2 Moisselles. Du Verdier has " Moixelles." 

^ See Symonds' account of Beaumont in Appendix G. The town 
is situated on the Oise. 

* Pisieux. s Tillart. 

" See Appendix G for Symonds' description of Beauvais. Com- 
pare Rawl. MS. D. 120, fol. 34, "Passing by Bovy Abervill and some 
other townes and at length (but not without much danger) arrived 
at Cahs." For Mundy's route from Paris to Beauvais, compare 
Coulon, Le Fidele Conducteiir, p. 55, "De St. Denys vous allez par 
un bon chemin et passez par les villages de Pierre Ficte, St. Brixe, 
Moiselle,...puis par Beaumont petite ville, par I'Abbaye de Pisieux,... 
Tillart,... et de la vous arrivez a Beauvais, distant environ de dix-huict 
lieues de Paris. Beauvais est une ville ancienne de figure ronde, 
environnde de bons fossez presque tous remplis d'eau, et ceinte de 
murailles de pierre de taille blanche." 

*■ Apparently a copyist's error for Le Hamel, a village lying 
midway between Beauvais and Poix. 

^ Poix de Picardy. See Appendix G. 

^ Originally Pont d'Armee, now Pont Remy. Compare Heylyn, 
A Full Relation of two Joicrneys, p. 186, "The next place of note 
that the water conveied us to, was the Town and Castle of Pont 
d'Arme : a place now scarce visible in the ruines, and belonging to 
one Mr. Quercy. It took name, as they say, from a bridge here built 
for the transportation of an Army ; but this I cannot justifie." 

Coulon, Les Rivieres de Fra?tce, vol. i. p. 29, speaks of Pont de 
Remy, a bridge over the Somme. 

See also Symonds' remarks on Pont d'Armee in Appendix G. 



Abbeville (4 miles)\ and there stayinge only to breake 
fast and change one of our horses, wee sett out of Towne, 
accompanied with one Captaine Thorneton, an English- 
man^, whoe had lived there thirty two yeres. Wee dined 
att Bearne (10 miles)^, a poore Towne; and from thence 
to Montariell (10 miles), a small Cittie, with three walls^ 

The \oth. September, 1620. A myle before wee came 
to Neuf Chastain (10 miles)^, wee had sight of the narrow 
Seas, haveing seene noe Sea att all since' our departure 
from Venice : soe came to Bullien (6 miles)*', and lodged 
att the Grayhound'' in the lower Towne. The Upper 
Towne standeth on a hill, most strongely walled^, the 
Maine Sea two or three miles of, from whence came* 
a Creeke to the Towne for small vessells. 

1 Compare Sloane MS. 2142, fol. 2 (1658), "Abbeville... its seated 
in a watry Countrye, having a River running quite through the 
Towne : here are excellent good Pistols made heere, which bring 
much profitt to those that make them." 

For further descriptions of Abbeville, see Appendix G and Coryafs 
Crudities, vol. i. p. 160. 

^ I have found no other mention of this individual. 

^ Bernay. See Appendix G. 

* Montreuil-sur-mer. The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, has Mon- 
tareil, and Symonds (see Appeiidix G) has Montrill. Compare Coulon^ 
Le Fidele Conducteur, p. 60, " Monstreuil, comme qui diroit Mont 
Royal... ville forte avec une Citadalle." Compare also Sloatte MS. 
2142, fol. 2, " Monstruel...a very strong Towne with a Cittadel, 
Governor and Garrison." 

^ Neufchatel, now on the railway. The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286,, 
has Neuf Chasteau. Du Verdier and Coulon have Neufchastel. 

^ Boulogne. " Bullein, a towne in France." Author's Index. 

'' Symonds, in 1648, lodged at the Golden Horn in the "low town." 
See Appendix G. 

^ Compare Stowe MS. 916, fol. 46, Travels (in 1675), " Bologne is 
a Citty divided into two parts, the higher and the Lower... its Cathedral 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin is an Edifice not very Remarkable, 
it beinge but plaine and noe bigger then the Church of St. Mary 
Overeys in Southwarke." For other contemporary descriptions of 
Boulogne, see Coryafs Crudities., vol. i. p. 157 f., Heylyn, A Full Re- 
lation of two Journeys., p. 195 f., Du Verdier, Le Voyage de France, 
p. 251, Coulon, Le Fidele Conductetcr, p. 60 and Symonds' description 
in Appendix G. 

The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, has "cometh." 


The nth. September, 1620. Unto the Towne of Mar- 
queesa (8 miles) ^ wee went all alonge on the Sea Coast, 
and in sight of England. From thence wee came to the 
stronge Towne of Callias (6 miles). Two miles before 
our arrivall, from a litle hill wee might see part of the 
Lowe Countries, as Grevelinge^ etts. Without the walls 
of Callaies are neere upon 1000 small Cottages standing 
in Ranck, though each Cottage is sepperate from th' other, 
servinge for labourers, Gardners and poore people. Att 
our entrance att the Gates® our Gunns were taken from 
us by the Guards, but one hovver after they were brought 
us to the Golden head"*, where wee lodged att an English- 
mans. Heere is but one Churchy a faire Markett place", 
where is a Curious Towne built, guilt, and sett forth with 
pillars and Inventions, haveing many small bells which 
Chime att certaine howres, makeing also divisions of the 
quarters, halfes and whole howres. Wee had warning not 
to approach the walls or Bulwarks upon paine of Im- 
prisonment and further punishment ^ 

^ Marquise. ^ Gravelines, now in France. 

3 Compare Rawl. MS. D. 120, fol. 34, "Calls. ..this towne is one 
of the best ports the french have on the ocean, it is the shortest 
passage to England and the last thing which the English lost of all 
France... they [the French] have much fortified since and made to 
the former to [sic) other walls and motes to the towne." See also 
Coryafs Crjidities, vol. i. p. 156 and Coulon, Le Fidele Condt(cieur, 
p. 62. 

* In 1733, Pococke names the Silver Lyon as the best inn in 
Calais. Add. MS. 22978, fol. 4. 

^ Coryat, however, remarks, " There are two churches in this towne 
[Calais]." Cojyafs Crudities., vol. i. p. 153. 

Compare also Stowe MS. 916, fol. 45, Travels (in 1675), " Calais.... 
The Great Church onely Remaines unaltered of all the fabricks 
erected by the EngHsh." 

** See Coryafs Crudities^ vol. i. p. 156. 

'■ "They have a very strict order in this towne [Calais], that if 
any stranger of what nation soever he be shal be taken walking by 
himself, either towards their Fortresse, which they call the Rice- 
banke or about the greene of the towne, he shall be apprehended 
by some Souldiers, and carried to the Deputy Governor and com- 
mitted to safe custody til he hath paid some fee for his ransome." 
Coryafs Crudities., vol. i. p. 155. 


The \2th. September, 1620. There was a Catche^ hired 
for twelve French Crownes to carry us to Dover ^, but 
the Wynde overbloweing, they durst not adventure over 
the Barr, soe it was deferred till the morninge. The place 
where shipps and Barques doe lye is a litle Mould ^ or 
Peere built of Stone and drye att Lowe water. 

The iT)th. September, 1620. In the morninge wee de- 
parted from Callaies, Haveinge a faire wynde, and in three 
howres and a halfe wee arrived att Dover (20 miles)'*. 
Wee cast Anchor neere the Towne, from whence there 
came a boate and carried us all on shoare ; but the Stuffe 
went about into the Haven, which is as narrow as that 
at Callais ; and drye att lowe water alsoe, heere beinge 
a bigg place which is filled att full sea, and by a Sluce 
lett out att Lowe water, when it runs with great voilence, 
and serveth to scowre the Channell or entrance of the 
Peered Wee lay att the Grayhound^, Mr. Ralph Pindar, 
my lords brother', and Mr. Spike® were arrived two howres 

^ A Catch or Ketch is defined by Murray {Oxford English Did.) 
as " a strongly-built vessel of the galiot order usually two-masted and 
of from 100 to 250 tons burden." 

^ See Appendix G for Symonds' account of the charges between 
Calais and Dover. For " French Crownes" see note 3 on p. 120. 
^ i.e. mole. 

* Compare Rawl. MS. D. 120, fol. 34, the writer of which had 
a much shorter passage (in 1649), "From whence [Calais] after two 
howres being at sea and sufficiently sea sicke I landed again at Dover 
in England after being abroade sixteen monyths and a halfe." 

^ See Symonds' remarks on the "peere" at Dover, quoted in 
Appendix G. 

^ Symonds also patronised this inn. See Appendix G. 

'' Ralph Pindar was Sir Paul Pindar's elder brother and the father 
of Paul Pindar, Junr. (see p. 41). He appears to have been entrusted 
with his brother's money affairs during the time Sir Paul was Am- 
bassador at Constantinople. In State Papers, Foreign Archives, 
vol. 147, there are several references to sums of money received by 
Ralph Pindar for the Ambassador during the period, 1614 — 1620. 

* The Spikes and the Pindars were connected by marriage. Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Ralph Pindar was the wife of Thomas Spike, 
a London merchant, who is probably the "Mr. Spike" mentioned 
by Mundy and a brother of the Laurence Spike, a member of the 
Ambassador's train (see p. 42). 


before, being come from London to meete his Lord- 

TJie i^th. September, 1620. Mr. Lane^ hired a great 
Waggon for 3/. to Gravesend, whereon the Stuffe was 
Laden, and with it seaven Servants departed about eleven 
a Clock ; and that Evening wee came to Canterburie 
(12 miles), and lay att the Checker". Heere wee went to 
see the Cathedrall Church, being goodly to behold without 
side, adorned with three faire steeples, and within noe 
lesse beautifull, rich and curious, haveinge two galleries 
on high full of small pillars^, multitude of windowes of 
coloured glasse, especially the lower great ones, noe lesse 
admirable and rich then the report goes of them. In this 
Churche are the Tombes of Henry 4th. King of England with 
his Oueene, Also of Edward the Black Prince in armour of 
brasse ; over him hunge Helmett, coate of Maile, Launce 
and Sword ; Also the Sepulchres of many auntient 
Bishopps. This Cittie is walled round. It hath eighteen 
parish Churches*, faire streets and Shopps well furnished. 
The countrey hetherto full of prettie Hills, and pleasant 
vallies, well peopled and manured. 

T/te i^th. September, 1620. Wee came to Sitting- 
bourne (11 miles); from thence to Rochester (11 miles); 
hard by is Chattam where rides the Kings Shipps. From 
Rochester (7 miles), wee came to Gravesend and there 
lodged that nights 

The i6th. September, 1620. My Lord came to us at 

^ See p. 42. 

^ The Chequer's Inn, mentioned by Chaucer in his Canterbury 
Tales, was situated in Mercery Lane. Some traces of the build- 
ing still remain, and the vaulted cellars are in excellent condition. 
A portion of the old inn is now known as Grafton House. 

^ The Triforium. 

* i.e. including the Cathedral. At the end of the i8th century the 
number was reduced to twelve by the absorption of the poorest 
parishes with others more prosperous. 

'•" See Appendix G for Symonds' Journey over the same ground 
between London and Dover 


Gravesend, haveinge bene deteyned and entertained by 
the Arch Bishopp of Canterbury \ Soe hireing Two 
boats, called light Horsemen-, att 20s. each, they brought 
us to Blackwall (20 miles), where were Five Coaches 
readye, In which wee came to Islington (4 miles), where 
wee lay att my lords owne Howse^ 

The i^th. September, 1620. Haveinge taken my leave 
of his Lordshipp, and humbly thancking him for divers 
favours received of him, I came to London (2 miles), and 
lay in Minceinge lane att the howse of Mr. Richard 
Wyche, brother to my late deceased Master^ and soe 
made an end of this longe Journey, haveinge gon by Com- 
putation 1838 myles and traversed divers Kingdomesl 

From London to Constantinople by land by my Com- 
putation amounteth unto Miles .... 1838. 

Now, although I say by land yett it is to bee under- 
stood wee passed from Spalatra'^ to Venice by Sea, but 
landed every night. Likewise wee were certaine dayes in 
the River of Loyre and went also ashoare every night ''. 
Then from Callais to Dover, which cannot bee avoyded, 
no more then the crossinge of Rivers. 

And for any thinge I could gather. The distance of 
places in Turkic is not accompted by miles or leagues, but 
by whole dayes and halfe dayes Journeys etts.^ 

^ The Archbishop at this date was George Abbot, who had suc- 
ceeded Bancroft in 161 1. He was a staunch protestant and a bitter 
opponent of Laud's doctrine. 

2 An old name for the hght boat, since called a gig. See Smyth, 
Sailor's Word Book. 

^ In 1624, Pindar moved to the mansion he had built for himself 
in Bishopsgate Street Without, where he died, in 1650. 

* James Wyche. See pp. 14 and 23, and Appendix B. 

^ The British Museum copy, Harl. MS. 2286, ends here, as far as 
Relation II. is concerned. 

^ Spalato. See p. 86. '' See pp. 120 — 122. 

* Compare Hobhouse, A Jo7irney througJi Albaftia, yd\. i. p. 39, 
" The distances in Turkey are very difficult to be ascertained, as they 
are measured by the time taken by a horse with baggage in going 
from one place to another." 


Other Voyages, Jotirnies, etts. occiirringe^ since my arrival 

from Constantinople luitill the tynie of my 

entertainement for East India, vizt. 

March the 20th. 1620^ I went downe to my Freinds 
in the Countries, and the end of that Sommer-' I made 
a voyage to Seville in Spaine, with Pilchards (our Countrey 
Comoditie)*"' for an Accompt of Mr. Richard Wyche'', my 
Uncle, and Father*. 

April 22tJi. 1622. After my returne from Spaine, 
I covenanted with the said Mr. Richard Wyche to serve 
him five yeares, on certaine Conditions. 

^ See p. 7, where the title of this Relation, as given in the "First 
Table," is practically the same as above. The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 
2286, has "Other Passages occurringe," etc., and, in the "Table" at 
the beginning of the MS. the B.M. copy has, "Post in Spain and 
other passages," etc. 

■^ i.e. 1 620/ 1. 

^ i.e. to Penryn in Cornwall. The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, 
adds, "and returned to London again the 14th. April 1622." 

* In the year 1621. 

^5 Mundy had already spent two years in Seville (see p. 14). 
For his allusion to the Giralda in that city, see p. 97. 

^ Compare Rawl. MS. C. 799, fol. 106 b, "Barcelona.... The 
Merchandize that is staple, and the quantity that will sell here is 
Per annum 1000 Butts of Pilchards at about Royalls 50 for every 
1000 Pilchards paying charges Royalls 12 per butt." 

'' Richard Wyche was the brother of James Wyche, Mundy's 
former master. See pp. 14, 23 and 136, and Appendix B. 

^ This sentence is omitted in the B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286. 


Aprill i^tJi. 1625. By my said Master and others^ 
(undertakers of a Contracte with the Kinge of Spaines 
Comissioners for a great quantitie of Copper to be dehvered 
in Spaine att a certaine price and att certaine sett Tymes),. 
I was sent post over thither""' with one Henry Davis'*. 

Wee departed London on Satterday night, and lay att 
Gravesend. Next day to Dover. On Monday wee crossed 
over to Deepe^, and the Sonday following wee were att 
Y'ron in the kingdome of Spaine and Province of Guipiscoa 
or Biscay^; Soe that in Seaven dayes wee went through 
all Fraunce from Deepe in Picardy or Normandy" to 
Bayon in Gascony ; haveing had very good way, good 
horses, faire weather, and short stages (of about four or 
five miles att the most). Soe that wee ordinarily ex- 
chaunged eighteen, nineteen, twenty horses a day, some- 
tymes twenty-one, twenty-two, a very painfull imployment 
to one not accustomed for the first two or three dayes. 
In my opinion, there is better accomodation for post 

1 Among the "others" was probably Job Harby, Richard Wyche's 
influential brother-in-law. See Appendix B. 

2 The B.M. copy omits part of this and the preceding paragraph. 
In the Harl. MS. 2286, the passage runs, " I covenanted with 
Mr. Richard Wyche to serve him five yeares. Att the end of three,, 
vizt. in Aprill 1625, 1 was sent post into Spaine with one Henry 

^ Henry Davis was back in London a few weeks later, for, in 
State Papers., Foreign Archives, vol. 148, there is a note of letters 
delivered by him to the Levant Company on the nth May, 1625. 

* Compare the following accounts of Dieppe in 1648 and 1675: — 
"Deepe.. ..This towne is seated upon the mouth of the river Somme 
and is over looked by two mountains. The port is safe, but the 
entrance somewhat incommodious. On the left hand of the haven 
(as I entered), stands a strong fort which commands the haven. 
The towne is populous and the streetes very spatious. On the further 
end of the towne is built a castle which commands the towne." 
Eaivl. MS. D. 120, fol. i. "Thursdaye the 5 of August wee landed 
at Dipe. It is a good big towne situated upon the British ocean : 
there is one hansum strite and the towne is verey hansumly paved 
with good brade stones. I Laye att the signe of Lacrosse or crosiur." 
Raw'l. MS. D. 197, fol. 2. 

^ Irun is in the province of Guipuzcoa. 

^ The author is less exact than usual. Dieppe is in Normandy. 

FROM ANNO 162O TO ANNO 1627 1 39 

rideinge in this Kingdome (and more frequently used) 
then in any other place. In our way wee came allso to 
Burdeaux etts.^ 

From Y'ron, wee came to St. Sebastian, a Towne in 
Biskay, soe to Victoria, a Cittie in Castile^, where I found 
Mr, George Wyche, my Masters brother, Prisoner about 
the Contracte aforesaid ^ From thence I came to Valle- 
deolid^ to followe a suite then dependinge in the Chauncery 
there', concerninge the Copper busines aforementioned'*. 
This place is accounted one of the delightsomest seats in 
the Kingdome of Spaine, lyeing in Old Castile. Hither 
retire divers Lords and Grandes from the Tumults of the 

1 For Mundy's remarks on this journey across France, his route 
as traced on the map, and his reasons for not detaiHng his halting- 
places, see note 5 on p. 116. 

2 Lithgow, who travelled in Spain in 1620, says {Painefull Pere- 
grinations^ p. 440), "Biscai a Mountaynous and invincible Countrey, 
of which Victoria is the chiefe City." 

3 In the B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, these last two paragraphs 
run as follows: — "Satterdaie night what tyme wee departed London 
to the 8th day after, being Sondaie, wee crossed the whole kingdome 
of France from Callais to Bayon, I sale from London to Deepe, 
and soe to Bayon, and to Yrone the first Towne in Spaine, being 
( ) myles, thence to Sansibastians a Sea Towne in Biscay, then 
to Victoria a Cittie in Castile. Here I found Mr. George Wych 
prisoner about a Contract for Copper." 

* Here the author has the following marginal note : — " Valledeolid. 
In Anno 1605, and the 2nd. of King James [the First of England], 
Phillip the 3rd. [of Spain] kept his Court heere, where the peace was 
concluded betweene England and Spaine. And here the same year 
was Phillip IIII. borne." With regard to these statements, Mundy 
seems to be in error as to the keeping of the Court and the signing 
of the treaty at Valladolid in 1605. Philip III. appears to have 
remained at Madrid during the whole of 1605 and it was there that 
the Earl of Nottingham, Lord High Admiral, witnessed the ratification 
of the treaty between England and Spain, which concluded the war 
begun during the reign of Elizabeth. Mundy is correct as to 
Philip IV., whose birth took place at Valladolid on the 8th April, 1605. 

•' The great Chancery or Court of Appeal for the North of Spain 
was fixed at Valladolid by Juan II. in 1442. 

" See p. 138. The Calendar of State Papers contains no reference 
to this "Contract" nor have I found any allusion to it in any con- 
temporary MS. 


Court to refresh and recreate themselves ^ Amongst the 
rest, the once Duke of Lerma, now Cardinall, dyed att 
my beinge there ^ and was buried in a very faire Church 
built by himselfe^ To this place are all the suites of this 
Province reduced, where Judges doe sitt twice in the weeke 
throughout the whole yeare to decide all cawses, as well 
Civill as Criminal^. Heere is a very faire River^, many 
pleasant and artificiall fountaines, Groves of Trees, varieties 
and store of the best fruites, the fairest Place or Placa, 
that I have }^ett scene in Spaine'', built four square with 
uniformitie, round about upon pillars of Stone (as are 

1 Valladolid, the Roman Pincia, was called by the Moors, Belad- 
Waled. The wealth and popularity of the town dated from the 
beginning of the 15th century when it became the residence of 
Juan II. Charles V. added much to its beauty; Philip II. was born 
there (21 May, 1527) and gave it the title of city. 

2 The reign of Philip III. coincided with the rise and fall of this 
nobleman. Francis of Roxas and of Sandoval, Marquis of Denia, 
chief equerry to Philip III., was, immediately after the accession 
of that monarch, created Duke of Lerma and entrusted with the 
whole administration of the affairs of state. His arrogance and 
extravagance procured him many enemies, and his unpopularity was 
further increased by the destruction of a fleet sent by him to attack 
the English coasts in 1599. In 1604, he concluded a peace with 
England (see ante, note 4 on p. 139), and in 1608 he concluded a 
truce with Holland. These two acts were so unpopular that his 
downfall became inevitable. His son, Uzeda, had gradually supplanted 
him in the king's favour, and, together with Aliaga, Philip III.'s 
confessor, succeeded in procuring his disgrace. At the age of seventy, 
he was created cardinal by Pope Paul V., with unusual marks of 
respect and distinction. In 1618, the disgraced Duke of Lerma was 
ordered to withdraw from Madrid. He retired to his paternal estates, 
where he died, as stated by Mundy, in 1625. 

^ This statement is not quite correct. The Duke of Lerma 
restored and beautified the Dominican Convent of San Pablo, which 
had been rebuilt, in 1463, by Cardinal Juan Torquemada. The arms 
of the Cardinal Duke of Lerma are still to be seen on the upper 
portion of San Pablo, but the statues of the Duke and of his wife, 
which formerly ornamented their tomb in that church are now in 
the Museum at Valladolid. 

* See ante, note 5 on p. 1 39. 

5 The Pisuerga. 

^' The Plaza Mayor, the chief square in Valladolid, was rebuilt on 
a fixed plan by Philip II. after a fire in 1561. See Coulon, Le Fidele 
Condiicteiir pou7- le V^oyage vfEspagne, p. 28. 

FROM ANNO 1620 TO ANNO 1627 14I 

many of the Streets)^ in which, att feastivall tymes, they 
baite their bulls with men, run their horses, etts. publique 
sports and pastimes, which are performed heere with more 
varietye and better invention then I have scene els where, 
especially for Bull baiteinge, shewes and daunces on 
Corpus Christi day'^ etts. And heere I remained about 
four monethes, and then returned to Sansebastians to take 
my passage in the Margett, Mr. Robert Moulton^ for 

In our way betweene Sansebastians and Victoria lyes 
el Puerto de Sant Adrian^, an exceedinge high Mountaine 
through the Topp of which was the passage^ being made 
partly by nature, partly by Art, about half a flights shotte 
through the mightie rock or mountaine*^ arched over our 
heads, from which there falls aboundance of water received 
into Troughes made for the purpose that it might not 
molest passengers. This they say was auntiently the 
habitation of St. Adrian, whoe lived heere as an Hermitt. 
By a certaine passage wee were conducted upp into the 
said rock, where wee found it full of concavities, holes 
and Conveyances, some passable and some not. Att 
length, they brought us to a fountaine naturall, the best 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, "The Ochavo, being two 
Streets crossing one another making eight angles on pillars with 
shopps underneath with a space to passe betweene." To this is 
added a rough sketch of the form of the Ochavo. The above note 
is in Mundy's writing and is not found in the B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 
2286. The small Plaza del Ochavo lies to the east of the Plaza Mayor 
at Valladolid. 

2 i.e. on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday. 

3 In State Papers, Foreign Archives., vol. no, there are several 
references to the "Marget" or "Margarett" when she was chartered 
by the Levant Company in 1626 to go to Aleppo, but I have found no 
allusion to her commander in the previous year. 

* The river Oria takes its rise near this mountain. 

5 The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, has, "through the topp of 
which lay our waie." 

^ Here the author has a marginal note, "The admirable and 
strange Passage of el Puerto St. Adrian." 


that ever I saw in that kinde, or I thinck can be scene, 
neere to roundnesse, about a foote deepe, passing Cleare, 
into which the water trickled downe from the sides and 
upper vaulted parte, being of hard stone, soe small and 
Curiously wrought by Nature that it is wonderfull to see, 
Like those that are to bee scene in Great mens Gardens, 
where by Art they strive to imitate Nature by placeing 
arteficiall rocks, pebbles, shells etts., of w^hich sort this 
would serve for a patterne. From hence the water runns 
away, and by degrees with other waters falls into the 
troughes aforesaid ^ This wee saw by the light of Candells, 
carrieing with us also fire brands to light them againe if 
they chaunced to goe out I 

Also, within two miles of Valledeolid are two ponds 
of Salt water, wherein by heat of the Sunne in Sommer 
tyme is much salt made very good and yeildeth great 
profitt to whom it apperteynes, being it is lOO miles from 
the Sea^ 

^ Compare the following description of the route from San 
Sebastian over the Mts. of S. Adrian and of the grotto of that saint 
in Relation die Voyage d'Espagne (in 1679), "En sortant de Saint 
Sebastien, nous enti'ames dans un chemin fort rude, qui aboutit k 
des Montagues si affreuses et si escarpees que Ton ne peut les monter 
qu'en grimpant ; on les appelle Sierra de Sant Adrian. EUes ne 
montrent que des Precipices et des Rochers....Des Pins d'une hauteur 
extraordinaire couronnent la cime de ces Montagnes....Vers le haut 
du 'Mont Saint Adrian, on trouve un Rocher fort eleve, qui semble 
avoir et^ mis au milieu du chemin pour en fermer le passage, et 
separer ainsi la Biscaye de la vieille Castille. Un long et penible 
travail a perce cette masse de pierre en fagon de voute : on marche 
quarante ou cinquante pas dessous sans recevoir de jour que par les 
ouvertures qui sont a chaque entree ; elles sont fermees par de grandes 
Portes. On trouve sous cette Voute une Hotellerie que Ton abandonne 
I'Hyver a cause des Neiges. On y voit aussi une petite Chapelle de 
Saint Adrian, et plusieurs Cavernes ou d'ordinaire les Voleurs se 

2 The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, has, "to light our said Candles, 
for often tymes the dampe would put them out." 

2 Mundy seems to have verified the number of miles when he 
revised his MS. in 1649/50. The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, has 
"it is about ( ) myles." 

FROM ANNO 162O TO ANNO 1 627 1 43 

Returninge for England with Mr. Molton aforesaid \ 
I found my Master- very dangerously sick of the Dropsie, 
vvhoe presently, about some ocasions, sent mee to Coul- 
chester. (In our way wee passed through Chensford, 
a prettie hansome Towne-'.) A litle after my comeing 
back from thence, My Master left this life^ and I againe 
left the Cittie', went downe to my freinds in Cornewell 
by Land®. 

Haveinge remained a while att Home, I made a voyage 
to St. Maloes in Brittaine", a place of very great Strength 
and traffique, there being the most, the fairest and biggest 
Shipping, that I thinck are in any other port of Fraunce. 
The Sea is reported heere att high springe to rise from 
lowe water to high Sea, about thirteen or fourteen fathum^, 
whereas on our owne Coast att the same tyme, it doth 
not flowe above six or seven", which seemeth very strange, 
being they are but thirty-five or forty leagues distant. 
Also, notwithstandinge the extraordinary strength of the 
place, being built on a Rock, strongly walled, fortefied 
and guarded with great vigillancie, there are twenty-four 
mungrell Doggs^^ whoe every night are sent out of the 

^ See ante, p. 141. ^ i.e. Richard Wyche. 

3 The B.M. co^y, Harl. MS. 2286, has "passing through Chensford 
in our waie." It is interesting to note that, as late as the close of the 
last century, the older inhabitants of Essex still spoke of their county 
town as "Chensford." 

* For particulars of Richard Wyche, see Appendix B. 

'^ i.e. of London. ^ Mundy's native town was Penryn. 

"^ The B.M. copy, Harl. MS. 2286, has "In the terme of one 
yeare and halfe I remayned with my Father I made a Voyage into 
Spaine for accompt of my Uncle and Father, And beinge returned 
I went to St. Maloes in Brittaine." From this point to the end of 
the paragraph, the two copies ai'e identical. 

* Here there is a marginal note in the B.M. copy only, "From 
lowe water to full Sea, about eleven or twelve fathome." 

9 St Malo is noted for the highest tide in the Channel, but Mundy 
is a little beyond the mark in his estimate of the height to which it 
rises, though he is correct as regards the ports on the English side. 

i** Here the author has a marginal note, "Strange Spring tides and 
as strange a Custome by useing doggs to guard the Citty by night." 


Gates with their keeper, and all the night long course to 
and froe about the walls, killinge and teareinge any liveinge 
Creature they encounter withall, be it man or beast, have- 
ing att my being there torne one man to peices, and 
Cattle. Theis in the morninge first enter in att the 
opening of the gates and last that goe forth att their 
Closeing in the Eveninge^ 

From thence I went to the Island of Jersey, some 
twelve leagues distant. It hath thirteen parishes^, litle waste 
ground aboundance of Villags, and but one litle Towne 
called St. •', plenty of Cider. Naturallie the In- 

habitants speake French, although many speake English. 
It lyeth in our kings dominions^, although but five leagues 
from Normandie. From thence I returned to St. Maloes, 
and soe home'. 

Lastly, desirous of imployment, as also to see forraigne 
Countries, I came to London againe, where I found 
entertainement of the honourable Company of English 
Merchants trading for East India'', to proceed thither in 
their next shipps. Soe went downe into the Countrie to 
take leave of my freinds, and after Christmas 1627, I came 

1 "On dit que le soir, en fermant les portes de la Ville, on lache 
douze gros dogues, pour n'etre pas surpris des ennemis ; ce que je 
remarque contre ceux qui disent que S. Malo est garde par des chiens." 
Le Grand Diet. Historiquc (17 17) s.v. Saint-Malo. Compare also 
Coulon, Les Rivieres de France., p. 225, " S. Malo... La ville est 
importante k cause de son assiette, qui la fait garder comme una 
Clef de France : on dit qu'elle a des Dogues, qui font la ronde toute 
la nuict autour de ses murailles avec plus de seurete que des Soldats." 

2 A mistake for twelve. See Le Gra?id Diet. Historique, noted 
above, also other later descriptions of the Island of Jersey. 

3 St Helier. 

* The B.M. copy, Harl. A/S. 2286, adds, "whoe hath his Governor 

^ The wording of this paragraph is somewhat different in the 
B.M. copy, but the sense is the same. 

6 The B.M. copy, Hart. MS. 2286, has, "Lastly I returned to 
London, and beinge desirous to see Countries I gott entertaynement 
of the Honourable Company," etc. 



againe for London to attend my honourable Imployers 
will and pleasured 

Computation of Miles and distance of some Places 
in this Relation. 

From London to Famouth is ... 

From Famouth to Sivell and backe againe is 

From Famouth to London againe . 

From London to Deepe^ .... 

From Deepe to Bay on by land 

From Bayon to Valledeolid .... 

From Valledeolid to St. Sebastians 

From St. Sebastians to London by Sea 

From London to Coulchester and back 

From London to Famouth .... 

From Famouth to St. Haloes'* 

From St. Maloes to Jersey and back againe to 

St. Maloes 

From St. Maloes to Famouth 

From Famouth up to London, downe into the 

Countrey and upp to London againe 
All theis severall Traverses you may finde in the 

former Relation and amounteth in all to the 

some of Miles ...... 









I 10 






This Third Relation is also recollected by memorie as 
is Relation L 

^ Mundy entered the service of the East India Company as a 
Junior Factor at the salary of ^25 per annum. In the Minutes of 
the Company {Court Book, vol. x. p. 290) under date 22nd Feb. 1627/8, 
there is the following entry, "The sallary of Peter Mundy enterteyned 
as an Under Factor being 25li. per annum, it was this day ratified and 
confirmed and in respect of his necessitie the Court was then also 
pleased to imprest unto him 5H. of his said wages for his better 
accomodation and setting out to sea." 

'^ The Table of distances in the B.M. copy, Hart. MS. 2286, 
begins here, but the number of miles traversed is omitted. 

3 The Table of distances in the B.M. copy. Hart. MS. 2286, 
ends here. 






A Voyage into the Levant^. A Briefe Relation of a Journey^ 
lately performed by Master Henry Blunt Gentleman^, from 
Etigland by the way of Venice, into Dalniatia, Sclavonia, Bosnah, 
Hungary, Macedonia, Thessaly, Thrace, Rhodes atid Egypt, unto 
Gran Cairo : With particular observations concerning the moderne 
conditioft of the Turkes, and other people under that Empire. 

The third Edition^. London, Frifited by J. L. for Andrew Crooke, 
and are to be sold at the signe of the Beare in Pauls Church- 
yard, 1638. 

1 In the Ra-wlinson copy of Mundy's MS. on the reverse of the double- 
page map of Europe, there are (as stated in note 2 on page 11) several 
extracts from Blount's Voyage into the Levant, signed by Mundy, with a note, 
" written, Penrin the first February, 1649/50." These extracts are given by 
Mundy as an Appendix to Relation I., but, in reality, the remarks on Alexan- 
dretta excepted, they refer to the journey from Constantinople to Rovigno, as 
described in Relation II., pp. 41 — 89. The passages selected are not accurate 
quotations from Blount, but abstracts made by Mundy, who adds his own 
comments thereon. For the sake of clearness, Blount's exact words are re- 
produced here, and Mundy's version of them, together with his own remarks, 
are added as foot-notes. 

^ The extracts are taken from pages 5 — 28 of the 3rd edition of Blount's 
work. The book comprises 126 small octavo pages. The first part con- 
tains an account of the author's travels and the second a disquisition on the 
Turkish government. 

^ Blount left Venice for Constantinople on the nth May, 1634, and 
made the journey by sea. 

* Henry Blount was born in 1602, was knighted by Charles I. in 1640, 
and died in 1682. See the account of him in the Diet, of Nat. Biography. 

^ There were eight editions of the work between 1636 and 1671. There 
is also a reprint in Osborne's Collection of Voyai;es, 1745, and in Pinkerton's 
Collection, 1808, besides a German edition in 1687, and two Dutch editions, 
1707 and 1727. 


Rovinio^ a Venetian City in Istria : it stands in a creeke of 
the Adriatique, upon a hill promontory which hath two thirds 
washed by the Sea ; the South East side joyned to the Continent, 
the soyle rocky and baren, as all that side along the Gulfe; it 
is an hundred miles from Venice, and therefore being so farre 
within the Gulfe, is not fortified as against much danger, yet 
hath it a pretty wall and fortresse with a small Garrison : from 
thence we came to Zara^: this Citie stands in Dalmatia, and of 
all others within the Gulf, is, by reason of the scituation, most 
apt to command the whole Adriatique, and therefore has formerly 
beene attempted by the Turke : wherefore the Venetians have 
fortified it extraordinarily, and now, though in times of firme 
peace, keepe it with strong companies both of Horse and 
Foote... after a dayes view of this place, wee Sayled to Spalatro, 
a City of Sclavonia, kept by the Venetians as their onely 
Emporium, plyed successively with two Gallies, which cary be- 
tweene Venice and that place such merchandize as are trans- 
ported into Turky, or from thence brought in : it stands in a most 
pleasant valley on the South side of great mountaines : in the 
wall toward the Sea appeares a great remainder of a gallery in 
Dioclesian his Palace : Southward of the towne is the Sea, which 
makes an open Port capable of ten or twelve Gallyes ; without 
is an unsecure Bay for great Ships, at the entrance above halfe 
a mile broad, yet not so renowned for the skill of Octavius, who 
chained it up when hee besieged Salonoe*, as for the fierce 
resolution of Vulteius, and his company there taken : in this 
Towne the Venetians allowe the great Turke to take custome of 
the Merchandize ; whereupon there resides his Emir or Treasurar 
who payes him thirty five thousand Dollars a yeare**, as himselfe 

1 Mundy introduces his Appendix thus: — "Mr Henry Blunt Gent, in his 
book intituled a voyage into the Levant performed by him in Anno 1634, 
printed Anno 1638, the third edition, saith as follovveth — Rovignio, a small 
city in Istria, p. 5, see this booke, fol. 13." After each extract Mundy gives 
the page in Blount's work, and the fol. in the Ratvlinson MS. on which there 
is an allusion to the place in question. For Rovigno, see also Relation II., 
p. 89. 

2 11 Wee passed by Zara in Dalmatia " is Mundy's comment on this 
paragraph. See Relation II., p. 88. 

* Salona was destroyed by the Emperor Augustus Csesar (Octavius) and 
rebuilt by Tiberius. 

* Mundy sums up the description of Spalato thus: — "Spalatro a city of 
Sclavonia; they pay the Turck 35,000 ducatts per annum." See Relation II., 
pp. 86—88. 


and others told me : there are high Walles and strong companies 
to guard this city ; yet I heard their cheife safety to be in having 
so unusefuU and small an Haven, wherefore the Turks esteeme 
Spalatro in effect but as a land towne, nor so much worth as 
his present custome, and so covets it not like Zara, for if he 
did, he has a terrible advantage upon it, having taken from the 
Venetians Clyssi, not above foure miles off ; which is the strongest 
land fortresse that I ever beheld ^... Wee passed the Hilles of 
Dogliana farre higher then the Alpes, and so steepe as our descent 
for three dayes together it was a greater precipice then that halfe 
day his [day's] comming downe from Mount Cenis, into Piemont'; 
having for the most part rode thus nine dayes, wee came into 
a spacious and fruitefull playne, which, at the West, where wee 
entred, at least tenne miles over, is on the North and South sides 
immured with ridges of easie and pleasant hilles, still by degrees 
streightning the plaine, till, after six or seven miles riding, it 
growes not above a mile broad : there found wee the city Saraih, 
which extends from the one side to the other, and takes up part 
of both Ascents ; at the East end stands a Castle upon a steepe 
rocke, commanding the Towne and passage Eastward. This is 
the Metropolis of the kingdome of Bosnah : it is but meanely 
built and not great, reckoning about fourescore Mescheetoes and 
twenty thousand houses^. 

In my three dayes aboade, the most notable things I found 
was the goodnesse of the water and vaste, almost gyant like 
stature of the men*, which, with their bordring upon Germany \ 
made mee suppose them to be the offspring of those old 
Germans, noted by Caesar and Tacitus for their huge size, which, 
in other places, is now degenerate into the ordinary proportions 
of men.... Thus marcht wee ten dayes through a hilly country, 
cold, not inhabited, and in a manner a continued wood, most of 

^ Mundy remarks on this — " Keeleesh [i.e. Clissa] the stronguest landfort 
hee had seen." See Relation II., p. 85. 

^ "The hills of Dovvlanee expressed and magnified above the Alpes" is. 
Mundy's comment on this passage. See a\so Relation \1., pp. 83 and 112 — 114. 

^ Here Mundy gives the following note : — " Sarai, which I otherwise call 
Bosna-sarai. Sarai in Turkish signifies a pallace or court and Bosna is the 
province, soe Bosna Sarai is the court or cheife citty of the kingdom or 
province. It hath eighty mosches, Messets, or Turkish Churches and about 
20,000 houses." See also Relation II., p. 81 f. 

* See Relation II., p. 8r. 

^ The old German Empire extended down the Illyrian coast, as far as. 
Spalato, or nearly so, long before and long after the author's time. 


Pine trees ^: at length wee reached Valliovah^, a pretty little 
Towne upon the confines of Hungary... being to passe a Wood 
neare the Christian country, doubting it to bee (as confines are) 
full of Thieves, we divided our Caravan of sixescore Horse into 
two parts... so in three dayes we came safe to Belgrada^. 

This Citie, anciently called Taurunum or Alba Graeca, was 
the Metropolis of Hungary till wonne by Sultan Solyman the 
second, in the yeare 1525*. it is one of the most pleasant, 
stately and commodious scituations that I have scene ^; it stands 
most in a bottome, encompassed East-ward by gentle and pleasant 
ascents, employed in Orchards or Vines ; South-ward is an easie 
hill, part possest with buildings, the rest a burying place of well 
nigh three miles in compasse, so full of graves as one can bee by 
another : the West End yeilds a right magnificent aspect, by reason 
of an eminency of land jetting out further then the rest, and 
bearing a goodly strong Castle, whose walles are two miles about, 
excellently fortified with a dry ditch and out-workes*: this Castle 
on the West side is washed by the great River Sava, which, on 
the North of the Citie, loses it selfe in the Danubius, of old 
called Ister, now Duny'', and is held the greatest River in the 
world, deepe and dangerous for Navigation, runnes East-ward 
into the Euxine or blacke Sea, in its passage receiving fifty and 
odde Rivers, most of them navigable : two rarities I was told of 
this River, and, with my owne experience, found true : one was 
that at mid-day and mid-night the streame runnes slower by 
much then at other times ; this they finde by the noyse of those 
Boat-milles, whereof there are about twenty, like those upon the 
Rhoane at Lyons ^: their clakkers beate much slower at those 
times then else, which argues like difference in the motion of 

^ See Relation II., pp. 78 — 8r, for Mundy's description of this district. 

^ Valjevo: see Relation II., p. 78. 

^ Pindar's train also occupied three days in the journey from Belgrade to 
Valjevo. See Relation II., p. 78. 

* Belgrade capitulated to Sulinian I., the Magnificent, on the 2Qth Aug. 
1521. Five years later, on the 29th Aug. 1526, Suliman defeated the Hungarians 
at the battle of Mohacz, and, on the loth Sept., entered Belgrade. 

•5 Belgrade "much commended" is Mundy's comment. See also Rela- 
tioit II., pp. 72 — 75. 

® See Relation II., p. 74. 

'' Duna is the Hungarian name for the river. The Latin names were 
Danubius for the upper and Ister for the lower course of the stream. 

^ See Relation II., pp. 72, 73 and 119. 


the wheele, and, by consequence, of the streame ; the cause is 
neither any refluxe nor stop of current by winde or otherwise, 
for there is no increase of water observed^: The other wonder 
is that, where those two great currents meete, their waters mingle 
no more then water and oyle ; not that either floats above other, 
but joyne unmixed, so that, neere the middle of the river, I have 
gone in a Boat and tasted of the Danuby as Cleare and pure 
as a well, then putting my hand not an inch further, I have 
taken of the Sava as troubled as a street channell, tasting the 
gravell in my teeth ; yet did it not taste unctious, as I expected^ 
but hath some other secret ground of the antipathy, which though 
not easily found out is very effectuall ; for they run thus three- 
score miles together and, for a dayes journey, I have been an 
eye witnesse thereof^ 

The Castle is excellently furnished with Artilery and, at the 
entrance, there stands an Arsenall with some forty or fifty Brasse 
peeces, most bearing the Armes and inscription of Ferdinand 
the Emperour^: that which to mee seemed strangest in this 
castle (for I had free libertie to pry up and downe) was a round 

^ Other travellers, besides Blount, remark on this peculiarity of the current 
of the Danube at Belgrade. In Harl. MS. 6796, p. 33, Voyage de France 
a Constanlinople, ? 1583, we have the following account: — " Le Cours du 
Danube est 700 lieues francois, recoit 60 rivieres navigables, va contre le cours 
du soleil du couchant au levant... a cecy de remarquable que le vers le milieu 
de son cours le soleil estant en sa forme un peu devant et apres midy diminue 
la force de son cours, ce qu'il paroist des moulins qui sent au milieu, de I'eau 
qui ne meulent pas tant vers midy que le matin ou le soir." 

Des Hayes, who travelled to Belgrade in 162 1, has a similar story, Voiage 
de Levant, p. 49, " Pendant que nous fiismes sur le Danube, nous observasmes 
une chose qui est difficile a croire et qui pourtant est vraye et digne de re- 
marque; c'est que cette riviere allant du Couchant au Levant, le Soleil estant 
en sa force, en arreste le cours : de sorte qu'un peu devant et un peu apres 
midy elle ne va pas si viste qu'elle fait le soir et le matin quand le Soleil 
a moins de force : mais I'on ne s'aper9oit point de ce changement que de Bude 
a Belgrade : ce qui se voit aisement par les moulins qui sont au milieu de 
I'eau, et qui sont grandement dangereux, lesquels ne meulent pas tant a midy 
comme le matin et le soir." 

^ Blount is partly correct in his statement. The Danube is yellow and 
the Save blue, and the two rivers run side by side, distinct in colour, for 
about three quarters of a mile [not sixty miles) beyond their junction, blending 
just below the fortress at Belgrade. 

Mundy sums up Blount's description of the Danulje thus: — "The River 
of Danubius and Savus Runs about 60 miles in one Channell unmingled, 
Danubius very Clear, Savus extreame muddy; and of Danubius that it should 
run swifter at Noone and Midnight then at other tymes, observed by the 
Clackers of their Milles, which then strike oftner and quicker, the reason not 
knowne." See also Relation II., p. 73. 

^ Ferdinand II., Emperor of Germany, 1619 — 1637. See Relation II., p. 75. 


Tower, called the Zindana, a crueltie not by them devised, and 
seldome practised; it is like old Romes Gemoniae^; the Tower 
is large and round, but within severed into many squares of long 
beames, set on end about foure foot a sunder ; each beame was 
stuck frequent with great flesh-hookes ; the person condemned 
was naked let fall amongst those hookes, which gave him a quicke 
or lasting misery, as he chanc'd to light : then, at the bottome, 
the river is let in by grates, whereby all putrifaction was washt 
away. Within this great Castle is another little one, with works 
of its owne. I had like to have miscarried with approaching 
the entrance, but the rude noise and worse lookes of the Guard 
gave me a timely apprehension with sudden passage and humilia- 
tion to sweeten them, and get off: for, as I after learnt, there 
is kept great part of the Gran Signior his treasure, to be ready 
when he warres on that side the Empire; it is death for any 
Turke or Christian to enter; and the Captaine is never to goe 
forth without particular licence from the Emperour...we set 
forward for Sophya^, which in twelve dayes we the 
way, wee passed by a Palanga, which is a Village fortified with 
mud walles against Theeves^... through all Turky, especially in 
places desert, there are many Mountaineers or Outlawes, like the 
wild Irish, who live upon spoyle'*, and are not held members of 
the State, but enemies, and used accordingly — 

In this journey we passed through a pretty little towne, called 

In twelve days wee came to Sophya, the chiefe Citie (after 
the Turkish division) of Bulgary, but, according to the other 
Geographie, it stands in Macedonia upon the confines of 
Thessaly ; nor hath it yet lost the old Grecian Civilitie, for 
of all the Cities I ever passed, either in Christendome or with- 
out, I never saw any where a stranger is lesse troubled either 
with affronts or gaping : it stands almost in the midst of a long 
and fruitfull valley''; on the North-side, about foure miles distant. 

^ The Gemonije were steps cut out of the Aventine, down which the 
bodies of criminals strangle 1 in the prison were dragged by hooks and after- 
wards thrown into the Tiber. 

^ See Relaiion II., p. 62. 

^ See Relation II., pp. 68, 70 and 71. 

* See Relation II., pp. 55, 61, 62, 66, 69, 71 and 72. 

^ See Relation II., p. 69. 

^ See Relation II., p. 63. 


runnes a ridge of low hils ; South-ward, three miles off, stands 
an high and steepe mountaine, where Snow appeares all the 
yeare : the Jewes and Christians have here the doores of their 
houses little above three foote high, which they told mee was 
that the Turkes might not bring in their Horses, who else would 
use them for Stables in their travell ; which I noted for a signe 
of greater slavery then in other places. 

Here is the Seate of the Beglerbeg or Viceroy of all Greece, 
by the Turkes called Rumely'; with many brave Mescheetoes, 
especially the great one in the middle of the Towne, and another 
in the South-side, with a magnificent Colledge : it hath many 
stately Hanes or Kirevanserahes ^ and exquisite Bathes, the 
principall hath a hot Fountaine...wee went. three dayes to 
Potarzeeke : the passage is famous for Antiquities : sixteene, or 
eighteene miles East-ward of Sophya, wee past over the Hill 
Rhodope where Orpheus lamented his Euridice*: it hath divers 
inequalities of ground, none very steepe, all covered with Low 
Woods, now watched with divers, who by reason of the frequent 
robberies there committed, doe, by little Drums'*, give the in- 
habitants warning of all suspicious passengers : in the lowest of 
these descents runnes a little Brooke, of which I conjectured, 
and a learned Jew... confirmed, that the old Poets had made the 
River Strymon, where the disconsolate Orpheus was torne in 
pieces by the Thracian Dames ; for that place hath ever beene 
uncertainely reckoned to Macedonia, Thrace and Thessaly^ 

At last we came to an high and large mountaine, of a dayes 
journey over; the Jew held it to bee the Thermopylae^; a place 

^ i.e. Roumelia. See Relation II., p. 62 f. 

2 Khans or Caravanserais. See Relation II., pp. 52 — 54. 

^ See Relation II., note 9 on p. 61. 

* Compare the account in Relation II., p. 61 f. 

^ Mundy abstracts this passage and adds his own note as follows : — 
" About twenty miles beyond Sophia towards Phillippopolis are certaine hills 
which hee was informed by an ancient Jew to bee Rodope where Orpheus 
Lamented his Euridice, and in one of the Vallies, the River Strimon, where 
Orpheus was torne in peeces by the Thracian dames. The place hath ever 
bin uncertainely reckoned to Macedonia, Thrace and Thessaly, about four 
miles this side Cappeekeeoy [Kapuli]. The story happened Anno Mundy, 
2700, and 1244 years before Christ." See also Relation II., p. 61, note 9. 

^ On Thermopylae Mundy notes, " Thermopylae is thought to bee at 
Cappee Keeoy (Cappee in Turkish is a gate or porte), where it is thought 
Leonidas, king of Sparta, with 400 souldiers kept the passage against Xerxes 
with 1000,000 men; read the story here, p. 19 [of Blount's Voyage\, Anno 
Mundi 3470, before Christ, 474." By " Cappee Keeoy" Mundy means Kapuli. 
See Relation II., p. 61. 


as Stoutly contested for of old as now the Valtoline' with us; 
herewith hee told mee that Easterne custome of wearing Tur- 
bants came from thence, and that how once the Barbarous people 
having the Grecian Army at a great advantage, there was no 
other remedy, but that some few should make good that narrow 
passage, while the maine of the Army might escape away, there 
were brave Spirits who undertooke it; and knowing they went 
to an unevitable death, they had care of nothing but Sepulture, 
which of old was much regarded ; wherefore, each of them 
carried his winding sheete wrapt about his head, and then with 
losse of their owne lives saved their fellowes : whereupon, for 
an Honourable memoriall of that exploit, the Levantines used 
to wrap white linnen about their heads, and the fashion so derived 
upon the Turke. 

This may be the Story of Leonidas with his three hundred 
Spartanes, but corrupted by time and tradition :... and this might 
well bee the Thermopylae ^ if they were so neare the Phylippick 
Fields; for, besides his confession, the tradition of divers there 
inhabiting and all concordance of Stories assure us that the 
Champagne^ betweene this Mountaine and Philippopolis, of 
above fortie or fifty miles long, was, from that Citie built by 
Philip, called Campi Philippici, famous for the Roman civill 
warres there decided in two Battels : the first betweene Caesar 
and Pompey ; The other betweene Augustus and Marke Antony, 
against Brutus and Cassius : the Plaine, but that it is a Valley, 
much resembles our Downes of Marleborough, where the Saxons, 
as it is thought, had a great Battell : for, just in that manner, 
there yet remaine the heapes where the Slaine were buried, and 
good part of the Trenches : the two Battels were fought sixteene 

^ Compare A Joiiniall of a Voyage thro' France and Italy (in 1658), Sloane 
MS. 2142, "April 28. ..wee rid some .^o miles this day, most of it being very 
bad and difficult way to passe being constrained to walk a foote 14 mile downe 
a Mountaine and soe wee entered into the Country o^" the Valtolines which 
are a People that have four or five little Townes in their possession but 
among the Mountaines, All Catholickes and under the power of the Orisons.... 
April 30... we lay at the foote of a greate Mountaine that seperates the 
Country of the Valtolines from that of the Orisons." The Valtellina is a 
district in N. Italy near the Rhsetian Alps. It was seized by the Orison League 
in 1 51 2 and ceded to it in 1530. At the instigation of Spain, (he Catholics 
rose and murdered the Protestants, July, 1620. After much contention be- 
tween the French and Austrians, the neutrality of the Valtellina was assured 
in 1639. 

^ See Relation II., p. 61, note 6. 

^ For Mundy's remark on " Champion Countrie," see Relation II., p. 60. 


or eighteene miles asunder, as appeares by the Sepulchers and 
the Trenches; Caesars was next the Hill; the other neerer Caesars Battell there dyed but fifteene thousand 
two hundred, in the other almost twice as many ; this proportion 
is made good in the heapes, those towards Philippopoli being 
greater and much more in number then the other : then Caesar 
writes that after Pompey and the maine of his Army was fled, 
a residue not yet disperst retired to a hill sixe miles of, which 
had a River runne under it. This squares right with a hill on 
the South-side of Potarzeeke, a little Towne betweene the two 
Camps. ...This Potarzeeke had it not beene remarkable for the 
place, was not worth mention ; for it is but a small Towne 
reckoning not above foure thousand houses but is very pleasant 
with hills, and a River South-ward. 

Hence we passed East-ward through the rest of the Plaine, 
along the Monuments of Brutus and Cassius his defeature; the 
Tumuli are many, some great, some small, more or lesse close 
together, as the slaughter hapned, and reach at least eight or 
nine miles in length, extending as it seemes the flight did, 
towards PhiHppopolis^, now in Turkish called Philibee where in 
two dayes we arrived. 

^ Mundy comments at length on this passage under the heads of " Phil- 
lipick feilds" and "Burialls": — 

" Campi Phillipici or the Phillipick feilds is thought to bee the plaine 
country betweene Phillippopolis and the Hills, six miles beyond Yelkeeoy 
[see Relation II., p. 60 f.], famous for the Romaine Civill Warre decided here 
in twoe battles, viz., betweene Ceasar and Pompey, allso betweene Augustus 
and Marck Antonio against Brutus and Cassius, Ceasers Near the Hills, the 
other Near Phillippopolis. Allso in Sir Walter Rawleighes History of the 
World, lib. 4. p. 229, saith, Eumenes burned the bodies of his owne Men 
and interred the bones and ashes of his captaines and common Souldiers 
apart, Raysing upp heapes of earth as mountaines over them : and soe went 
his way. [The passage quoted occurs on p. 192 of Book iv. in the 1614, 1631 
and 1634 editions of Ralegh's work.] 

The battle betweene Antigonus and Eumenes was as farre as I can gather 
Near this place and perhappes the same buriall places, Eumenes beeing over- 
throwne through the treachrey of his owne ; Sir Walter Rawleigh Lib. 4. 
p. 250 [pp. 208 — 2(1 in the editions mentioned above]; hee was finally 
betrayed, taken, bound and delivered (by Teutamos and the silver Sheelds) 
unto Antigonus who putt him to death. To this end came the traveiles of 
that Worthy generall Eumenes, who had witli great Wisedom, Valour, fidelity 
and patience endeavoured in vaine to upphold the family which God had 
determined to cast downe; hee is reckned among the Notable examples of 
fortunes Mutability. Read More at large lib. 4 p. 250 [p. 210 in the editions 
of Ralegh's History of the I Fo rid noted above]. 

This hapned a little after the death of Alexander, Anno .3612, by some 
computations, of which there be divers. The buriall places Mr. Blunt saw; 
but of those buriall places or Mountaines off earth I can say No More then 


A little before the Citie', on the North-side, wee saw the 
Gran Signior his Stable of Camels, where is place and order for 
five thousand Camels, which carry his provisions when hee 
Warres on this side his Empire ; and then the generall Ren- 
divouz uses to bee in these Philippick Fields", now termed the 
Plaine of Potarzeeke, through which also runnes the River 
Marissa, in some places called Hebrus, shallow but very broad ; 
over this River at the North entry of Phylibee, is a vaste 
woodden Bridge^, more then a quarter of a mile long ; Through 
the middest of this Citie, from North to South, runnes a ridge 
of rocky hilles, partly taken up with buildings; the rest with 
Sepultures, among which I found a little Greeke Chappell^ built 
in the old Gentilisme*, as a Greeke told me, and it appeares also 
by the round forme, with equall division of Altars ; there re- 
maines nothing remarkable : After five dayes stay, we went foure 
dayes journey through many pretty Townes of Thrace'*, till we 
came to the Chiefe Citie thereof, and one of the principall in 
all Turky : This is Andrinople®, in Turkish Heidrianee, of 
Hadrian, who repaired it : originally it was styled Orestae from 
its Founder; for as the Greekes there pretend, it was built by 
Orestes^ Sonne to Agamemnon : Untill the conquest of Con- 
stantinople, it was the Turkes Emperiall Seate : North-East, 

that I can well remember, and I thinck it was hereabouts, that wee came to 
a spacious even plaine [see p. 61 f.] and that here were here and there divers 
little hills fashioned like heypokes, but very large and high, by computation 
70 or 80 feete, and soe much diameter in the bottom, which appeared in the 
plaine as Hands in the Sea, and seemed not otherwise by their proportions 
but to bee made by Mens hands. 

In Sir W. Rawleigh, lib. 3, p. 63 [p. 52 of the editions noted above], you 
shall find the fight at Thermypolae or Thermapylae set downe punctually 
that the straights was betweene Thessaly and Greece, half acre of ground 
space." See also Relation II., p. 6r, note 6. 

1 i.e. Philippopolis. See Relation II., p. 54. 

2 See Relation II., p. 54, note 9. •' See Relation II., p. 54. 
* i.e. in the style of gentilism, or like a pagan temple. 

5 See Relation II., pp. 52—54. ^ See Relation II., p. 49. 

5" On Orestes Mundy notes, " See in H. okes [Holyoke's] Dictionary the 
name Orestes, the story of him and Pylades, with other accidents, floreat 
Anno Mundi 2188, after the destruction of Troy twenty yeares, before Christ 
1 160 yeares." The Dictionary referred to is the " Dictionarium Etymologicum 
Latinum.... Declaring the Originall and Derivation of all Words used in any 
Latine Authors.. ..Whereunto... are added many thousand other words. ..with 
their Greeke in more exactnesse than ever was in Calepine, Morelius, or any 
other. ...Hereunto is also annexed the Proper Names adorned with their 
Etymologies.... Lastly Rider's Dictionarie... augmented with many hundreds 
of words. ..newly corrected, and very much augmented by the great Industrie 
and paines of Francis Holy-oke, 1633." The full title occupies an entire 


North and North- West lye certaine low and easie hilles, amongst 
which glides the little River Tuny\ from the North-side of the 
Citie to the West, where, meeting a branch of the Marissa, it 
passes a mile or more South-East, where, Joyning with the other 
branch, it runs stately through the adjoyning Plaine, on which 
Zerxes first Mustered his vaste Army when he had passed the 

This City, among divers other names, hath beene called 
Trimontium because it stands upon three little hilles^ or rather 
one low Hill, with three eminencies, the middest is the highest 
and largest, upon the toppe whereof, as the crowne and glory of 
the other buildings, stands a stately Mescheeto built by Sultan 
Solyman the Second, with foure high and curious Spyres, at 
each corner one, as the manner of Turky is^;...A little without 
the Citie North-ward stands the Gran Signior his Serraglio, with 
a Parke walled, some three miles compasse^:... 

After ten dayes stay at Adrinople, we rode up and downe... 
to Burgaz, Churlo^ and divers other pretty Townes, all of them 
adorned with daintie Meskeetoes, Colledges, Hospitals, Hanes, 
and Bridges... we came to Selibree, of old Selymbria^, no great 
Towne, but bigger then the rest and very ancient ; the old Castle 
and walles not quite demolished ; It stands upon the south end 
of a long but low hill ; the other three points are encompassed 
by Sea, with a rocky and unsafe Port ; from whence, on the 
other side of the Bay, you may discerne a round Hill upon 
which remaine more ruines of the old Citie Heraclea®..,.Next 
after I had kissed the hands of the right Honourable, Sir Peter 
Weych, Lord Embassadour for his Majesty of England'', I tooke 
an instant opportunitie of passage for Egypt.... Some thirtie miles 

^ i.e. the Tondja. Mundy mentions the river. See Relation II., p. 49. 

^ Here follows a detailed description by Blount of this " Meskeeto," the 
fountain near it, the " Besisteins or Exchanges," bridges, walls, etc. 

^ See Relation II., p. 49 f. 

^ For Lule-Burgas and Chorlu, see Relation II., p. 48. 

^ See Relation II., p. 47. 

^ Here follows Blount's description of Constantinople, its position, chief 
buildings, etc. 

'' Here Mundy remarks, " Sir Peter Wyche, Embassador at Constantinople, 
brother unto my late master Mr. Richard Wyche, with whome I might have 
gon thither againe, but took another course. I knew nine brethren in forraigne 
and farre distant Regions." This last remark seems to refer to the Wyche 
family. See Appendix B. for Mundy's connection with three of the brothers 


beneath Gallippoly is the streightest passage of the Hellespont' 
not above halfe a mile broad ; a place formerly famous for Zerxes 
his Bridge, but much more glorious in the loves of Hero and 
Leander; These Castles called the Dardanelli, command the 
passage, and are the securitie of Constantinople on that side : 
That upon Europe, anciently Sestos, is made with two Towers, 
one within the other ; the inmost highest, by reason of the rising 
ground upon which they stand, each bearing the forme of three 
Semi circles with the outwall Triangular : The other upon the 
Asian Shoare, is farre stronger, standing on a Marish levell ; it 
is of forme square with foure round Turrets, at each corner one ; 
in the middle before stands an high square Tower commanding 
over all : This formerly was named Abydos, not that the buildings 
remaine the same, but often reedified in the same place^...wee 
reached Cape Janizar, anciently Promontorium Sigaeum, where 
Troy^ stood, of which nothing remaines to bee scene, but a peece 
of an old wall ^ 

^ See Relation I., p. 20. 

2 Mundy's note on this passage is as follows :—" The two Castles below 
Constantinople called the Dardanelli, betweene which wee sailed before wee 
came to the Citey, not mentioned in this booke \i.e. Mundy's MS.], anciently 
Sestos and Abidos, Sestos on Europe side and Abidos on the Asian shore, 
Mr. H. B. p. 27. Here it is said that Xerxes made a bridge of boates over 
the Hellespont to passe into Europe." 

^ See p. 20. Mr Edwin Pears has kindly furnished me with the following 
note on the Troy of the early travellers : — The sites on the West of the bay, 
now called Koum Kale, and South of the river Simois where there exist several 
mounds known as the tombs of Achilles, of Patrocles, etc. were probably re- 
garded as those of Troy. Hissarlik, first recognized as Troy by Mr Calvert 
and since explored by Schlieman and Dorpfeldt is on the opposite, that is on 
the North side of the river Simois. The first were long regarded as the site 
of the renowned city. Critobulus (Book ii.) mentions a visit to them, in 1483, 
by Mahomet H., who regretted that he had no poet like Homer to celebrate 
his victories. 

^ Mundy further comments on Blount's description of Samos (p. 29), 
four-legged serpents (p. 45), the " tombes within the great Piramides" (pp. 
45 — 48) and "Gran Cayro" (p. 38). He concludes these additions with the 
following note, "Though some of these concern not this booke, yet I have 
made this small digression for the strangeness of the matters mentioned and 
not to be doubted of, that you might not wonder too much at smaller matters 
in my owne." However, as these remarks throw no light on this volume 
of the author's European Travels, they have been omitted. 



This family, with whom Mundy was intimately connected for 
nearly ten years ^ was originally settled in Worcestershire and 
Cheshire. Peck^ derives the name from Wiccia, a province in 
Mercia. He says that "the salt-pits of Worcestershire and 
Cheshire were by the old English called Wiches," and that "in 
both counties were many considerable persons of the name 
of Wyche." 

The salt-pits and their surroundings provided a good training 
for mercantile abilities, and early in the fifteenth century, if not 
before, the adventurous spirits of the Wyche family had found 
their way to the capital, where they quickly identified themselves 
with the life and trade of the city. In 146 1, Sir Hugh Wyche, 
mercer, son of Richard Wyche, was Lord Mayor of London. 
He died in 1466 and was buried in St Margaret's Church, Loth- 
bury. His will^, which is very long, is almost entirely made up 
of bequests to churches, nuns, monks, etc., and to many and 
various persons to pray for the repose of his soul. Sir Hugh was 
claimed as a direct ancestor by the merchant brothers whom 
Peter Mundy served, and whose father was Richard Wyche, 
a notable member of the trading companies of the time. This 
Richard, son of Richard Wyche of Davenham, Cheshire, was 
born in 1554. He married, in 1581, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Richard Saltingstall, knight. Lord Mayor of London, by 
whom he had eighteen children, twelve sons and six daughters. 

Richard Wyche, his brother Jacob and his nephew Thomas 
were all members of the Skinners' Company, Richard becoming a 

^ The name is variously spelt Wyche, Wych, Wich, Witch, etc. 

2 See pp. 10, 14, 23, 45, 136—139, 143 and 156. 

^ See Jdd. A/S. 24 121, fol. 353. 

* The will is to be found at Somerset House, catalogued as 23 Godyn. 

Richard Wyche of Davenhani, Cheshire' 

Richard Wyche, = Elizalieth Sahingstall, 
skinner, of 

1554— 1621 

Thomas Wyche of Alderley, 
d. ? 1615 


a dau. = — Giles 


R ichard Thomas Wyche, William 

Vyche cit. and skinner Wyche 

of London, d. 1618 

Richard Thomas Susanna Daniel George Samuel Sir Pet. 
d. 1625 d. before d. before d. 1643 

— T — T r 1 

Richard Tliomas Elizabeth Abigad Jane 
d. 1641 



Jacob Wyche, = Jane 
skinner, of 
d. 1612 


r T 1 T FT — T — 1 \ T 1 I 

r = Jane Elizabeth = Job James Mary Anne I Edward Julius William Henry Abigail Nathaniel Rebecca 

Mere- d. 1673 

liar- d. d. =Robt. . d. d. d. = d. d. 1659 
by 1618 before Charletori 1628 1631 before Dorothy before 
1620 of Londori 1620 I 1620 
1 merchant' 

Sir Erasmus = Frances Anne 

Sir Peter J, = Isabella BoUes, 
b. 162S ' I 1666 

d. ? 1699I 



John = Bethesda Savage 

I . 

Sir Cyril, = Anne, dau. of 

d. r756 


r T~ 

Magnus John Frederica ^ 

A. unm. 1740 d. young 

1 The pedigree is made up from the sources already 
from Burke's Extinct Baronetage. 




d. at 



Sir Cyril = i. 
d. 1707 I 2. 

alive in 


d. at 


Cyril Cc 


noted in the foregoing account, from the publications 


Elizabeth Jermyn, 1663 
Lady Susanna Perrott, 1684 
Mary Evelyn, 1692 

:Mary Hungerford 



I 1 

therine Mary 

of the Harkian Society, from Harl. MS. 2040, fol. 267 and 



















"Master" in 1614'. He was connected with the East India 
Company from its earliest days, being an "Adventurer" for ;^2oo 
in 1599. He also held a prominent post in the Levant or Turkey 
Company and had sufficient interest to find employment in the 
Mediterranean Sea and its coasts for three, at least, of his sons, 
of whom Thomas was "admitted to fellowship of the Levant 
Company" by patrimony in 161 5. In January, i6i6, Richard 
Wyche is mentioned in the Court Book of the Company as 
desiring a "share in stint of currans^" In December, 1619, 
he petitioned for an allowance as "treasurer for the pirate 
business," and in February, 1620, the year before his death, he 
was chosen "Assistant." He was, besides, a member of the 
Muscovy Company, which he assisted both with his money and 
his family. In 1619, Sir John Menick testified to the "fair 
carriage of Mr. Wiech's son in Muscovy^." Richard Wyche had 
eight sons then living, and to one of these the remark un- 
doubtedly refers. 

This noted merchant, "citizen and Skynner of London," died 
in 162 1 and was buried in the Church of St Dunstan's in the East. 
To his memory was erected "A faire Monument in the North 
He of the Chancell with the inscription : — Heere lieth the body 
of Richard Wyche, Merchant and Citizen of London, free of the 
Company of Skinners, amongst whom having borne all Offices, 
his life and carriage was exemplary. Hee married Elizabeth, the 
Daughter of Sir William Saltingstall, Knight, sometimes Alderman 
and Maior of this Honourable City of London, by whom he had 
issue, 12 Sonnes and 6 Daughters, I'iz. Richard, Thomas, Susan, 
Daniel, George, Samuel, Peter, Elizabeth^ James, Mary, Anne, 
Edward, Julius, William, Henry, Abigaile, Nathaniell, Rebecca. 
Sonnes, 4 deceased, 8 living. Daughters, 2 deceased, 4 living. 
Hee yeelded his soule in peace to his Maker the 20. of November, 
after 67 yeeres pilgrimage here amongst men, whose latter yeeres 
were bestowed in expectation of his end, exprest in setling of 
his estate here on earth, and in preparation of his soule for Heaven, 
where it now remaines in peace and happiness ''." 

1 See Wadmore, Some Account of the Skinners' Company, p. 192. By his 
will, in 1618, Thomas Wyche bequeathed to the Skinners' Company the sum 
of twenty pounds for the purchase of two cups for their Hall. 

^ State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 148. 

^ Court Minutes of the East India Company. 

* Stow, Survey of London, ed. 1633, p. 833. 


The will and inventory of Richard Wyche^ are still extant. 
By the former, dated i8th September, 1620, proved 6th February, 
1622, he bequeathed one-third of his property to his wife Eliza- 
beth, one-third to his children Susanna, Anne, Rebecca, Henry 
and Nathaniel; and the remaining third in legacies to his daughter 
Susanna, eldest son Richard, son-in-law Job Harby, cousin 
Clement Harby and nephew William Wyche, with additions to 
his wife and three daughters. He stated that his sons Richard, 
Thomas, George, Peter, Edward and Julius and his daughter 
Elizabeth, though left out of his wilP, were "all as dear and 
loving" as the rest of his offspring, but that they had already 
been helped to the utmost of his power. 

Of the eighteen children of Richard Wyche, the six who 
predeceased him were, Daniel, Samuel, James, Mary, William 
and Abigail. Of these, the only one of interest is James, the 
ninth child and seventh son. In 161 7, he was sent by the Levant 
Company to Constantinople on the Royall Merchant. He was 
accompanied by Peter Mundy who had newly entered his service. 
In the following year, 16 18, James Wyche died of small-pox 
at Constantinople^. He appears to have left no will, nor does 
Mundy give any information about his master's private affairs. 
The James Wyche who was a Director of the East India Company 
from 1650 to 1655' may possibly have been a son of Mundy 's 
employer, but there is no proof of the relationship. 

The entries in the document entitled "Inventory of the 
Estate of Richard Wyche after his decease*" give some idea of 
the investments undertaken by the senior member of the family. 
The following are extracted from the MS. : — "The Inventory... of 
all... the goods which late belonged unto Richard Wyche late 
Citizen and Skynner of London deceased and whilst he lived of the 
parish of St. Dunstans in the East London seene and valued 
the 4th day of December Anno Domini i62i....Doubtfull Debts 
oweing to the Testator at his decease : Item oweing by a Voyage to 
Aleppo 748: 17: 08: by a Voyage to Constantinople 406: 10: 00: 

^ The will is at Somerset House and the inventory at the Bodleian 

^ Richard, however, had a legacy of ;!^50 as executor. 

^ See pp. lo, 14, 23 and 136. 

* Court Mitnites of the East India Company. 

^ Rawl. MS. A. 414, at the Bodleian Library. 


by a Voyage to Xio [Scio] and Smyrna 357 : 05 : oo: by a Voyage 
to the East Indies in the first Joynt Stock 566: 13: 04: Item 
underwritten in the second Joynt Stock 2400: whereof 600 was 
for his Sonne Thomas Wyche and 200 for his Sonne George 
soe rest for his own accompt 1600 : Whereof payd in for his 
owne accompt 1150 in his lifetyme and what the proceede thereof 
will be is uncertaine : Item by the third Joynt Stock of Currants 
24: 09: 08: by the fourth Joynt Stock of Currants 338: 10: 00 
by a Voyage into Russia for a Principall part in thereof 
900: 00: 00...." In 1623, Job Harby and Richard Wyche, 
executors to the will of Richard Wyche, senior, petitioned the 
Council that they might not be personally liable for a tax rated 
on the testator as a member of the Muscovy Company, " having 
already distributed his property according to the will'." 

Elizabeth Wyche survived her husband six years. She died 
in the parish of St Dunstan's in 1628, leaving ten children. By 
her will, dated i8th October, 1625, proved 3rd March, 1628, she 
bequeathed ^100 each to her seven sons^ and ;^2oo each to 
her four daughters. She also provided in the following terms 
for her orphan grandchildren: — " Fiftie Pounds to Richard Wyche 
the eldest son of son Richard the yearely use thereof I would have 
my Executors... to alowe toward his skoolinge and the said fiftie 
pounds to bee given with him to a master when he shalbe put 
forth to bee an aprentice And if he should die then my will 
is that the second sonne Thomas Wyche shall have the said fiftie 
pounds, and if he dye then to Elizabeth Wyche their sister and 
if she should die then to Abigail Wyche and if shee should die 
to Jeane Wyche." 

Of the numerous family of Richard Wyche, senior, several 
held important positions both in commerce and society. Richard, 
the eldest of the eighteen children, was a member of the Levant 
Company. He lived in " Minceinge lane" and Mundy "lay att 
his howse" on his return from Constantinople in September, 
I62o^ In 1625, he and others entered into a contract with the 
"King of Spain's Commissioners," as Mundy relates, for copper 
to be delivered in Spain. Trouble arose over this business and 

^ See Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, 1623, p. 140. 
^ One of the sons, Edward, died between the making of the will and 
his mother's decease. 
^ See p. 136. 


Mundy, who had already agreed, in 1622, to serve Richard 
Wyche for "five years on certaine Conditions," was sent to 
Valladolid " to followe a suite then dependinge in the Chauncery 
there." On his arrival, Mundy found George Wyche, his " master's 
brother, Prisoner about the contract aforesaid'." Mundy does 
not state if his mission was successful, but, in any case, he 
failed to secure the liberation of George Wyche, who was still 
in Spain without "release from his troubles" in 1628. On 
Mundy's return to England, he found Richard Wyche "very 
dangerously sick of the Dropsie," and shortly after, in the 
autumn of 1625, his "Master left this life'." The five children 
of Richard Wyche were, as stated above, mentioned in their 
grandmother's will. In 1 631, they also received legacies under the 
will of their uncle, Julius Wyche. Richard, the eldest child, whose 
education and apprenticeship had been provided for by his grand- 
mother, eventually entered the service of the East India Company 
and held a post in their Factory at Bantam in 1642 and 1643. 

Thomas Wyche, second son of Richard Wyche, senior, is 
perhaps the Thomas mentioned in the will of his uncle Jacob 
Wyche*, who died in 161 2, but as there was at this time another 
Thomas Wyche, son of Thomas Wyche of Alderley and also 
nephew to Jacob, it is doubtful which of the two is meant. Of 
Thomas, son of Richard, there is little to relate. He became 
a member of the Levant Company in 161 5. He outlived his 
father and is mentioned in his mother's will. He was probably 
one of the "nine brethren" whom Mundy mentions as being 
"in forraigne and farre distant Regions*," but no record is forth- 
coming of his life abroad or of his death. 

Susanna, third child and eldest daughter of Richard Wyche, 
is mentioned by both her parents in their wills. She was un- 
married in 1625. 

George, third son of Richard Wyche, senior, was mixed up 
in his brother Richard's copper contract and was imprisoned on 
that account, as previously related ^ By the will of his brother 
Julius, dated 1628, proved 1631, George Wyche was to have 
a legacy of ^^300 if " he returne from Spayne or otherwise 

1 See pp. 137—139. - See p. 143. 

^ Wills at Somerset House, 12 Fenner. 

* See p. 156, note 7. ^ See p. 139. 


lyvinge there, to bee allwaies paid as he shall enorder it, either 
for his maintenance in those partes or help to release him from 
his troubles duringe life in his disposinge." There is no further 
record of the captive nor any hint as to whether he ever obtained 
his freedom. 

Peter Wyche, the sixth son, is the most prominent member 
of this large family. In 1625, instructions were issued by 
Charles I. to " Peter Wich Esquire emploied by us as our Agent 
resident with our deere Brother the King of Spain." The 
envoy was to deliver a Letter of Credit to the King of Spain 
on the death of the late King of England, James I. He was 
also instructed to "promote peace and commerce" during his 
residence in Spain \ On his return from this mission, in 1626, 
Peter Wyche was knighted. The following year he succeeded 
Sir Thomas Roe as Ambassador to the Porte, a post he held 
with great distinction until 1639. He married Jane Meredith 
and had two sons, who also distinguished themselves and who 
were both created knights. Mundy had the offer of service 
under the ambassador when he went to Constantinople in 1627, 
but "took another coursed" In his will Sir Peter styles himself 
as "Sir Peter Witch Knight and Controwler of his Majesties 
howshowld^" His great-grandson, Sir Cyril Wyche, was created 
a Baronet ^ 

Elizabeth Wyche, eighth child and second daughter of Richard 
Wyche, senior, married Job Harby, a London merchant. The 
Harbys and the Wyches were connected by blood as well as by 
marriage. Clement Harby was cousin to Elizabeth's father and 
was appointed by him as one of the "overseers" to his will, 
to which Job Harby, son-in-law, was one of the executors. Mrs 
Job Harby made a good match from a worldly point of view and 
eventually became Lady Harby. She outlived her husband. Sir 
Job, and died on the 7th November, 1673. By her will^ "the 
Lady Harby" desired to be buried at " St. Dunstans in the East in 

^ See State Papers, Foreign ArcJiives, Spain, vol. 33. 

^ See p. 156, note 7. 

•^ The will is at Somerset House. 

* For a further account of Sir Peter Wyche and his family, see the article 
in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. 

® See Razvl. MS. A. 414 (in the Bodleian Library), entitled Sir Erasmus 
Harby' s Manuscript, vol. 2nd. 


the Vallt of my fathers owne purchasing." She described herself 
as the "Widdow of Sir Job Harby Knight Barronett deceased, 
being somewhat antient but of reasonable health of body." In 
spite of being "antient" she lived for more than four years after 
making her will. She bequeathed ;^io to her nephew Sir Peter 
Wyche, the son of her brother the ambassador. No other 
members of her family are mentioned except "sister Wyche" 
who had forty shillings and Henry Wyche (probably her brother) 
who witnessed the will. Erasmus Harby, Elizabeth's son, suc- 
ceeded to the title. 

Of Anne, the eleventh child and fourth daughter of Richard 
Wyche, senior, there is no record except that she married a Mr 

Edward, the twelfth child and eighth son also served "in 
forraigne and farre distant Regions." He was at Constantinople 
in 1620 and is mentioned by Mundy as one of the seven 
merchants who accompanied Sir Paul Pindar as far as "Ponto 
Grande'." He must have been in England in 1625, when he 
was admitted to the freedom of the East India and Levant 
Companies^, but he appears to have returned to the East 
before 1627, for he was again at Constantinople when his brother 
Sir Peter arrived there in the capacity of ambassador. In 1628, 
Edward went to Scio to meet Lady Wyche, who had come out 
to join her husband. On the way back to Constantinople, he 
contracted the plague, and died and was buried at Vrekli^ 

Of Julius, ninth son and thirteenth child of Richard Wyche, 
senior, there is no record but his will. On his death, in 1631, 
he bequeathed money to his brothers George, Henry and Edward^ 
to his sister Rebecca, to his brother-in-law Job Harby and to the 
children and widow of his eldest brother Richard. 

Henry, the eleventh son, married Dorothy and had two 

children, Jane and William. 

Nathaniel, the seventeenth child and youngest son of Richard 
Wyche, was closely connected with the East India Company. 

1 See p. 45 f. 

"^ State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 148, p. 124. 
•^ Early Voyages in the Levant (Covel's Diary), p. 277. 
* Edward, however, pre-deceased Julius. For the will of Julius Wyche,, 
at Somerset House, see 124 St John. 


He was a member of the Board of Directors for several years, 
and, in 1658, he was appointed President of Surat. His tenure 
of office was short, as he died at Surat on the 23rd of May, 
1659, within eight months of his arrival in India'. 

Rebecca, the eighteenth child and sixth daughter, was un- 
married at the time of her mother's death. 

Mundy's remark as to the travels of the Wyche family "in 
forraigne and farre distant Regions" is correct in so far as six of 
them are concerned. One (probably Thomas) was in Muscovy 
about 1620; George was in Spain in 1625; Peter and Edward 
were both in Constantinople in 1627 ; James died there in 
i6i8j and Nathaniel was in Surat in 1659. Of the journey- 
ings of Richard, Julius and Henry, unfortunately no record is 

Of the later members of the Wyche family, Bernard, grandson 
of the ambassador to Constantinople, entered the East India 
Company's service and was a merchant at Surat. His brothers 
Peter and George were also merchants at Cambrai and Pondi- 
cherry respectively. With the death of Sir Cyril Wyche, Baronet, 
in 1756 and the extinction of the title, the family seems to have 
come to an end. 

^ Factory Records, Stirat, vol. 1. 



The Royal Mercha7it. 

The Royal Merchant was offered to the Levant Company for 
purposes of trade by one of its members, Mr Morris Abbott^, 
in August, 1616. The proceedings in connection with this ship 
are preserved in the Court Book of the Levant Company^ (now 
in the Public Record Office), and are here reproduced. 

2 August 1 616. "Whereas by former Act of Court it is 
provided that no shipping shalbe licensed to go forth without 
speciall leave of the Company, as in the said Act is more at 
large expressed, Forasmuch as Mr. Morris Abbott offered his 
shipp called the Royall Merchant, which was now bound out for 
Ligorne and other places of the Straights, that if the Company 
please they might send goods in her in that voyage, according 
to their severall occasions, this Court entertained the motion, 
and ordered as followeth. First that shee shall touch at Ligorne 
and there to stay twenty dayes, from thence to Zant and there 
to stay three dayes. From Zant to Scanderone and there to 
stay fifteen dayes and if neede require to stay there thirty dayes. 
To unlade from thence to Cio and there to stay five dayes. From 
Cio to Constantinople and there to stay twenty dayes. From 
Constantinople back to Cio, and there to stay three dayes. 
From Cio to Scanderone and there to stay fifty dayes to take 
her lading for England. To paie fraight for mony one Chequeen 
uppon 1000 D""*. To paie freight for Ligorne and Constantinople 

1 See p. 14. 
" See note i on p. 15. 

3 State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 147, pp. 168, 174 and 179. 
^ The sign is indistinct. It is apparently D'' and possibly stands for 


for a bagg of pepper four D"". To paie fraight out and home, 
for so much as shalbe landed and laden at Scanderone, 11 li. los. 
per ton. The Shipp to carry fifty three men a maister and a boy. 
They that have no fraight per charter partie are to paie fraight 
homeward from Constantinople, Cio or Scanderone 6li. los. per 
Ton. The same price shalbe paid by them that have taken 
tonnage and laid more then their Tonnedge taken from any of 
the said Fortes, vizt. 61i. los. per ton. The shipp to carry 
such bales as shalbe laden from Constantinople by the laders 
to Scanderone gratis. The owners to Contract that no wollen 
comoditie be carryed for Constantinople, Scio, or any parte of the 
arches^ in their shipp either directlie or indirectlie. According 
to such agreement a Charter Partie is to be made betwixt the 
owners and laders for the performance thereof. Uppon which 
Conditions, this shipp hath been graunted to proceed on the said 
voyage according to a former Act made for the restraint of 
Shipps without leave, which Act is yett to continue in force till 
the Company see cause to the contrary. And therefore every 
one willing to lade in this shipp are to sett downe in writing at 
Mr. Abbotts house under their handes what Tonnage they are 
desirous to take in this Shipp." 

II September 16 16. "A draught of the Charter Partie of the 
Marchant Royall was read at this Court and Assented unto, And 
it is ordered that a bond be sealed from Mr. Morris Abbott 
and the Master of that Shipp, Josuah Downing, to Sir Thomas 
Low^ to the use of the Company, penalty ;^5oo, that no Cloth 
or Kersyes exceeding the number of Ten peeces be carried in 
that shipp for Constantinople, either directlie or indirectlie, 
according to the owners promise made to the Company in 
that behalf." 

18 December 1616. " Ordered ... that whereas the Shipp 
Royall Merchannt was by Charter party bound to go her voyage, 
as high as Constantinople, forasmuch as sithence her departure 
hence advertisment is come by letters that there is like to be 
some troubles, hazard and danger in such a course. It was 
thought fitt that she shall go no further then Scio, and there to 

^ i.e. The Archipelago. 

2 The father of the Mr Francis Lowe mentioned by Mundy on p. 45. 


Stay forty dayes in lieu of the Time shee was to spend at ^ 

and Constantinople, and in going and coming betwixt those 
places, to lade and unlade there such goods and monyes as shee 
is bound to do by the said Charter partie. And further that at 
Scio every Particular lader shall take care for the disposing of 
the goods and monyes at his owne charge. To which purpose 
it is thought fitt and ordered that letters be written by the 
husband, to be sent away by the next Post, intimating so much 
to the Ambassador and nation there, if they find it convenient 
the shipp should be staid at Cio for the reasons abovesaid." 

2^ June 1617. "And because the times are dangerous for 
shipping, in respect of the men of warre, and that the Merchant 
Royall is not for any thing yett knowne accompanied with other 
shipps, shee being a shipp of great valine. It is ordered, by the 
consent of the fraighters and owners of that shipp, that if shee 
shall putt into Zant and stay there above sixe dayes for the two 
good English Shipps, at least at the discretion of the principal 
factors at Zant for the joynt Stock of Currants, who shall appoint 
her to depart from thence in Company of the said shipps for 
England as they shall see cause, that then towardes her charges 
of demourage in staying there the fraighters shall paie to the 
owners of the said shipp over and above the fraight agreed 
uppon by Charter party los. Per Tonne uppon all Tonnage 
taken in her according to the Charter partie as if the same had 
beene so agreed uppon at the writing and ensealing thereof." 

Captain Joshua Downing. 

Captain Joshua Downing, the Master of the Royall Mejxhant, 
appears to have made only the one voyage to Constantinople in 
the service of the Levant Company. There is no record of him 
either before that date, or for four years subsequent to his return. 
But from 1621, until his death in 1630, he is frequently mentioned 
in the Calendars of State Papers, Domestic Series, and twice in 
the Colonial Series, East Indies. In 162 1, Downing was inspector 
of cordage at Woolwich and Deptford. In 1622, a Committee 

1 A blank in the MS. here. Scanderoon is probably meant. 


was appointed to "treat with Captain Joshua Downing" about 
the chief command of the East India Ships. In 1625, as an 
officer of the King's works at Chatham, he estimated the value 
of the "pinnace Lion's wJulp,'' and made an Inventory of "the 
names and former trades of all the officers and shipkeepers 
belonging to the twenty-nine vessels of the Navy riding at 
Chatham." He also reported on " the losses of the English and 
Hollanders" in the storm on the 13th October, In 1626, he 
made out the lists of men mustered aboard the Adventure, 
Dreadnought and Rainbow, and certified the defective condition 
of the Great Sapphire at Portsmouth. He also recommended 
three boatsv/ains for promotion, remarking that he did not 
"desire that any whom he recommended should not be as 
beneficiall and thankfull to him as any other." In July, 1626, 
Downing was acting as a Commissioner of the Fleet at Ports- 
mouth. About this time, he had drawn up some " Notes on the 
Navy," arranged under three heads. In 1627, there is evidence 
that he was unpopular. In February, the Special Commissioners 
for inquiring into the state of the Navy reported their inability 
to complete the survey of cordage at Chatham owing to inter- 
ruptions from Joshua Downing, and, a month later, Thomas 
Rabenett complained of Captain Downing's '■malice." Downing 
seems to have had more on his shoulders than he could manage, 
for he wrote to the Clerks of the Council that "important 
works are carrying on at Chatham under very insufficient super- 
intendence," that Mr Wilson, the master attendant, was a " willing 
but aged and crazy man," that he, Downing, would use his " best 
care," but that he was "not an Atlas." In the following year 
his health failed. In February, 1628, he was "sick-a-bed. ...The 
stores are very barren of provisions, and works go on slowly for 
want of the ordinary pay." At the same time he wrote to the 
Treasurer of the Navy to know "whether the officers will come 
down and take a survey of the stores and provisions," so that 
he might "have his discharge." However, two months later, in 
April, 1628, he was still at Chatham, whence he wrote to re- 
commend Christopher Laughlyne for a purser's place. In the 
same letter, he remarked of the porter of the yard at Chatham 
that he did not "conceive him to be fitting" for his post. 
Whether Downing ever got his "discharge" is not clear. In 
January, 1629, he once more wrote from Chatham recommending 


a purser. On the 2nd March, 1629, his will', dated ist January 
of the same year, was proved. He left his son and namesake as 
his executor, and a daughter, Martha, was also a legatee. In the 
will, complaint is made of "the great charge" Downing had 
sustained on behalf of his nephews Henry and Jasper, sons of 
his " sister Scroles." The last reference to Downing is in 1630, 
when "Captain Phineas Pett requested to have the lodgings at 
Chatham formerly enjoyed by Captain Downing." 

^ To be found at Somerset House, catalogued as 23 Scroope. 



The Levant or Turkey Company, incorporated by Charter in 
1 581, was the outcome of EngUsh attempts to trade in the 
Mediterranean from 141 3 onwards. The great obstacles to 
private enterprise on the shores of Southern Europe at that time 
were the danger of attack by the dreaded Barbary Corsairs or 
Turkish pirates, and the consequent necessity of united effort in 
any commercial undertaking in those regions. 

The earlier history of the Company is briefly as follows. In 
1579, Queen Elizabeth empowered three English merchants, 
William Harebone, Edward Ellis and Richard Staple, to use 
their endeavours to obtain from Sultan Murad III. social and 
commercial privileges for the English nation. Their mission was 
successful, and in 1581, as stated above, letters patent were 
granted to "The Company of Merchants of the Levant," which 
then consisted of only five members. The first resident am- 
bassador from England to Constantinople on their behalf was 
Sir Edward Barton, who held that post from 1588 to his death in 
1597. In 1593, during his term of office, the Company was 
reconstituted for a period of twelve years, with the title of 
"Governor and Company of Merchants of the Levant." His 
successor was Henry Lello (1597 — 1607) in whose time the 
charter was renewed in perpetuity by James I., the Company 
being thenceforth known as "the Governor and Company of 
Merchants of England trading to the Levant Seas." The first 
ambassador at Constantinople under the new and extended 
charter was Sir Thomas Glover (1607 — 161 1), who was succeeded 
by Paul Pindar, Mundy's patron. 


The management of the Levant Company was vested in a 
Court of Directors, but it differed from the East India Company 
in that it was not a Joint Stock Company. Every man under 
twenty-six years of age paying £,2^, and over that age paying 
;^5o, was admitted a member and could then trade on his own 
account. The " Governor " at the time of Mundy's journey to 
Constantinople was Sir Thomas Low, the father of the " Mr. 
Francis Lowe" who is mentioned as one of the English merchants 
residing at Galata in 1620'. 

The Company progressed steadily for a long period, and the 
account given by Sir John Chardin, from observations during 
his travels in 1672, shows the extent of its advance in the first 
hundred years and the system of trade then prevailing. His 
information is valuable as it was acquired on the spot. Chardin 
writes^: — "The English drive a great Trade at Smyrna, and over 
all the Levant. This Trade is driv'n by a Royal Company setled 
at London ; which is govern'd after a most prudent manner, and 
therefore cannot fail of success. It has stood almost these 
hundred Years, being first Confirm'd towards the middle of 
Queen Elizabeth's Raign. A Raign famous for having, among 
other Things, giv'n Life to several Trading Companies, particu- 
larly those of Hamborough, Russia, Greenland, the East-Indies 
and Turkic, all which remain to this Day. Trade was then in 
its Infancy ; and there is no greater Mark of the Ignorance of 
those Times, in reference to Countries, though but a little remote, 
then the Association which those Merchants made : for they 
joyn'd several together in one Body, for mutual Conduct and 
Assistance. That Company which relates to the Turkish Trade 
is of a particular sort : For it is not a Society, where every one 
puts in a Sum for one General and United Stock : It is a Body 
which has nothing in Common, but a peculiar Grant and Privi- 
ledge to Trade into the Levant. It assumes to it self the Name 
of The Regulated Company. None are admitted into it, but .Sons 
of Merchants, or such as have serv'd an Apprenticeship to the 
Trade, which in England is for Seven Years. They give to be 
admitted into the Society about an Hundred and Twenty Crowns, 
f under the Age of Twenty Five Years : and double if above 

1 See p. 45. 

^ Sir John Chardin, Tj'avels into Persia, etc., pp. 4 — 6. 


that Age. The Company never commits to any one single 
Person their Power, nor the sole Management of their Affairs, 
but manage their Business among themselves by the Plurality of 
Voices. So that who has sufificient to drive a Trade that will 
bear an Imposition of Eight Crowns, has as good a Vote as he 
that Trades for an Hundred Thousand. This Assembly, thus 
Democratical, sends out Ships, Levies Taxes upon all their Com- 
modities, presents the Ambassador whom the King sends to the 
Port, Elects two Consuls, the one for Smyrna, the other for 
Aleppo, and prevents the sending of Goods which are not thought 
proper for the Levant. It consists at present of about Three 
Hundred Merchants, besides that they bring up in Turkic a great 
number of young Persons well descended, who learn the Trade 
upon the Place it self. This Trade amounts to about Five or Six 
Hundred Thousands Pounds yearly, and consists in Cloaths 
made in England, and Silver which they carry as well out of 
England, as out of Spain, France and Italy : In exchange of which 
they bring back Wool, Cotton- Yarn, Galls, Raw Silk and Wov'n, 
together with some other Commodities of less value. Now the 
Company, finding that Malice which Interest begets among 
Persons of the same Profession, would in time be the Ruine of 
their Society, by Enhancing or Loring the price of Goods on 
purpose to under-sell one another; and that the same Malice 
causes the Merchants to be at variance with the Consuls, the 
Consuls with the Ambassador ; (which is the reason that many 
times where Expences are requisite, an unseasonable Stinginess 
in the Ambassador causes great Impositions and Fines, and other 
severe Vexations to the Nation) The Company, I say, fore- 
seeing these Mischiefs, have prudently provided a Remedy ta 
prevent 'em. For the English Cloth, of which they send into 
Turkic about Twenty Thousand Pieces yearly, and the chiefest 
part of the rest of their Merchandize is sent to the Factors with 
a Bill or Invoice of the Price at what they are bound to sell ; 
together with another Bill of the Price certain for those Goods 
which they give order to be bought ; and by that means it never 
happens that the Merchants receive any Damage in the Prospect, 
or Design of their Profit. For the prevention of these and other 
disorders, the Company gives a Pension to the EngUsh Ambassa- 
dor, who resides at the Port ; to the Consuls and all their 
principal Officers, as the Minister, the Chancellor, the Secretary, 
the Interpreters, the Janisaries and others. Which Officers have 


no Power to Levy any Taxes or Sums of Money upon the 
Merchandize, whether under the pretence of Duties, or Presents, 
or any other extraordinary Expences. But when any thing of 
that Nature is to be done, they give Notice to the Deputies of 
the Nation, who are Two Persons appointed to Act in the Name 
of the rest. These Deputies examine and debate with the 
Ambassador, or the Consul, What is fit to be given, What 
Journeys are necessary to be made to the Port, and what is there 
to be transacted : Not but that the Ambassador or Consul may 
not Act of themselves, but they observe that method to acquit 
and justifie themselves; and sometimes upon Emergent and 
Extraordinary Affairs they assemble the whole Body of the 
Nation. So soon as they are come to a Result, the Deputies 
give Notice to the Treasurer to provide what is necessary, whether 
it be Money, Toys or Curiosities. This Treasurer also is setl'd 
by the Company, and provides Money for every thing, discharges 
punctually all manner of Charges and Expences, and pays exactly 
the Wages of every Officer. Thus the Ambassador and Consuls 
have no more to do but only to mind the Security of the English 
Nation, and the good of Trade, without being incumber'd and 
diverted by their own Interests. There are also many other 
excellent Regulations and Orders for the support of their Trade 
in the Levant ; by which means they carry it on with Honour and 
Profit beyond any of their Neighbors." 

But about a century and a half later Hobhouse\ who visited 
Constantinople in 1810, has a very different story to tell. He 
says : — "The resident members of the Levant Company at Pera, 
have lately much diminished in numbers... they do not possess 
more than five or six mercantile establishments... the number of 
persons protected by the ambassador does not in the whole 
amount to one hundred." 

In 161 7', when Mundy sailed in the Roy all Merchant to Scan- 
deroon the Levant Company was still struggling to obtain a firm 
foothold in the Ottoman dominions, and, during the three years 
that he remained in Constantinople ^ he must have heard some 
of the many and bitter complaints that the English merchants 
had at that time to make of their treatment at the hands of 
Turkish officials. 

1 Hobhouse, A Journey through Albania, vol. II. p. 828. 

^ See pp. 14 and 166 — 168. ^ See pp. 21 — 23. 


Paid Pindar, Ambassador at Constantinople, 161 1 — 1619. 

When Mundy reached Constantinople with James Wyche, in 
16 1 7, he found Paul Pindar acting as ambassador to the Porte in 
the interests of the Levant Company. Pindar had succeeded 
Sir Thomas Glover in 161 1, and his letter, notifying his arrival at 
the Ottoman capital, was received by the Court of Directors in 
London on the 20th December in that year. In this letter Pindar 
seems to have applied for an increase of pay, for, on the 13th 
January, 161 3, the following passage occurs in the Proceedings 
of the Court, " Mr. Pindar Embassadours desire of allowance for 
Extraordinary rejected and wrote him that [he] Confines himself 
in such a Competent Limit of Expences as their former allowance 
may be Sufficient to maintain him '." 

In 1615, Pindar wrote to the Court making various requests, 
and among other favours he desired the payment of certain 
money due to him in June of the previous year. The minute on 
this letter was as follows: — "A Generall Court... 21st June 1615... 
A letter from Mr. Paul Pindar Ambassadour at Constantinople 
dated the 22th of Aprill was now read and considered of desireing 
to be free from impositions after the example of his Predecessor, 
praying also a sufficient Preacher may be sent over in place of 
Mr, Foord lately returned thence ; and desireing some course may 
be thought on to prevent the extraordinary stretching and over 
drawing of cloth tending to losse in that Comodity and disrepu- 
tation thereof in those partes. Whereuppon it was ordered that 
care should be taken to provide for those buisinesses and an 
answere to his letters returned with all convenient expedition. 
And whereas also the said Ambassadour made request for paiment 
of his monyes due by the Company at Midsummer last and 
otherwise for interest for forbearance, because he is desirous to 
employ them for his advantage at Constantinople This Court 
thought fitt in respect they were out of Cash for [the] present to 
intreat Mr. Raph Pindar^ brother to the Ambassadour who was 
present at this meeting to stay till Michaelmas next uppon the 

^ State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 147. 

- See p. 134. Ralph Pindar was father of Paul Pindar, junior, who was 
therefore nephew to Sir Paul Pindar, and not his cousin, as stated by Mundy 
on p. 41. 


same condition as formerly which he consented unto in hope of 
satisfaction at the time\" Pindar was evidently piqued at the 
Court's want of generosity towards him and at their refusal to allow 
him to trade on his own account, for in June, 16 16, he petitioned 
to be recalled, alleging that his health could no longer bear the 
strain of his duties. The year 16 15 had also been one of trouble 
for trade in the Levant, owing to the depredations of pirates, and 
a serious encounter between them and the Company's ships, 
which occurred about that time, may have intensified Pindar's 
wish to be relieved of his onerous position. The Court of 
Directors, however, realized that their interests were being well 
looked after, and had no desire to lose Pindar's services, for we 
read in their Proceedings of the nth September, 16 16, and 9th 
January, 1617, as follows: — "A letter from the Ambassadour 
Mr. Pindar was read at this Court, dated in Pera the 15 th. and 
29th. of June, where he signified to the Company that he would 
not continue his place of Ambassadour by reason of the indis- 
position of his body &c., whereof he prayeth the Company to 
take notice, whereuppon this Court have intreated Mr. Nicholas 
Leate. . .to conceave a letter in answere thereof to the Ambassadour 
requesting him to continue his place for a yeare or two longer, 
as a request from the whole Company^ — It was ordered and 
thought fitt, that in the letter to Mr. Pindar the Ambassadour, he 
should be required to stay at Constantinople untill the troubles 
there were past over and the affaires of the Company settled to 
some good purpose, as best knowing out of his experience how 
to manage all thinges for the behoofe of this Society®." 

That the question of the money was the chief cause of 
Pindar's resignation is clear from the minute on his answer to the 
Court's request. On the 26th March, 161 7, "A letter from the 
Ambassadour at Constantinople was read at this Court dated the 
4th of January wherein he relateth the ill Termes our Nation 
standes in there, and that hee is content to continue there at the 
Companyes request till the first of March next, but not to stand 
to his former allowance. Whereuppon it was ordered that [a] 
letter be written him, that towardes the maintenance of his 

^ State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 147, p. 152 a. 
^ Ibid., vol. 147, p. 169. ^ Ibid., vol. 147, p. T75. 


charge, the Company do appoint him [?] 4000 ' Chequins for the 
yeare ensuing to be taken upp quarterlie to saie [?] 1000' Chequins 
per quarter per Exchange, on any of the Company at 5^. per 
dollar of 80 Aspers, at 30 dayes sight, And if the mony be not 
paid here within a Monneth after it is due the partie to whom 
the said bills are payable shall have interest allowed him after the 
said bills are paid^." 

Mundy, who reached Constantinople early in 1617^, says that 
"Heere the English Merchants passe verie Commodiouseley*." 
The Ambassador, however, thought differently. Indeed, Sultan 
Ahmad's treatment of the members of the Company seems to 
have goaded their representative to desperation, for at a Court 
held on the 24th September, 1617, was read "A letter from 
Mr. Paul Pindar Ambassadour in Constantinople dated the 3d of 
July last, and brought by Mr. Kentish... wherein he amplie related 
...the little esteeme there had of his Majesties letter sent by 
Mr. Kentish and of himselfe, and the whole Nation there, terming 
them pirates deserving to be punished, for redresse whereof his 
opinion is that the Company do Procure the Ambassadours 
revocation, and not to send any Ambassadour, Agent or 
shipping \" 

Later on, when the " Generall Court of Election " assembled 
on the 4th February, 16 18, it was decided to abolish the office of 
Ambassador at Constantinople. "At this Court which was 
especially assembled for the yearely election of officers, according 
to the words and warrant of His Majesties Charter, Mr. Deputy 
(before the entrance into that buisines) aquainted the Company 
that following the direction of a former Act of Court, himself and 
some other Committees authorised for that purpose, had attended 
the Lords of the Counsell for letters to recall home Mr. Pindar 
the Ambassadour at Constantinople, and to leave in his place, 
some such Persons of sufficiency and discretion as this Society or 
the said Committes should choose and nominate unto him to 
remaine Agent there, untill his Majestic should otherwise dispose 
of that employment which said letters were now read and 

^ The figures in the original are not clearly legible. 

2 State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 147, p. 178. 

^ See pp. 14 and 21. * See p. 22. 

^ State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 147, p. 182. 


approved of, bearing date the 25th of January; yett for some 
reasons, the name of the said Agent so to be established was 
thought fitt and consented unto at this court to be concealed for 
a time for better consequence in the affaires of the Company 
and therefore his name not to be published till an other 
opportunity. Meane while the said letters and others from this 
Court are to be signed and sent away by the next post and the 
whole carriage of this buisines was well approved of." The 
death of Ahmad, in November, 161 7, however, changed the com- 
plexion of affairs for the English, and three months later, on the 
deposition of Mustafa, his successor, and the accession of Osman^, 
brighter days dawned for the members of the Levant Company 
and the question of abolishing the office of Ambassador at Con- 
stantinople was allowed to drop. 

Pindar remained on in office, but in May, 161 9, when the 
Company's resources were again at a low ebb, the Court decided 
" that letters may be procured from the king for revocation of 
Mr. Paul Pindar the now Ambassadour at Constantinople in 
respect of the great charge he putt the Companie unto, and his 
owne losses of health and other impediments and prejudice in 
his private Estate^." This time Pindar's recall was confirmed. 
He remained in Constantinople until the arrival of his successor, 
and started on his homeward journey on the 6th May, 1620*. 
He travelled overland and arrived in London on the i6th Septem- 
ber l On the loth October he presented himself before the Court 
of the Levant Company and on the 12 th April, 1621, his accounts 
were " considered and reported on." 

After this, Pindar's connection with the Company practically 
ceased. The story of his later years has been chronicled in the 
Dictionary of National Biography^ but two statements in that work 
regarding Pindar, during the years 1611 — 1620, require correction. 
Firstly, he is supposed to have returned to England about i6i6, but 
that he remained in Constantinople for " eight yeares and eight 
monethes'*" consecutively, that is until 1620, as Mundy relates, is 
clear from the extracts from the Court Books of the Levant 

^ State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 148, p- 7 a. ^ See p. 21. 

^ State Papers, Foj-eign Archives, vol. 148, p. 27. * See p. 41. 

5 Seep. 135 f. 


Company quoted above. Secondly, on the authority of Nichols', 
and Philipot^ Pindar is said to have been knighted during a 
royal progress in July and August, 1620. But it is evident from 
Mundy's journal, that he did not reach Dover until the 
13th September of 1620^ Therefore, the date of his knight- 
hood as given in the Dictionary is obviously wrong, though he 
undoubtedly became Sir Paul shortly after his return from Con- 

Sir John Eyre, Pindar's successor at Consta?ittnopk, 
1619 — 1621. 

Of Sir John Eyre, Pearson writes^, he "is, as far as I am 
aware, unknown to fame." This may be correct with regard to 
his earlier career, but Sir John certainly made himself unpleasantly 
notorious while in the service of the Levant Company. He was 
the son of Sir William Eyre of Great Chauldfield, Peccasod, in 
the county of Wilts^ In 16 19 he was recommended by the 
Marquis of Buckingham to supersede Pindar as ambassador at 
Constantinople, and the matter was taken into consideration at a 
"Generall Court" held on the 7th May: — "Whereas this Court 
was more especiallie assembled to read and consider of a letter 
from the Marquis of Buckingham directed to Mr. Governor and 
Companie bearing date the 13th of Aprill last and to frame an 
answere thereunto, beeing in recomendation of Sir John Eyres to 
be appointed Ambassadour to Constantinople if any were sent to 
that place and Employment intimating also the Kings pleasure 
and desire therein. The buisines was now discussed of at large 
and though the said Sir John Eyres was said to be an able and 
sufficient Person to undertake such a service yett this Court 
finding the Estate of the Company to be utterly unable for the 
present to beare the Charge of an Ambassadour did resolve to 
intreat none at all might be sent by them, as the Constitution of 

^ Progresses of James /., iv. 611. 

2 A Perfect Collection or Catalogue of All Knights Batchelaurs made by 
Kijig James, &c. 

^ See p. 134. 

* Chaplains of the Levant Company, p. 41. 

^ Wills at Somerset House, 138 Harvey. 


their affaires now stand, but rather to have leave to have an Agent 
at Constantinople untill such time as this Societie shall grow out 
of debt. Whereuppon it was ordered that a letter should be 
returned to the lord Marquis not onely to beseech his lordship to 
moove his Majestie the Company might be spared in the course 
intended by Sir John Eyres, untill they are better able to hearken 
to the Charge of such an Employment as he desires at which 
time he shalbe putt in nomination... \" The Court's objections 
to an Ambassador on the score of expense were of no avail and 
Buckingham insisted on the preferment of his nominee. It is 
probable that the royal favourite was under some obligation either 
to Sir John Eyre or to his family and desired to pay his debt at 
the expense of the Company. It is difficult to find any other 
explanation for the pressure exerted to advance an individual who 
was apparently quite unfitted for so delicate a post. The office of 
ambassador at Constantinople was a position full of difficulty, 
embarrassment, and occasionally of danger. It needed a man 
possessed of an equal amount of energy and tact, in addition to 
an intimate knowledge of the customs and prejudices of the 
Turks. It behoved the ambassador, while scrupulously main- 
taining the rights of his country, to use the greatest moderation 
and not to resort to menace save in the last extremity. For such 
an office, Buckingham's candidate was eminently unfitted, and his 
persistence in forcing the appointment on the Company only 
brought about disastrous results and lowered the prestige of the 
English at Constantinople. 

On the I St July, 1619, the Court reluctantly gave up their 
opposition to the re-appointment of an ambassador and accepted 
the inevitable with apparent willingness. It was agreed, " for as 
much as his Majestie had declared himselfe for the choice of the 
Person that he wished might be elected namely either Sir Thomas 
Glover^ or Sir John Eyres leaving both to the Companies Con- 
sideration, as appeared by letters from his highnes dated 27 th of 
June, which was read at this present, with respectful observation. 
The Court now accordinglie proceeded to the choice desired first 
calling Sir John Eyres to clear some doubts or aspersions, who 

^ State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 148, p. 27. 

^ He had already filled the post of ambassador at Constantinople for four 
years. See p. 171. 


gave such satisfaction to all points propounded as in humble 
Conformitie to his Majesties pleasure and other Considerations 
he was with an unanime consent of the whole Companie chosen 
Ambassadour and was made free of the same'." At the same 
Court, a Committee was appointed "to meete and treate with 
Sir John Eyres about his Establishment, according to former 
presidents." On the 5th August, it was agreed that Sir John 
Eyre's household goods should be sent to Constantinople on the 

The ambassador's unfitness for his office showed itself almost 
immediately. His letter to the Company in September, 1620, 
written shortly after his arrival, gave great offence, and led to a 
petition being drawn up by " the Merchants trading to the Levant " 
to the Privy Council "praying consideration of letters" to the 
Court from Sir John Eyre^. He quarrelled with the English 
residents, was unpopular with the Turks, and failed to inspire 
either respect or confidence. In April, 162 1, he sent home a 
declaration by the merchants of Constantinople of their refusal 
to pay money demanded by him, but if he expected support 
from the Court, he was greatly mistaken, as the Directors were 
probably glad of an excuse to be rid of the unwanted agent 
foisted on them by Buckingham. At any rate, they made 
use of the various complaints of Eyre's conduct to summarily 
recall him. Mr John Chapman was sent to Constantinople at 
the end of 162 1, with orders to take charge of the embassy until 
the arrival of Sir Thomas Roe, Eyre's successor. 

On his return to England, Sir John Eyre was charged with 
extorting ;^3ooo more than his due from the English at Con- 
stantinople, and the Court further declared that "his extortions 
and ill speeches abroad have well nigh overthrown this trade." 
Eyre's defence was that the Court had agreed to pay him 5000 
sequins a year while at Constantinople and half a year's salary in 
advance, on condition that he made no claim on consulage 
moneys. He urged that, not having received his allowance within 
the stipulated time, he had seized the consulage moneys to re- 
imburse himself. The Court desired restitution of the surplus 
amount that the ambassador had thus acquired. The matter was 

1 State Papers, Foreign Archives, vol. 148, p. 31 a. 

2 Ibid., p. 41 a. * Ibid., Tui-key, vol. 7. 


referred to the Privy Council, when Buckingham's influence 
probably procured the decision that, as Sir John Eyre had 
" suffered much disgrace and been recalled two years before his 
time," he should be allowed to retain the surplus money on 
condition of dropping all future claims'. 

The office of ambassador under the Levant Company appears 
to have been Sir John Eyre's first and last public appointment. 
He died eighteen years later, in 1639. In his will he declared 
that his "whole estate besides my howsehold stuffe is but twoe 
hundred and fiefty poundes in money which is in my Iron Chest 
at London." He left this small property to his nephew, Edward 

■* Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, June, 1622. 
^ Wills at Somerset House, 138 Harvey. 



(Extracts from the writings of Grimston, Gainsford 
AND Sandys'.) 

I. Edward Grimstoris Description of Constantinople^. 

This Citie^ is situated upon a point of firme Land advanced 
into the channell which comes from Pontus Euxinus, or the 
blacke Sea, which Geographers call the Bosphorus of Thrace. 
It is watred of three parts by the Sea : towards the North by a 
Gulfe or Arme of the Sea, called the Home, which the Bosphorus 
thrusts into Europe, and makes the Haven of Constantinople the 
goodliest, the deepest and the most commodious in Europe. 
Towards the East it is watred by the extremetie of the channell 
or Bosphorus ; on the South by the waves of the Propontique 
Sea, and upon the South it hath the firme Land of Thrace. The 

^ See p. 25, note 3, p. 27, note 4, and p. 30, note 2. 

^ The extracts that follow are taken from Edward Grimston's translation 
of Michel Baudier's History of the Iinperiall Estate of the Grand Seigneurs. 
Michel Baudier, who was born in Languedoc and died circ. 1645, was the 
author of several historical works, all written in a heavy verbose style. His 
Histoire ghierale dit serail et de la cour de Fempereiir des Ttircs was published 
in Paris in 1626. For the full title of the English version of the work, see 
note I on p. 25. There is a sub-title which runs. The History of the Serrail, 
and of the Court of the Gravid Seigneur, Etnperour of the Turks. Wherein 
is Seene the Image of the Othoman Greatnesse. A Table of humane passions, 
and the Examples of the inconstant prosperities of the Cozcrt. Translated out 
of Frefich by Edward Grinieston Serjeant at Armes. The book contains 191 
quarto pages. Bound up with it is, The History of the Court of the King of 
China Written in French by the Seigneur Michael Baudier of Languedoc. 
Translated by E. G. 1635. The two books are dedicated by Grimston to his 
"Worthy kinsman, Sir Harbottel Grimeston Knight and Baronet." Of Sir 
Harbottle Grimston, the translators nephew, there is an account in the Diet, 
of Nat. Biog. 

^ For Mundy's abstract of Grimston's remarks on Constantinople, see 
pp. 25—27. 


form is Triangular, whereof the largest side is that towards the 
Serrail, which lookes to the Sea towards the seven Towers \ and 
its vast circuit contains about five leagues : The wals are of an 
extraordinary height, with two false Brayes towards the Land\ 
and inclose seven Hils within it. The first serves as a Theatre 
to the Imperiall Palace of the Prince, where it is commodiously 
and proudly seated : The last lookes upon the extremity of the 
farthest parts of the Towne opposite to this, and upon the way 
which leads to Andrinopolis by Land. But betwixt the third and 
the fourth^ where a Valley doth extend it selfe called the great, is 
an Aqueduct of rare structure, which Constantine caused to be 
drawne seven leagues from the Citie, and Solyman the Second 
advanced it two Leagues beyond, and increased the current of 
water in so great abundance, as they doe serve seven hundred 
and forty Fountaines for the publique, not reckoning those which 
are drawne into divers parts to furnish the great number of Bathes 
which serve for delights^, and the Turkes superstition. Upon 
the last of the seven Hils are yet to be scene the ancient build- 
ings of a Fort strengthened with seven Towres in the midst of 
the situation : the Turkes call it Giedicula^, that is to say, the 
Fort of the seven Towres, in the which the wonders of Art was 
so great in old time, as what was spoken in the one was heard in 
all the rest, not all at one instant, but successively and in order. 
Two hundred and fifty Souldiers are in guard, commanded by a 
Captaine who hath the charge, who may not goe forth without 
the leave of the Grand Vizir, except it be on two dayes in the 
yeare, when they celebrate their Feasts of Bayrans^ or Easter. 
The first Turkish Emperour which possest Constantinople lodged 
their treasure in these Towres : The one was full of Ingots, and 
cxjyned gold ; two of them contained the silver that was coyned 
and in Ingots : another had divers armes and ornaments for 
Souldiers, and the Caparisons for Horses, enricht with gold, silver 
and precious stones : the fift served for ancient Armes, Medales, 
and other precious remaynders of Antiquity : the sixt contained 
the Engines for Warre : and the seventh, the Rols and Records of 
the Empire ; accompanied with a goodly gallery, in the which 

1 See p. 31. ^ See p. 37. 

* Yedi Kule. See note 2 on p. 31. 
^ B air dm. 


were placed the rich spoyles which Selym the first brought from 
Tauras, when he triumphed over Persia. All these treasures 

were carefully kept untill the Reigne of Selym the Second 

Constantinople hath within the enclosure of the wals above two 
thousand Mosquees, or Turkish Temples built by their Emperors. . . . 
The Chiefe of all these Mosquees is that which hath beene 
erected in the ancient Temple of Sancta Sophia, called by the 
Turkes Ayasophia^ ...Besides this great and admirable Mosquee, 
there are foure others of note, the durable markes of the mag- 
nificence of the Turkish Emperours. ...The Grecians which are 
Christians, have within Constantinople forty Churches for their 
divine Service ; the Armenians have fowre, and the Latines (lesse 
favoured then these) have but two : It is true that most of them 
are lodged at Galata, now called Pera, which is on the other side 
of the Channell, where they have nine Churches for their Devo- 
tions and holy Mysteries. The Jewes have the credit to be 
within the City in nine severall quarters, and have eight and 
thirty Synagogues — The walls of this Imperiall City are yet 
firme and entire. They are double upon the firme Land^, except 
it be towards the Gate of Ayachapezi, that is to say, the holy 
Gate, by reason of the great number of Religious bodies which 
were in a Church neere unto that Gate... there are nineteen gates 
as well upon the firme Land as towards the Sea, which serve for 
an entrance into this City. Many great places are extended for 
the commodity of the Publike, some have preserved the ancient 
Pyramides, and the workes of Brasse erected by Christian 
Emperours, amongst others that which they call Petrome, where 
there are to be scene whole Obelisques ; and three great Serpents 
of Marble creeping upward wreathed one within the other^... 
The shops for merchants exceed the number of forty eight 
thousand; they are divided according to the diversity of trades 
or Merchandizes into divers places; but every trade hath his quarter, 
and in divers parts for the commoditie of the Publique. Only 
Goldsmiths, Jewellers and Merchants of cloth of gold are in one 
place called Baystan*, that is to say Market ; the others Bazars. 
This rich place is invironed with wals sixe foote thicke ; there 

^ See p. 35. Ayasophia represents the modern Greek pronunciation of 
ayia cxocpia. 

^ See p. 31. 2 See p. 33. * See p. 37. 


are foure double Gates one before the other, like unto a little 
Towne, vaulted round about. This rich Market place hath foure 
and twenty Pillars which support the vault, under the which there 
are many little shops like unto boxes in the wall, or in the Pillars, 
every one is sixe foote broad and foure long : There they shew 
forth their rich Merchandizes upon little Tables which are before 

them Besides the Baystan, there is another lesse invironed with 

a wall, and supported by sixteene small Pillars... without it is the 
detestable Market where they sell men and women' — The taxe 
of those which imbarque themselves to travaile, which is an 
Aspre for every head if they be Turkes, and two if they be 
Christians or Jewes, is of no small importance. The Tribute 
called in Turkic Charay", which is levied upon the Jewes in 
Constantinople, after the rate of a Sequin for everie male Childe 
is worth eleven Millions^ three hundred Sequins yearely, although 
there be many of that Nation which are free from this Tribute. 
They doe also give a present of three thousand Sequins everie 
yeare, for the confirmation of their Priviledges, and to have a 
Rabbin to command their Synagogues, and twelve hundred 
Sequins to have leave to burie their Dead. The Christians, 
Grecians, within three miles or a league of Constantinople, pay 
for every Male a Sequin, which amounts to the summe of above 
thirtie eight thousand Sequins : They doe also give five and 
twentie thousand yearely for their priviledge to have a Patriarch, 
and to preserve the number of their Churches. The priviledge 
of their burials cost them above three thousand Sequins — But 
to returne to this great Citie of Constantinople, the Magnificences 
of the Princes which possesse it at this day, and the riches of 
some Bashawes, or great Men of the Court, have caused above 
three hundred Carravasserrails to bee built : these are great and 

vast places to lodge Strangers The Arsenall is one of the 

goodliest and rarest things in Constantinople*; it is upon the Sea 
Shoare, and containes a hundred and foure score Arches, under 
either of which enters a great Galley, yea, three may be safely 

1 See p. 34. 

^ See note i on p. 26. 

* See Mundy's correction of this statement on p. 26. 

■* See p. 39. 


2. Tho7nas Gainsford^s Description of Coitstantifiople^. 

What I have said of Paris by way of comparison, concerning 
the government and orderly managing the affaires of a citie, 
I may well conclude against Constantinople : but because this 
Imperiall place looketh with a more Majesticall countenance then 
other Cities and lifteth up (as it were) a daring head against 
all contradiction for her superioritie : I must needes pensill out 
the line of her praises at some length, and tell you truely wherein 
her worthinesse consisteth, and yet may deceive opinion without 
true judgment. Constantinople, otherwise called Stanbole, the 
Beautifull, hath a handsome and formall triangle of a wall, the 
first part whereof reacheth from the Seven Towers^ (which is a 
place for suppliment of a prison, a treasurie, and ward-robe) unto 
the Seraglio, some three English mile. The second from the 
Seraglio to Porta del Fieume a little more and both towards the 
sea, which runneth one way betweene Asia and Europe into the 
Euxinum ; and another way to encounter a pretty fresh water 
River, beyond the North of Pera, and the third overlooketh the 
fields of Thracia, with a greater compasse and strength, because 
it is a double wall ^ and openeth three or foure gates, as Andrinople, 
Gratianople, the Tower gate, &c. into the countrey, which 
flourished when Pausanias was contented with the title of Duke 
and Captaine of the Spartanes, and built this wonderful towne by 

^ The extracts here given are taken from The Glory of England, or A 
Ti'ue Description of many ejccelleiit prerogatives and remarkable blessings, 
whereby She Triumpheth over all the Nations of the World: With a justifiable 
comparison betweene the eminent Kingdomes of the Earth and Her self e; plainely 
manifesting the defects of them all in regard of her snfficiencie and fulnesse of 
happinesse. By T. G. [Thomas Gainsford], London, 1618. The book, a 
quarto volume of 332 pages, in two parts, is dedicated to the Duke of 
Buckingham. A revised edition appeared in 161 9 and was re-issued in 

Thomas Gainsford, who died in ? 1624, served in Ireland against the 
Spaniards and during the rebellion of Tyrone, 1601 — 1610. He was the 
author of six printed works. An account of his life and writings is given in 
the Diet, of Nat. Biography. In this account there is no mention of 
Gainsford's travels on the Continent. He must, however, have been at 
Constantinople in 1607 for he says that he was an eye-witness of occurrences 
there which he describes in his Glory of Ejigland, p. 35. 

For Mundy's version of Gainsford's description of Constantinople, see 
pp. 27-30. 

2 See p. 31. 


the name of Bizantium, in honour of his father Bize, who was 
Admirall of the Grecian Navy, when Thebes and other cities 
strove for superiority: the wall is orderly beautified with square 
towers of hard stone ^ whose equall distance makes a reasonable 
shew, but that it resembles a painted Curtezan of outward good 
becoming, yet within full of corruption and danger. For con- 
cerning the streets, citizens, houses, or order of a well compacted 
Commonwealth, it retaineth nothing comming neere our London, 
or happinesse. The situation is yet a stately ascent from the sea, 
as if it had a pride to mocke at the swelling of any tempest : and 
embolden the Marchant with the security of the Sacra Porta, 
being indeed the goodliest Harbour in the world, twenty fathom 
deep, close to the shores of two cities ^ Thus it containeth ten 
English miles in circumference, having no suburbs, and shewing 
much waste ground in the unfrequented places toward the land, 
especially where the Bashawes houses are sequestred from the 
hurliburly of the Trades-man. 

The Seragho is the palace of the Gran Signeur^, yet is a name 
appropriate to divers sequestred places, wherein his women are 
detained, and hath questionlesse the derivation from our Latin 
word Sera, or locked up : it is a receptacle for divers thousands, 
enclosing as much ground as St. James parke. For the Large 
Courts are very large with severall guards of Janizaries*, according 
to the necessity of the times, or neernesse to the Emperours 
person. The gardens are spacious with embattelled walls, stored 
with artillery, the gates most of them iron, kept by Capog'ies ; 
the buildings are many and stately bearing in their front certaine 
Dowanas or open hals, which have cravesses of Persian stuffe, 
and are roomes of great receipt, wherein the officers of the palace 
sit in open view at their feasts and diet. The banquetting-houses, 
wherein his concubines and boyes are aparted from the court 
hurliburly, expose divers manner of structures and seeme indeed 
severall palaces, among whom there is one called a Caska^ 
without the wall of the seraglio, close to the sea-side, where hee 
accustometh to take his gaily ^ of the deUcatest and richest 

1 See p. 32. ^ See p. 37 f. '^ See p. 35 f. 

* See note 2 on p. 43. Mr Edwin Pears suggests that it is worth observing 
that already, in Mundy's time, a number of this body (Janissaries) were told 
off as permanent guards to various embassies by whom they were paid. 

® See Mundy's explanations on p. 28. 


presence that ever I beheld : for it is a quadrant of seven arches 
on a side cloister wise, like the Rialto walke in Venice ; in the 
midst riseth a core of three or foure roomes with chimnies, whose 
mantell trees are of silver, the windows curiously glazed and 
besides protected with an iron grate all guilt over most gloriously: 
the whole frame so set with opals, rubies, emeralds, burnisht with 
golde, painted with flowers, and graced with inlayed worke of 
porphery, marble, jet, jasper, and delicate stones, that I am per- 
swaded there is not such a bird cage in the world. Under the 
walls are stables for sea horses called Hippopatami, which is a 
monstrous beast taken in Nilus, Elephants, Tigres, and Dolphines : 
sometimes they have Crocadiles and Rhinoceros : within are 
Roebuckes, white Partridges, and Turtles, the bird of Arabia, 
and many beasts and fowles of Affrica and India. The walkes 
are shaded with Cipres, Cedar, Turpentine, and trees which wee 
only know by their names, amongst which, such as affoord 
sustenance, are called figs, almonds, olives, pomegranets, limons, 
orenges, and such like : but it should seeme they are here as it 
were enforced and kept in order with extraordinary diligence : for 
the sunne kisseth them not with that fervency, as may make them 
large, or ripen in their proper kindes. 

The City is very populous toward the harbour, the Besisteine\ 
Bashawes houses, mosques, conduits, tombs and monuments, 
open as it were a storehouse of magnificent workes : yet when 
I read, that Constantine unplumed Rome, and as it were robbed 
all the world, making this place accessary to the theft, and cannot 
finde the particulars in mine inventory, I marvell who hath either 
dared to purloine them, or presumed to ruinate and deface them. 
For the cheefest structures are now the great Seralio^, the lesser 
Seralios, the seven towres^, the double walP, divers Bashawes 
houses, before some of which are spacious quadrants graced with 
antiquities, recording the ancient manner of turnaiments, when 
the Greekes flourished : the Mosques or Temples, amongst whom 
the Sophia, Solimana and Amorata'* are indeed heaps of ostenta- 
tion and fabricks of great delight, the place called Jobs tombe, 
sequestred for the buriall of the Emperours children, who are 
commonly all strangled on the day of his elder sonnes inaugura- 

i See p. 37. 2 See p. 35 f, 3 See p. 31. 

* See p. 35. 


tion by Mutes, and then enclosed in coffins of Cypres, and so 
received by the Mufti into chappies consecrated for that purpose ; 
the Patriarcks house : certaine balneas ' ; aqua ductus ; Con- 
stantine's palace'; and the Towers on the walls I To these you 
may adde the Besisteine, a place like our Exchange, for varietie 
of marchandize', market of virgins^, selling of slaves, and the 
vaults under ground fenced with iron gates to secure their 
treasure, which especially belongeth to the Jewes, who farme the 
office of Dacii or customes, and are (as it were) the Turkes 
receivers, so that these places must needes bee strongly guarded, 
both to prevent the furie of the Janizaries, who are very irregular 
in their tumults, and the extremity of fire and earthquakes*, to 
whose violence the Citie is many tymes subject. 

The next division is Galata, a city over against it, divided 
onely by the sea, no broader heere then our Tamisis, of great 
antiquity, walled about, and retaining a particular name and 
renowne, for holding out a yeere and better, after Constantinople 
was surprized : it standeth likewise up a hill, and equals it both 
for beastlinesse, confusion and uncomely streets and houses : 
heere live Greekes, and the Francks, as they terme the Papists (of 
what nation soever), have a Church by permission, the Curtezan 
likewise liveth at some liberty ; yet is it death for any Christian to 
lie with a Turkish woman or Jew. 

The third part of this great city comprehendeth the vine of 
Pera^, which is a huge suburbs, compassing Galata round about, 
a place of quiet dwelling, good aire, and pleasant gardens : yet in 
regard the many thousand tombs of Turkes (for you must know 
that neither Turke, Jew, nor Christian, interre any corps in their 
Mosques or city, except they build a chappie of purpose, or have 
the priviledge of the Franck Church) fill up a great quantity of 
ground with disordered, confused, noysome and fearefull graves. 
On the one side toward the north-east, you have an Arsenall for 
gallies, a little beyond, a handsome Seralio, and somwhat further 

^ See p. 37. 2 See p. 32. 

^ See p. 34. ' * See p. 39. 

^ See note 2 on p. 22 and. p. 41. Pera is the Greek word for trans, 
beyond, and was applied to all that part of Constantinople beyond the Golden 
Horn. In such part was included Galata, a walled city, which is sometimes 
spoken of as " Galata of Pera." I am indebted for this note to Mr Edwin 


a pretty fresh water river, as if they lay in sequence, by whose 
banks are certaine houses erected of purpose, for the pleasure 
and reposednes of speciall Bashawes. On the other side toward 
the south west, the office of artilery called Tapanaw ', inviteth you 
to the view of such ordnance and munition, that for number, 
greatnesse, and use surmount any one city of Europe : you have 
likewise another Seralio, and in these suburbs are resident the 
English, French and Venetian Ambassadours": as for the Persian, 
Emperours of Germany, and Polacks, they lived in the great city, 
and sometimes visited one another, as either necessitie of busi- 
nesse, or pleasure of invitation afifoorded. 

The last quarter of this division affoordeth the object of a 
towne in Asia called Scideron, or Scideret, betweene which and 
Constantinople the sea runneth 20 English mile in length, and 
onely two in bredth, as farre as Pompey's pillar^ and the blacke 
Tower, resembling a lace fringed with spangles and purles : for 
the Bashawes and Chawses houses so stand on both sides, as if 
they were made to answer a proportion of handsomnesse : but 
when time and a daies travell hath taken away the pleasure of 
this spectacle, then fall you into a large gulph, once called 
Euxinum mare, now the blacke sea, extending a thousand miles, 
as farre as Trebisond : on the farther shore of the continent now 
called Russia is shouldred up close Moeotis Palus : into which 
the great river of Tanais sendeth his streames, as if a messenger 
of glad tydings and businesse should hasten to discharge his 

Thus I confesse, if on the towers of the Amorata, or battle- 
ments of the Sophia*, you beheld all at once, as it were one 
united body, it would equall, if not surpasse London, for 
spaciousnesse of grounds, some monuments, and divers palaces 
and houses : but yet come in no way neere my satisfaction, as 
being defective in many things, which I supposed to excell in it, 
and deficient in all things wherein a happy countrey supplieth the 

1 See p. 39. 

2 See p. 41. Mr Edwin Pears remarks that Mundy's statement as to the 
residence of Pindar at Pera is interesting, because the earlier ambassadors had 
resided at Karabali. 

* See p. 20. Mr Edwin Pears tells me that the pedestal of the so-called 
pillar still exists. It is on one of the rocks known as the Symplegades. 
Portions of the Latin inscription can still be made out. 

* See p. 35. 


want of her enhabitants. For heere is neither good lodging, 
proportionable fare, free recourse, gracious entertainement, true 
religion, secure abiding^, allowable pleasure, orderly governement, 
or any thing wherin a noble citie is made glorious indeed : nor is 
it so populous as report hath busied us, but fama malmfi, and it 
may be, the plague having consumed 80000°, and the army of 
200000 deducted, diminished somewhat the glory, and left the 
rest of the people to enjoy more freedome. And thus much for 

3. George Sandy i^ Descriptioji of Constantinople'^. 

The Emperor Constantine... built his Citie where as now it 

standeth Finished it was on the eleventh of May, in the yeare 

331, and consecrated to the blessed Virgin. Rome he bereft of 
her ornaments to adorne it, fetching from thence in one yeare 
more antiquities then twentie Emperours had brought thither 
before in an hundred. Among the rest that huge obeliske of 
Theban marble, called Placaton by the Greeks (formerly brought 

^ Mundy, however, thought differently, in 1620. See p. 22. 

^ See p. 40. 

^ George Sandys, poet, born in 1577, was the seventh and youngest son of 
Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York. In 1610, George Sandys travelled to 
the Levant and spent a year in Turkey, Egypt and Palestine. On his return 
to England he published an account of his travels under the title of A Relation 
of a yowney begun Aw. Do7n: 1610. Foure Bookes. Containing a description 
of the Turkish Empire, of Aegypt, of the Holy land, of the Remote parts of 
Italy, aiid Hands adjoyning. London. Printed for W: Barrett. 16 15. This 
edition has, as a frontispiece, a portrait of " George Sandes Poet and Traveller. 
From an original Picture at Ombersley" [in Worcestershire, where the family 
(Lord Sandys) is still established]. See note 6 on p. 26, where the title of 
Sandys' work is that of the 7th or 1673 edition and not that of the 1st or 1615 
edition as is there stated. The book, dedicated to Prince Charles, is adorned 
with maps and illustrations. It was well received and ran to seven editions 
between 161 5 and 1673. 

In 162 1, George Sandys went to America, where he continued his literary 
work and where he completed a translation in verse of Ovid's Metamorphoses. 
On his return, circ. 163 1, he became a gentleman of the privy chamber of 
Charles I. and was admitted to the intimate friendship of Lord Falkland. 
His later years were occupied with poetic paraphrases of the Scriptures. He 
died in 1644. See the account of his life in the Diet, of Nat. Biography. 

^ See note 2 on p. 30. Mundy introduces his extracts from Sandys' work 
thus: — "More abstracted out of Mr. Sandis his acurate observation and 
elegant discription of his travells, being about 1610, and where, among the 
rest, hee relates of Constantinople and the gran Signiors Seraglio from 
Page 29 to [77] thus:" Mundy's figures refer to the 1615 edition of Sandys' 


out of ^gypt), and errected in the Forum, with a brazen statue 
of antique and Dedalian workmanship set upon the top of a 
Columne, and called by his name, throwne downe by a violent 
wind in the reign of Alexis. This place was... also beautified with 

the Trojan Palladium 

This Citie, by destinie appointed, and by nature seated for 
Soveraigntie, was first the seate of the Romane Emperours, then 
of the Greek, as now it is of the Turkish — It stands on a cape 
of land neare the entrance of the Bosphorus. In forme triangular: 
on the East side washed with the same, and on the North side 
with the Haven, adjoyning on the West to the Continent. Walled 
with bricke and stone ', intermixed orderly : having foure and 
twentie gates and posternes^; whereof five do regard the land, 
and nineteene the water : being about thirteene miles in circum- 
ference. Then this there is hardly in nature a more delicate 
object, if beheld from the sea or adjoyning mountaines : the 
loftie and beautifull Cypresse trees so intermixed with the 
buildings, that it seemeth to present a Citie in a wood to the 
pleased beholders. Whose seven aspiring heads (for on soe many 
hils and no more, they say it is seated), are most of them 
crowned with magnificent Mosques^, all of white marble, round 
in forme, and coupled above; being finished on the top with 
gilded spires that reflect the beames they receive with a marvellous 
splendor; some having two, some foure, some sixe adjoyninge 
turrets, exceeding high, and exceeding slender : tarrast aloft on 
the out-side like the maine top of a ship, and that in severall 
places equally distant ; from whence the Talismanni with elated 
voices (for they use no bels) do congregate the people, pronoun- 
cing this Arabicke sentence : la illah illella muhemet re sue 
ALLAH : viz. There is but one God, and Mahomet his prophet. 
No Mosque can have more then one of these turrets, if not built 

^ See p. 31. 

2 See p. 32 and note 2 on that page. Mr Edwin Pears has since told me 
that I am mistaken, and that the Golden Gate was not that by which the Turks 
entered Constantinople. A small number entered by the Circus Gate 
(Kerkoporta) adjoining Tekfour Serai, North of the Adrianople Gate. The 
entrance of the great body of the Turks was by the Pempton or San Romano 
Military Gate in the Lycus Valley. The Golden Gate end of the wall was not 
even attacked in 1453. Mr Pears further supplies the information that, on 
the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war in 1877, the Turks destroyed the 
Kerkoporta to render the prophecy that the Christians should recapture the 
city by this gate incapable of fulfilment. ^ See p. 33. 

M. 13 


by an Emperor. ...But that of Sancta Sophia', once a Christian 
Temple... exceedeth not onely the rest, by whose patterne they 
were framed, but all other fabrickes whatsoever throughout the 
whole Universe. A long labour it were to describe it exactly. . . . 
The roofe compact, and adorned with Mosaike painting : an 
antique kind of worke, composed of litle square peeces of marble; 
gilded and coloured... which set together, as if imbossed, present 

an unexpressable stateliness, and are of a marvellous durance 

Evagrius, that lived a thousand yeares since, affirmeth this Temple 
to have bene from East unto West, two hundred threescore feete 
long, and in height one hundred and fourescore : and Antonius 
Menavinus, that in the dayes of Bajazet it contained at once 
sixe and thirtie thousand Turkes. Perhaps the ancient fabricke 
then standing entire ; whereof this now remaining was little more 
then the Chancell. Better to be beleeved then Belonius, a 
moderne eye-witnesse, who reports that the doores thereof are in 
number equall to the dales of the yeare ; whereas if it hath five, 
it hath more by one, then by me was discerned — The inferiour 
[Mosques] are built for the most part square : many pent-housd 
with open galleries, where they accustome to pray at times ex- 
traordinary : there being in all (comprehending Pera, Scutari, 
and the buildings that border the Bosphorus), about the number 
of eight thousand. 

But this of Sophia is almost every other Friday frequented by 
the Sultan, being neare unto the fore-front of his Serraglio, which 
posseseth the extremest point of the North-east angle, where 
formerly stood the ancient Byzantium : devided from the rest of 
the Citie by a loftie wall, containing three miles in circuite, and 
comprehending goodly groves of Cypresses intermixed with 
plaines, delicate gardens, artificiall fountaines, all varietie of 
fruite-trees, and what not rare — On the North side stands the 
sultans Cabinet, in forme of a sumptuous Sommer-house, having 
a private passage made for the time, of waxed linnen, from his 
Serraglio : where he often solaceth himselfe with the various 
objects of the haven : and from thence takes barge to passe unto 
the delightfuU places of the adjoyning Asia — 

We omit to speake of great mens Serraglios...Besestanes^... 
markets of men and women ^, &c. ...convertting our discourse to 

^ See p. 35. ^ See p. 37. ^ gee p. 34. 


those few remainders of many antiquities, whereof the Aquaduct 
made by the Emperor Valentinian, and retaining his name, doth 
principally challenge remembrance. This hath his heads neare 
the Black Sea, not far from a village called Domuz-dere, of the 
abundance of wilde hogs thereabouts, the place being wooddy and 
mountainous, where many springs are gathered together, and at 
sundry places do joyntly fall into great round cesternes, from 
thence conveyed to conjoyne with others (among which, as 
supposed, is the brooke Cydarius), led sometimes under the 
earth, now along the levell, then uppon mighty arches over pro- 
found vallies, from hill to hill, for the space wel-nigh of thirtie 
miles, untill arriving at the Citie, and surmounting the same, it 
falleth at length as from an headlong cataract into an ample 
cesterne, supported with neare two hundred pillars of marble, and 
is from thence by conduits conducted unto their publike uses. 
This was repaired by Solyman the Great, great grandfather to this 
now reigning Achmet whose wishes and endeavours are said to 
have aimed at three things, which were, the reedifying of Ponte 
Piccolo and Ponte Grande ' (which crosse two armes of the sea) 
and the restoring of the Aquseduct, these he accomplished : but 
the third, which was the expugnation of Vienna, he could never 
accomplish. Not far from the Temple of Sancta Sophia, there 
is a spacious place surrounded with buildings, like to that of 
Smithfield, and anciently called the Hippodrom, for that there 
they exhibited their horse-races, The swift hoofe beaies the dustie 
Hippodrom^ as now Atmaidan^ by the Turkes, a word of like 
signification. ...In this place there standeth a stately Hierogliphi- 

call obelisk of Theban marble^ A little removed there standeth 

a Columne of wreathed brasse with three infolded serpents at the 
top, extended in a triangle, and looking severall ways*. And 
beyond both these, another high Obelisk, termed by some 

1 See p. 45 f. ^ See p. 32. 

'^ See note 2 on p. 33, where the obelisk is erroneously said to have been 
set up by Constantine. It was set up by Theodosius. The mistake was 
discovered too late for correction. 

* See note i on p. 33. Mr Edwin Pears has supplied the following 
additional information about this column :— No one now doubts that this 
monument came from Delphi. The names of the states that took part in the 
battle of Platsea (b.c. 479) which were cut upon the coils of the Serpents are 
not visible, but rubbings with heel-ball exist which bring them out clearly and 
as stated by Herodotus. The upper half of one of the heads (upon which one 
of the legs of the tripod stood) is now in the Stamboul Museum. 



Colossus, built of sundry stones, now greatly ruinated, covered 
heretofore with plates of gilded brasse, whose basis do yet 
retaine this inscription. ...And in Auratbasar (that is, the 
market of weomen') there is an historicall Columne to be 
ascended within, farre surpassing both Trajans and that of 
Antoninus which I have seene in Rome : the workman having so 
proportioned the figures that the highest and lowest appeare of 
one bignesse^ 

And right against the mansion of the German Emperours 
Ambassadour (who only is suffered to lodge within the Citie), 
stands the Columne of Constantine^ 

These are all the remaines that are left (or all that are by the 
Christians to bee seene) besides the relikes of the Pallace of 
Constantine*, now made a stable for wilde beasts, of so many 
goodly buildings, and from all parts congested antiquities, where- 
with this soveraigne Citie was in times past so adorned : and with 
them are their memories perished. For not a Greeke can satisfie 
the Inquirer in the history of their .owne calamities — But to say 
something of Constantinople in generall : I thinke there is not in 
the world an object that promiseth soe much a farre off to the 
beholders, and entred, so deceiveth the expectation — 

Now speake we of the Haven... so conveniently profound, 
that the greatest shipps may lay their sides to the sides therof, 
for the more easie receit and discharge of their burthen^ — 

On the other side of the haven (continually crossed by multi- 
tudes of little boates, called Permagees*', and rowed for the most 
part by Egyptians) stands the Cittie of Galata... surpassing 
Constantinople in her loftie buildings, built by the Genoasi — 
At the West end therof, the Grand Signiors Gallies have a dry 
station, and at the East end right against the point of his 

^ Mr Edwin Pears tells me that female slaves continued to be sold in Avret 
Bazar until about 1830. See note i on p. 34. 

^ See note 2 on p. 34. Mr Edwin Pears remarks that Bondelmonti gives a 
wonderful series of sketches, showing all that was sculptured on this Column 
of Arcadius. 

3 i.e. the Burnt Column. See p. 34 f. Mr Edwin Pears says that it was 
erected by Constantine the Great and that beneath it is a chamber containing 
the Palladium brought from Rome, and a portion of the Holy Cross. 

* See p. 37. ^ See p. 37 f. 

« See p. 38. 


Serraglio, called Tophana and Fundacle, lies a number of great 
Ordnance unplanted, most of them the spoile of Christian Cities 
and fortresses, as may appeare by their inscriptions and Impreses : 
and many of them of an incredible greatnesses 

Now right against the mouth of the haven on the other side 
of the Bosphorus, stands Scutari, a towne in Bythinia — Before 
it on a little rocke, a good way off from the shore, a Tower is 
erected, called the Maiden tower... having in it twenty peeces of 
Ordnance. And although the Sea be so deepe betweene it and 
the shore that a ship may saile through, yet is it served with fresh 
water, some say brought thither by art, I rather think from a 
naturall fountain. 

The Black Sea is distant some fifteene miles from Constanti- 
nople^, so named of his blacke effects This sea is lesse salt 

then others, and much annoyed with ice in the winter — Where it 
runneth into the Bosphorus there are two rocks, that formerly 
bare the names Cyaneoe and Sympligades. ...Here upon the top 
of a rocke, supposed by some to be one of these and yet too 
farre removed from a fellow to be so, stands a pillar of white 
marble, called vulgarly the pillar of Pompey^ — Upon the shore 
there is a high Lanterne, large enough at the top to containe 
above threescore persons, which by night directeth the sailer into 
the entrance of the Bosphorus. 

The Bosphorus setteth with a strong current into Propontis, 
and is in length about twentie miles : where broadest a mile, and 

in two places but half a mile over One of those streights lies 

before Constantinople, the other five miles above and a halfe, 
where on Europe side there standeth a castle formerly Damalis, 
and now the Blacke Tower. 

The Hellespont... divideth Europe from Asia*, in sundry 
places not a mile broad, in length about forty — Three Leagues 
above the entrance, and at the narrowest of this straight, stand 
Sestos and Abydos^ opposite to each other — Abydos stands in 

Asia Sestos stands in Europe Abydos is seated 'upon a low 

level : and Sestos on the side of a Mountain, yet descending to 

^ See p. 39. ^ See p. 20 f. 

^ See pp. 20 and 191. ^ See p. 20. 

^ See p- 157 and note. 


the Sea : both bordering the same with their castles, whereof the 
former is four-square, the other triangular^ — 

The Propontick Sea^ a hundred and fifty Furlongs in 
length, and about of like latitude. 

Constantinople is said to containe seaven hundred thousand 
persons, halfe of them Turkes, and the other halfe Jewes and 
Christians, and those for the generall Grecians.... 

This Sultan... is, in the year 16 19 about the age of three and 
twenty... his Virgins of whom there seldom are so few as five 
hundred, kept in a Serraglio by themselves, and attended on onely 
by women and Eunuchs. 

1 This and the succeeding paragraph precede the description of Con- 
stantinople in Sandys' work. 
■■^ i.e., the Sea of Marmora. 





I. Voiage de Levant Fait par le Commandemetit du Roy en Fannee 

1621 par Le Sr. D. C. Troiseme edition. A Paris Chez Adrien 

Taupinart. Rue St. Jacques a la Sphere 1645. 

Belgrade"*, que ceux de Hongrie appellent Albe Greque se 
nommoit anciennement Taurunum. De toutes les villes qui sont 
aujourd'huy en I'obeissance du grand Seigneur, il n'y en a point 
apres Constantinople qui soit si advantagee de la nature : Elle est 
situee aux confins de Servie, sur la pante d'une colline a I'endroit 

^ The extracts from the Voiage de Levant comprise the journey from 
Belgrade to Constantinople. Des Hayes, in 162 1, took the same route as 
Pindar and his train had followed in 1620, but in the opposite direction. See 
note 6 on p. 45. 

^ Louis Des Hayes, Baron de Courmemin, son of a governor of Montargis, 
held successively the offices of page, councillor and major-domo to Louis XIH. 
In 1621, the king sent him on a mission to the Levant. Des Hayes was 
instructed to obtain the restoration to the Cordeliers of the holy places wrested 
from them by the Armenians. He was also to establish a Consul at Jerusalem 
and to make rich votive offerings in the name of the king at the Holy 
Sepulchre. The mission was successfully accomplished and the envoy returned 
to France in 1622. In 1624, 1626 and 1629 Des Hayes was sent on missions 
to Denmark and Sweden, Persia, and Russia. Later, he allied himself with 
the enemies of Caidinal Richelieu, was arrested in Germany, taken to 
Languedoc and beheaded at Beziers in 1632. 

3 There were three editions of the Voiage de Levant issued respectively in 
1624, 1629 and 1645. In his preface, the author states that he wrote the 
account of his travels at the king's command. Although the work was issued 
under the initials of Des Hayes, the fact that the ambassador is mentioned 
throughout the book in the third person has led to the belief that it was the 
work of some unknown secretary, who accompanied him in all his journeys. 
The second and third editions are practically identical and contain 495 quarto 
pages, while the first edition has only 403 quarto pages. The supplemental 
information, found in the later editions, was added after Des Hayes' second and 
third voyages to Constantinople. 

* Des Hayes reached Belgrade on the 9th June, 1621. Mundy arrived 
there with Pindar's party on the 30th May, 1620. 


ou la Save^ se descharge dans le Danube, ce qui rend son 
assiette admirable. Du coste de la Hongrie, dont ces deux 
rivieres la separent, elle a de grandes plaines, qui sont tellement 
fertiles, qu'elles nourriroient dix fois autant de peuple qu'il y en a 
dans la ville. Le reste de ses environs est rempli de jardinages, 
qui rend sa demeure tres-delicieuse : elle est au quarante-quatriesme 
degre et demy de latitude, et au quarante-cinquiesme degre de 
long. Et encore qu'elle ne soit qu'a deux journees des montagnes 
d'Esclavonie, Fair y est neantmoins fort tempere', et les saisons y 
sont tres-agreables. 

Cette ville n'est point fermee de murailles, bien qu'elle soit 
des plus grandes et plus considerables de Levant. De tous les 
anciens bastimens, il n'en reste presque aucun vestige: et ceux 
que les Turcs y ont fait depuis qu'ils I'habitent ne respondent pas 
a la beaute de I'assiette: car ils ne sont bastis que d'ais^ et n'est 
toutefois qu'un seul estage: parce que la ville est pratique'e sur la 
colline, en sorte qu'une maison ne couvre pas I'autre, elles ont 
toutes une veue tres-agreable. La plupart des Turcs demeurent 
dans le chasteau, ou il n'est pas permis aux Chrestiens de coucher. 
II est le long de la Save, entoure' de simples murailles, sans aucun 
rempart; elles ne sont deffendues que de tours carrees, avec un 
fort petit fosse ^, ils I'estiment imprenable; mais ils ne sont pas 
capables de juger de la force des places. 

Or quoy que la ville de Belgrade soit abondante en toutes 
sortes de vivres, elle I'est neantmoins particulierement en poisson 
d'eaue-douce, plus qu'aucune autre ville de I'Europe*: car non 
seulement il y en a tres grande quantite, mais aussi il s'y en 
trouve de monstreueux, et a si bon prix, que cela n'est pas 
croyable. Les marchands Ragusois qui y sont, firent present au 
Sieur des Hayes d'une carpe, qui avoit trois pieds entre ceil et bat, 
laquelle ne leur coustoit que quinze sols. II y en a de quatre et 
de cinq pieds, et des brochets qui en ont six: Ton nous asseura 
mesme que Ton y trouve des barbotes qui ont dix pieds de long. 
Tous les poissons qui se peschent en ce lieu, sont excellens en 
bonte, et merveilleusement gras, a cause que la riviere a environ 
deux pieds de vase sur la sable. 

1 See p. 73. 

^ Mundy says that the houses at Belgrade were "generally made of 
boards." See p. 73. 

^ See p. 74. 4 See p. 73. 


L'an mil cinq cent vingt la ville de Belgrade fut prise sur les 
Chrestiens par Sultan Soliman\ qui y laissa un Beglerbey: mais 
leurs conquestes s'estant estendues dans la Hongrie, ils ont 
transfere la residence du Beglerbey de Belgrade a Bude, pour 
estre plus proche de la frontiere, depuis ces deux residences luy 
sont demeurees, et parce qu'il fait ordinairement son sejour a 
Bude il tient a Belgrade un Caimacam qui est son Lieutenant'. 

Ceste ville, sans y comprendre le chasteau, est aujourd'huy 
pour la plus-part habitee de Chrestiens qui suivent la creance de 
I'Eglise Grecque, lesquels sont en plus grand nombre que les 
Turcs^ et neantmoins il y peut avoir huict cens ames Catholiques, 
a qui les Sacremens sont administres par les Religieux de sainct 
Francois, qui y sont establis, et par des Peres Jesuistes. . . . 

Nous partismes de Belgrade le troisiesme de Juin". En 
sortant de Belgrade, on costoye presque tousjours durant six 
heures les agreables rives du Danube, jusques a une petite ville 
nommee par les Chrestiens Grosca, et par les Turcs Ichargic", 
qui veut dire petit chasteau ; Elle est sur le Danube, qui en cest 
endroit a une grande largeur, encore qu'il ne soit pas tout 
ensemble: car au dessus de Belgrade, il y a un bras qui s'en 
separe jusques a la ville de Semendrie, qui est une journee au 
dessous. Si Ton vouloit suivre le Danube, on pourroit aller 
jusques a cent lieues pres de Constantinople, mais a cause que la 
navigation en est dangereuse pour les arbres qui se rencontrent 
au milieu de son lit, on laisse ordinairement la riviere a Belgrade, 
pour aller par terre a Constantinople. 

Or avant que je quitte les belles rives de ce fleuve, il faut 
que je die que c'est le plus grand et le plus considerable, non 
seulement de 1' Europe ^ mais aussi de I'Asie, et de I'Afrique. 
Son cours est de sept cens lieues Francoises. II revolt soixahte 
rivieres presques toutes navigables. Et apres avoir arrose la 
Suawbe, la Baviere, I'Austriche, la Hongrie, la Servie, la Bulgarie, 
et la Valaquie, il se descharge par sept bouches dans la mer 

^ Belgrade was taken by Sultan Suliman in 1526. See note 4 on p. 149. 
2 See p. 75. 

^ Mundy and his party left Belgrade on the 7th June in the previous year. 
See p. 78. 

^ Mundy calls the place Gratsco. See p. 71. 
^ See note 6 on p. 71 ; see also p. 149. 


Majour que ceux du pais appellent la mer noire: et a cela de 
particulier, qu'il va contre le cours du Soleil ' — 

Laissants doncques le Danube a main gauche, nous entrasmes 
dans un pais tout rempli de bois, et a quatre heures de chemin 
d'Ichargic, nous trouvasmes le bourg de Cola^, ou il y a plus de 
Turcs que de Chrestiens, d'autant que ce lieu est au milieu des 
prairies oCi les Turcs habitent ordinairement, a cause qu'estans 
presque tous faineants, ils ne vivent que du revenu de leurs 
troupeaux. De Cola a la Palanque de Hassan Bascha^, il y a six 
heures de chemin tousjours dans les bois. Ce bourg est habite 
moitie de Turcs, et moitie de Grecs, et fut nostre second giste oii 
nous commencasmes a loger dans les Quiervansaras^ 

Ce sont des edifices publics plus longs que larges, bas, 
environ a la fa^on des granges de ce pays-cy ou des halles, 
excepte qu'il[s] sont fermez de murailles. Le milieu du bastiment 
est une grande place pour mettre les carosses et les chariots, avec 
les chevaux et les chameaux: et le reste qui regne a I'entour des 
murailles est releve de trois pieds ou environ, et large de six. Ce 
lieu ainsi releve sert de lict, de table, et de cuisine : car contre les 
murailles il y a de petites chemine'es a huict pieds les unes 
des autres: de sorte que sans bouger de ce lieu, chacun peut 
avoir I'ceil sur son bagage et sur ses chevaux, qui sont vis a vis des 
cheminees. Les plus grands Seigneurs de Turquie sont reduits a 
loger de cette sorte, quand le mauvais temps les empesche de 
camper: ce qui nous faisoit estonner, car il y a une si grande 
puanteur a cause des chevaux et des chameaux qui sont pesle- 
mesle avec les hommes que I'on n'y sgauroit durer. La pluspart 
des Quiervansaras qui sont de Belgrade a Constantinople, sont 
fort spacieux: ils ont vingt ou trente cheminees pour la commodite 
du logement, et il y peut tenir cent cinquante chevaux et vingt 
carosses. II y en a qui ont une petite chambre sur la porte, qui 
ne sert presque point; car d'ordinaire les Turcs ne veulent pas 
s'esloigner de leur bagages. L'on ne trouve aucune chose en ces 
Quiervansaras, de fa9on que si l'on ne porte dequoy se coucher, il 
faut dormir sur le pave: mais ceux du pays ne ressentent aucune- 
ment ces incommoditez, parce que dans leurs maisons ils ne sont 

^ See note i on p. 150. ^ See p. 71. 

* Mundy also "lodged in a large Cane" at this place. See p. 71. 


gueres mieux accomoder. lis portent avec eux un tapis sur la 
croupe de leur cheval, qui leur sert de matelas, et mettent la celle 
sous leur teste: et au lieu de couverture, ils se servent d'un 
grand manteau appelle Jamer'ouc, qu'ils portent contre la pluye. 
Estans arrivez dans ces lieux publics, s'ils veulent manger, ils font 
du feu pour apprester leur soupe qui consiste en un peu de ris 
bouilly avec de I'eau, ce qui est un grand festin pour eux, n'en 
ayant pas tous les jours: car d'ordinaire, ils ne mangent que 
des aulx et des oignons. II n'y a aucune separation dans ces 
Quiervansaras : de sorte qu'un chacun voit tout ce que fait son 
compagnon, si I'obscurite de la nuict ne le cached En fin je 
n'y trouve aucune commodite, si ce n'est qu'ayant dormi a 
couvert, Ton est exempt de contester le lendemain avec I'hoste. 
Nous ne logions que le moins qu'ils nous estoit possible dans 
ces lieux sales et incommodes: car le Sieur des Hayes campoit, 
avec ses pavilions, lors que le temps le permettoit^ ou bien il 
loggeoit chez quelque Chrestien'^, dont nous nous trouvions 
beaucoup mieux, parce que parmi un si grand nombre de 
personnes qui sont dans ces Quiervansaras, il y a tousjours tant 
de bruit, qu'il est impossible de reposer : si bien qu'il arrivoit 
fort souvent quand nous y logions, que nous n'avions pas encore 
commence a dormir qu'il falloit partir, dautant que les Turcs 
partent d'ordinaire a deux ou trois heures apres minuit, afin 
d'arriver de bonne heure au giste. 

Le lendemain qui fut I'unziesme de Juin, nous allasmes 
coucher a Yagodna'*, ayant marche douze heures et demie dans 
des bois semblables a ceux des jours precedens. Nous nous 
arrestasmes au milieu du chemin pour disner aupres d'un village 
appelle Baticina^ qui est habite de Chrestiens. 

Yagodna est un grand bourg bien situe, ou il y a plus de 
Turcs que de Chrestiens, a cause que la plus-part des Spahis de 
Timar, qui sont en la contree, y demeurent. 

Le jour suivant, a deux heures de Yagodna^ nous trouvasmes 
la riviere de Morava®, qui venant des hautes montagnes de 

^ See Mundy's description of a "Cane" on p. 52 f. 

2 Pindar and his train also camped in the open ground when possible. See 
pp. 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, etc. 

^ See pp. 54 and 60. * See p. 70. 

^ This is Mundy's " bigg river without a Bridge." See p. 70. 


Bulgaria, passe par le milieu de la Servie, et se va descharger dans 
le Danube. Elle est environ de la grandeur de la Marne, mais 
beaucoup plus rapide: nous demeurasmes fort long-temps a faire 
passer nostre bagage', parce que de fortune il s'y rencontra un 
grand embaras de chariots, et qu'avec cela les basteliers y sont 
tres maladroits: de sorte que cependant nous fusmes contraints 
de nous arrester a un village nomme Paraquin^, qui est proche de 
la riviere, et qui est presque tout habite de Turcs. Entre 
Paraquin et Razena^, oii nous allasmes coucher, I'on voit les 
vestiges d'un ancien chemin avec plusieurs inscriptions, mais telle- 
ment effacees que Ton n'en peut rien recognoistre, sinon que 
ce sont des caracteres Latins. Nous ne peusmes faire ce jour-la 
que neuf heures de chemin, a cause du temps que nous perdismes 
au passage de la riviere. 

Le lendemain nous marchasmes unze heures dans les bois^: et 
apres avoir passe a gue la petite riviere du Banaraica, ou nous 
dinasmes au milieu d'une prairie, nous arrivasmes a Nice, qui est 
une petite ville°, ou demeurent tous les Spahis de Timar, qui sont 
aux environs: outre lesquels y a des Janissaires et des Spahis de 
la porte, qui y sont en garnison, tant pour la seurete des chemins, 
que pour tenir en subjection dix mille Chrestiens qui sont a deux 
lieues a la ronde de cette ville": on y voit de grandes ruines^ qui 
tesmoignent qu'elle a este en plus grande consideration parmi les 
Chrestiens, qu'elle n'est maintenant parmy eux. La riviere de 
Nice, appellee par ceux du pais Nicava^, qui vient des montagnes 
voisines de Bulgarie, passe aupres de la ville, dont elle emprunte 
le nom, et se va descharger a deux heures au dessous dans la 
riviere de Morava : nous aprismes de ceux du lieu qu'elle separe 
la Servie de la Bulgarie: Nice est encore au gouvernement de 
Bude, mais passe la riviere. Ton entre dans celuy de Grece....Le 
pais est diversifie en collines et vallons, qui sont presque tous 
remplis de bois, bien qu'ils soient assez fertiles; mais les habitants 

^ Pindar's party had the same experience. See p. 70. 
^ i.e. Paratjin or Barachin Palanka. See p. 70. 
^ Mundy calls this place Roshneah. See p. 70. 

* Mundy describes the road between Nice and Rashan as "faire and 
plaine, although desert and full of woods." See p. 70. 
^ See p. 69. ^ See p. 68. 


n'ont pas le courage de travailler, parce que les Turcs leur ravissent 
tout ce qu'ils ont^ 

La Serve est presque toute habitee de Chrestiens qui suivent 
I'Eglise Grecque, n'ayant des Turcs qu'aux bourgs et aux villages 
qui sont sur le grand chemin, ou ils se retirent volontiers\ II y a 
encores environ cinq mille Catholiques Romains qui vivent con- 
fuse'ment parmy les autres Chrestiens: mais ils sont tous si 
pauvres et si miserables, que la pluspart de leurs maisons ne sont 
que comme gabions couverts qu'ils transportent d'un lieu a autre, 
pour eviter la tyrannie de ces infidelles : Et neantmoins il y fait 
fort bon vivre, car les volailles n'y content que dix-huict deniers, 
et les moutons quinze sols, mais pour le pain et le vin, il en faut 
faire provision aux villes et bourgs, pource qu'il ne s'en trouve pas 
de bon aux villages. 

Le jour suivant, qui fut le vingtieme de Juin, nous partismes 
de Nice: et parce qu'il faut passer de fascheuses et dangereuses 
montagnes, celuy qui commandoit a Nice nous donna vingt Turcs 
a cheval pour nous accompagner^ En sortant de Nice, Ton entre 
dans une plaine marescageuse, qui est environnee de montagnes^, 
en laquelle il croist abondance de ris rouge, qui n'est pas du tout 
si bon que le blanc. A la sortie de cette plaine, nous montasmes 
une montagne assez difficile pour les carosses: et apres avoir 
marche neuf heures nous arrivasmes en un village appelle la 
Pallanque de Mehemet Bascha^...Nous allasmes encore coucher 
a Cruchismet, qui est a une heure du chemin au de-la: ce village 
est tout habite de Chrestiens ^ Les mauvais traittemens qu'ils 
regoivent des Turcs sont cause qu'il y en a plusieurs qui 
s'assemblent pour voler sur le grand chemin': c'est pourquoy en 
la plus-part des villages de Servie et de Bulgarie, il y a un lieu 
enferme de palissades, revestues de torches, qu'ils appellent 
Pallanques*', ou les habitans se retirent quand ils ont advis que 

^ See p. 67 f. 

^ Pindar was also provided with a guard between Nice and Palanca. 
See p. 69. 

^ See Mundy's description of this district on p. 69. 

* See p. 68, where Mundy calls the place simply Palanca. 

^ The village was abandoned when Mundy passed through it in 1620. 
See p. 67. 

® See Mundy's description of a Palanca on p. 68. 


ces voleurs tiennent la campagne, qui sont aucunefois trois cents 
de compagnie afin de resister aux Turcs qui les pourroient 
attaquer: car quand ils sont pris, on les empalle sur le grand 

chemin^ sans autre forme de proces 

Le lendemain vingt et uniesme, nous descendismes la mon- 
tagne couverte de bois, que nous avions monte le jour auparavant, 
au bas de la quelle est une grande plaine tres-fertile, qui porte le 
nom d'un bourg appelle Pirot en Esclavon, et en Turc Cherquioi^, 
ou nous disnasmes dans une prairie le long d'un ruisseau: apres 
ayant marche .en toute la journee treze heures et demie, nous 
arrivasmes en un village habite de Chrestiens, nomme Dragoman ^ 
Les cochers qui nous conduisoient s'esgarerent, et au lieu de nous 
mener droit a Dragoman prindrent le chemin d'un petit village de 
Chrestiens*, qui nous voyant arriver, commencerent a se retirer au 
haut des montagnes, emportant ce qu'ils avoient de meilleur: de 
sorte qu'ils n'y eut jamais moyen d'en faire revenir pas un, pource 
qu'ils croyoient que nous fussions des Officiers du grand Seigneur, 
qui ne les vont voir que pour les mal traiter^ Le jour suivant, 
vingt-deuxiesme de Juin, nous arrivasmes a Sophie, ayant marche' 
huict heures le long d'une plaine encore plus fertile que la 
precedente, mais beaucoup plus desagreable, parce qu'elle n'est 
environnee que de roches®. EUe a quatorze heures de long et 
quatorze de large. C'est I'endroict de la Bulgarie le plus peuple, 
car Ton y conte trois cens soixante villages, tous habitez de 
Chrestiens. ...Cette province est beaucoup plus montueuse et plus 
fertile que la Servie: mais elle n'est pas si agreable ni si diver- 
sifie'e. Les montagnes sont tellement hautes que la plus-part 
sont couvertes de neges neuf mois de I'annee. Elles enferment 
comme j'ay deja dit, plusieurs grandes plaines qui sont fort fertiles 
et abondantes. II y fait encores meilleur vivre qu'en Servie: et 
neantmoins il n'y a lieu en toute la Turquie oil Ton mange de si 
mauvais pain, car il n'est cuit que dessous les cendres'', et est 

^ See p. 71 for an instance of the staking of a highway robber. 

^ See p. 66. 

■^ Mundy's halting-place between Sophia and Sharkoi was Zaribrod. 

* Possibly this was Mundy's "Zarebrode, a little village." Seep. 66. 

* See p. 67. 

® See Mundy's remarks on these "Rockie Hills" on p. 66. 

^ See p. 77 and Bargrave's remarks at the end of this Appendix. 


si mal pestri, que Ton est quelques jours avant de s'y pouvoir 

La langue vulgaire du pais est I'Esclavone', qui est encore 
entendue en plusieurs endroits de la Romanic. Ceste Province est 
Tune des plus habitees de Chrestiens qui soient en Turquie, outre 
ceux qui suivent I'Eglise Grecque dont il y a trente fois autant 
que de Turcs : il y peut avoir quinze mille Catholiques Romains 
sujets a I'Evesque de Ciproa, ils habitent en cette partie de 
Bulgarie, qui est pres du Danube. On peut juger aisement que lors 
que ce pais estoit libre, les habitans estoient fort somptueux en 
habits: car encores aujourd'huy quoy que les Turcs ne leur 
laissent rien, les femmes sont proprement vestues. Elles pendent 
a I'entour de leurs testes indifferemment toutes les pieces, tant 
d'argent que de cuivre qu'elles peuvent trouver": de sorte que 
celles qui en ont le plus sont estimees les plus braves : Elles 
entrelassent aussi leurs cheveux avec un tel artifice, qu'on a bien 
de la peine a recognoistre la tissure de I'ouvrage : ils leur vont par 
derriere jusques a la ceinture, et n'y touchent jamais depuis 
qu'elles les ont ainsi agencez^ Leurs Chemises sont brodees a 
I'entour des fentes de fil de di verses couleurs*. Et comme elles 
voyoient les nostres, elles s'estonnoient de nostre modestie, et 
dequoy nous ne les enrichissions point avec ce meslange de 
couleurs. . . . 

La ville de Sophie, capitalle de la Bulgarie, est situee dans 
cette grande plaine descrite cy-dessus^, environ une demie-heure 
de chemin de la plus haute montagne. Quelques-uns ont estime 
que c'est la Tibisque de Ptolomee : mais nous apprismes de ceux 
de la ville qu'a une portee de mousquet, vers le Sud-oest, ou le 
Beche, on voit I'endroit ou estoit autre fois la ville de Sardique. 
Elle est selon I'opinion plus vrayesemblable au quarante-troisiesme 
degre et demy de latitude et au quarante-neuf de longitude : mais 
les hautes montagnes qu'elle a au Midy sont cause que I'Hyver y 
dure plus que I'Este, et qu'il y pleut fort souvent. Elle n'est point 

^ Mundy says of the Bulgarians, "Theire Language neither Turkish nor 
Greeke, but like the Russian." See p. 78. See also Bargrave's comments at 
the end of this Appendix. 

^ See p. 76 and Bargrave's remarks at the end of this Appendix. 
"* See p. 76. 

* See p. 77 and Bargrave's remarks at the end of this Appendix. 
^ See ante, p. 206, and p. 63. 


fermeede murailles, et n'est arosee que d'un grand ruisseau qui 
passe par dedans les rues, les plus marchandes sont couvertes, et 
la plus-part des maisons sont esloignees les unes des autres, estant 
presque toutes accompagnees de Jardins, ce qui fait que la ville se 
montre fort grande. La Mosque'e principale qui est tres-belle 
servoit autrefois d'Eglise aux Chrestiens sous le nom de saihcte 
Sophie, c'est a dire la Sapience divine, et quelques-uns croient que 
cette Eglise ait donne le nom de Sophie a la ville, qui auparavant 
s'appelloit Sardique. 

Hors cette. Mosque'e elle n'a rien de considerable; car elle est 
encore plus mal bastie que les autres villes de Turquie, et la 
demeure en est si mal-saine, a cause des marecages qui I'environ- 
nent du coste du Septemtrion, qu'elle ne se fust pas conservee 
comme elle est, n'estoit que le Beglerbey de la Grece y fait sa 
residence '....Or dautant que cette ville est le siege du gouverneur 
de la Grece, il ne sera point hors de propos de dire que le 
gouvernement de la Grece, que les Turcs appellent Romeli" Beg- 
lerbeilic, est le plus honnorable et le premier de toute la Turquie, 
tant pource que le grand Seigneur tient le siege de son Empire a 
Constantinople, qui est dans son estendue, que pour le grand 
nombre de Provinces qui lui sont sujettes. Car ce Beglerbey 
commande a la Romanic, a la Bulgarie, a la Macedoine, a I'Albanie, 
a I'Epire, a I'Acaye : et a la Moree : il y a vingt Sangiacheis sous 
lui, qui sont gouvernears particuliers de Provinces, et commandent 
a trente trois mille soldats entretenus qui sont sous sa charge. 

Nous partismes de Sophie le vingt-quatriesme de Juin, et con- • 
tinuasmes nostre chemin par le mesme grande plaine....A trois 
heures de Sophie nous passames sur un pont de bois la petite 
riviere d'Iscar qui prend sa source au pied du mont Rodope. Et 
apres avoir fait encore environ quatre heures de chemin, nous 
sortismes de cette grande plaine et entrasmes dans des coUines, 
ou ayant marche quatre bonnes heures et rencontre plusieurs 
villages nous arrivasmes a Ictiman^: en ce bourg il y a plusieurs 
Turcs encore que tous les villages circonvoisins soient habitez de 
Chrestiens, les Turcs de toute la Province se retirans volontiers a 
Sophie, a Cerquioy ou a Ictiman. 

1 See p. 63. ^ See p. 62 and note. 

^ See p. 61. 


En quittant la plaine de Sophie nous commen^asmes a des- 
couvrir a main droicte le sommet du mont Rodope^ qui estoit 
encore couvert de neiges. Cette montagne, a ce que I'ceil en peut 
juger, n'est qu'une branche du mont Hoemus, dont elle ne differe 
qu'en ce qu'elle est beaucoup plus haute. C'est le lieu oCi 
I'antiquite veut qu'Orphe'e ayt fait entendre autrefois la douceur 
de sa harpe dont la memoire s'est perpetuee jusques en ce siecle, 
car il y a sept fontaines sur le plus haut de la montagne que ceux 
du pais appellent encores aujourd'huy les sept fontaines d'Orphee, 
estimans que les larmes qu'il respandit apres avoir perdu pour la 
seconde fois sa femme Euridice donnerent commencement a ces 

Le vendredi vingt-cinquiesme le Sieur des Hayes prit quelques 
Turcs pour nous accompagner, en passant la montagne qui est assez 
fascheuse, pour les carosses principalement, aupres d'un grand 
village de Chrestiens qu'ils appellent Capigi Dervent^, c'est a dire 
portier de la montagne ; apres avoir emploie sept heures a monter 
et a descendre, nous arrivasmes en un grand village nomme par 
les Turcs Jancoli, et par les habitans Novocelo'*, qui est le premier 
de la Romanic, comme Capigi est le dernier de Bulgarie: et aiant 
encore marche quatre heures le long de la riviere de Marissa, nous 
trouvasmes un grand bourg nomme Basargic^, ou il y a un fort 
beau Quiervansara basti par Hibraim Bascha. 

Cette montagne qui separe la Bulgarie de la Romanic, est 
appellee par les Italiens la Chaisne du monde, et par les Turcs 
Dervent, qui est le nom de toutes les montagnes covertes de bois, 
comme Balkan est celuy des rochers tout nuds : c'est celle que les 
anciens ont cogneue sous le nom d'Hoemus. Ces passages sont 
grandement perilleux; aussi ceux qui commandent pour le grand 
Seigneur dans toute ces Provinces y mettent si bon ordre, qu'aux 
advenues des montagnes il y a des hommes, qui avec des tambours 
advertissent les passants de prendre garde a eux quand il y a 
nouvelles de voleurs^ mesmes aux endroits plus dangereux il y a 
des soldats destinez pour accompagner ceux qui passent, sans 
qu'ils soient obligez a leur rien donner''. 

1 See note 9 on p. 61 ; see also p. 152. ^ See p. 152. 

^ The " Cappeekeoy " of Mundy. See p. 61. 

* See p. 60 f. and note 5 on p. 60. 

^ Tatar Bazarjik. See p. 60. 

6 See p. 61 f. ^ See p. 66. 

M. 14 


Le Samedi vingt-sixiesme, apres avoir marche six heures dans 
une plaine, ayant tousjours la riviere de Marissa a main droite 
nous arrivasmes a Phillippopoli, que les Turcs appellent Philiba^ 
II y a le long du chemin plusieurs butes de terre, qu'ils estiment 
estre les sepultures de quelques-uns de leurs ennemis, que leurs 
ancestres ont defaits en ceste plained 

La villa de Philippopoli est dans la Romanie, situee sur le herd 
de la riviere de Marissa, au pied de quelques coUines qui sont 
destache'es des montagnes^. Elle n'est point fermee de murailles: 
la riviere la borne du coste du Septemtrion, et ces collines enfer- 
ment quasi tout le reste : aussi ne la scavroit-on rendre forte, 
estant comande'e de tous costez. Son nom tesmoigne qu'elle a 
este bastie par Philippe de Macedonia, pere d'Alexandre : mais 
elle est tellement changee, qu'il n'y reste plus aucune marque 
de son fondateur... 

Le jour suivant, qui fut le vingt-septiesme de Juin, ayant 
marche neuf heures dans une plaine assez fertile, comme le sont 
toutes celles de la Romanie, nous arrivasmes a Cayali'*, qui est un 
grand village tout habite de Chrestiens qui se servent encore de la 
langue Esclavone. 

Le Lundy vingt-huictiesme, nous allasmes coucher a Her- 
rnanU", qui est a dix heures de chemin de Cayali : c'est un bourg 
oti il y a quelques Turcs, aupres duquel est un grand village habite 
de Chrestiens. 

Le Mardy vingt-neufiesme de Juin, nous repassasmes la riviere 
de Marissa, sur un petit pont de pierre, basty par Mustapha 
Bascha*' : et apres avoir marche I'espace de dix heures dans un 
pais plain, presque tousjours sur le bord de la mesme riviere, nous 
arrivasmes a Andrinople. . . . 

Au reste, ceux qui voyagent par la Turquie tirent de grands 
advantages de la charite' des Lures... la plupart de ceux qui sont 
riches taschent a reparer le mal qu'ils commettent durant leur vie, 
en faisant des fondations sur les grands chemins, pour la commo- 
dity publique Pour I'ordinaire ils font bastir des Mosquees — 

1 See p. 54 f. " See p. i-,^. ^ggep. 55. 

^ The "Cayalucke" of Mundy. See p. 54. 

^ See p. 52. 

* See p. 5 1 f. for the bridge and its story. 


Les autres bastissent des QuiervansarasS avec des hopitaux, ou 
les passans, de quelque Religion qu'ils soient, peuvent estre nouris 
trois jours durant. II y en a plusieurs sur le chemin de Belgrade 
a Constantinople, ou quand nous y logions on nous apportait k 
chacun une portion. Ceux qui n'ont pas moyen de faire une si 
grande despense, font venir de I'eau sur le grand chemin^ ou font 
bastir des ponts^ pour le commodite de ceux qui passent. 

La villa d'Andrinople avant que d'estre augmentee, et comme 
rebastie par I'Empereur Hadrian (qui luy donna son nom) s'appel- 
loit Oreste^ Elle est assise sur le haut et sur la pante d'une 
colline, a Fendroit oh la riviere de Tunze et celle de Harde 
perdent leur nom dans celle de Marissa*.... 

Le sejour qu'ils [les Othomans] y ont fait a este cause que la 
ville s'est beaucoup accreue au de-la de I'enceinte de I'Empereur 
Hadrian, que Ton voit encores aujourd'huy, et qui se trouve en 
quelques endroits au milieu de la ville. Les bastiments particuliers 
sont assez beaux pour le pais. Quand aux edifices publics, il y a 
un Besestan tout voMe qui est tres-beau, c'est comme une halle ou 
Ton vend des estoffes : le lieu ou les Cordonniers tiennent leurs 
boutiques est aussi tout voiite, et fort bien basti. II y a cela de 
particulier en toutes les villes de Turquie, que tous les artisans 
d'un mesme mestier demeurent en mesme endroit. Au plus haut 
de la ville est une superbe Mosquee, que Sultan Soliman a fait 
bastir. Si Ton veut adjouster a cela le Serrail*, qui est en une 
assiete tres-agreable, et un beau pont de pierre, qui a six arches": 
on ne trouvera point de ville en Turquie apres Constantinople oil 
il y ait de plus beaux edifices publics. . . . 

La ville d'Andrinople est encore sous le Beglerbey, ou Gouver. 
neur de la Grece, que les Turcs appellent Romeli Beglerbey®:... 
II y a pour la garde de la ville quelques Janissaires et quelques 
Spahis", qui obeissent seulement a leurs Chefs, et ne recognoissent 
au surplus que leur Aga, qui est aupres de la personne du grand 
Seigneur — 

Apres avoir demeure un jour entier a Andrinople, nous en 
partismes le Jeudy, premier jour de juillet, sur les dix heures : et 
pour regler nos journees, nous ne marchasmes que quatre heures 

1 See p. 52 f. 2 See p. 52. » See p. 155. 

^ See p. 49. ^ See p. 62. 

See p. 67 and note. 

14 — 2 


jusques a Absa\ ou nous couchasmes : c'est un petit bourg habite 
de Turcs, oil il y a neantmoins une belle Mosquee, et un grand 
Quiervansara, couvert de plomb, qu'un des principaux Tresoriers 
du pais a fait bastir pour I'expiation de ses fautes. La chaleur 
nous contraignit a changer I'ordre de notre voyage, et a nous servir 
de la nuit au lieu du jour, ce que les Turcs font ordinairement ; 
mais davantage en Asie et en Afrique, ou les chaleurs sont plus 

Nous partismes d'Absa un peu devant minuit et apres avoir 
marche jusques au Soleil Levant, nous fismes repaistre nos chevaux 
dans un pre qui se rencontra, usants de la liberte publique : car en 
tous les Estats du Turc, Ton trouve ainsi le long des chemins de 
grandes prairies ou les Chrestiens aussi bien que les Turcs peuvent 
faire repaistre leurs chevaux sans rien paier. Apres avoir demeure 
la quelque temps, nous allasmes disner a un village nomme 
Babaesqui^, et de-la coucher a Bergase^ ayant marche unze heures 
en tout. II y a encores en ce bourg une fort belle Mosquee, et un 
grand Quiervansara, que Mustapha Bascha a fait bastir, et ou il a 
laisse tant de revenu, que tous les passans y sont nourris un jour 
entier pour I'honneur de Dieu ; bien que nous fussions defraiez aux 
despens du grand Seigneur, on ne laissa pas pourtant de nous 
apporter a chacun un pain, du ris, et du mouton. ... 

Nous partismes de Bergase environ a unze heures du soir : apres 
avoir marche dix heures, et fait repaistre nos chevaux dans les 
prairies, nous arrivasmes a un bourg nomme Chiourli^, ou Selim 
perdit la bataille qu'il donna contre son Pere Bajazet. On voit en 
ce lieu tant de tortues, que la terre en est presque toute couverte a 
cause que les Grecs ni les Turcs n'en mangent point. . . . 

Nous partismes de Chiourli a six heures du matin le quatriesme 
de Juillet. Ayant chemine quatre heures, nous rencontrasmes les 
vestiges d'un canal et d'une muraille....Trois heures apres, nous 
arrivasmes a Selivree^, qui est sur le rivage de la mer de Marmora. 
Tout le pais qui est depuis Andrinople, jusques a la mer est fort 
desagreable : on ne trouve que de grandes plaines sans arbres qui 
ennuyent infiniment*. 

' See p. 49. 2 See p. 48. ^ See p. 47. 

^ Mundy says (see p. 60), "From Constantinople unto Adrianople is a 
plaine Champion Countrie without either Tree or bush excepting att Townes or 


Selivree autrefois appellee Selimbria, est une petite ville presque 
entierement ruinee : c'est pourquoi les Turcs y ont encore laisse 
les Grecs. II y a une Eglise fort ancienne qui est assise en si beau 
lieu, que de-la on descouvre tous les vaisseaux et toutes les galleres 

qui vont de Constantinople en I'Archipelague Au dessous de 

Selivree il y a un grand bourg habite de Turcs, qui vaut beaucoup 
mieux que la ville, bien qu'il ne s'entretienne qu'a cause qu'il est 
sur le grand chemin ; car il n'y a point de port pour les vaisseaux, 
et consequemment point de trafic. ... 

De Selivree nous costoyasmes la mer de Marmora I'espace de 
trois heures, et arrivasmes au bourg de Bioucchekmege qui prend 
son nom du grand pont de bois\ qui est sur un destroit par ou la 
mer s'engolphe, et fait un grand estang sale. Nous trouvasmes le 
long de ce rivage I'air beaucoup plus doux, et le pays bien plus 
fertile et plus agreable que dans les plaines de Thrace. Apres 
avoir disne en ce village, nous marchasmes encores le long de la 
mer I'espace de trois heures, et arrivasmes au bourg de Couchiouc 
Chekmege^, qui prend aussi son nom d'un petit pont, qui est sur 
un destroit moindre que le premier, ou la mer fait un autre estang 
sale, lequel s'unit avec le precedent. L'on y pesche une tres- 
grande quantite de poisson, et les rivages y sont embellis de 
plusieurs maisons de plaisance, a la mode du pays, ou les Turcs 
vont prendre I'air. 

II y a dans ce bourg un petit Quiervansara, mais fort beau^, 
avec des fontaines pour la commodite de ceux qui y logent : ce 
qui est presque ordinaire en tous les autres ; car les Turcs croyent 
de ne pouvoir faire oraison qui soit agreable a Dieu, qu'auparavant 
ils ne se soient lavez, et particulierement les parties de leurs corps 
avec lesquelles ils ont offense ; c'est pourquoy tous ceux qui 
fondent des Quiervansaras y font conduire de I'eau, afin de donner 
moyen aux passants d'y faire leurs prieres, et d'y louer Dieu. 

Le Quiervansara du petit pont est le plus commode que nous 
ayons rencontre, parce qu'il y a des chambres, et que les chevaux 
ne sont pas peslemesle avec les hommes comme aux autres. II 
est un peu releve, ce qui faict que la veue y est fort agreable, car 
l'on descouvre tous les vaisseaux et toutes les barques qui vont a 

^ The Ponto Grande of Mundy. See p. 46. 

2 The "Ponto Piccolo " of Mundy. See p. 45 f. 

-' Mundy calls it "a good stone Cane." See p. 46. 


Constantinople, ou qui de la viennent en I'Archipelague. Les 
Ambassadeurs demeurent ordinairement en ce lieu, jusques a ce 
que les Officiers du grand Seigneur soient advertis pour les rece- 
voir; car ce n'est pas la coustume de loger chez des particuliers, 
mesmes les plus grands Seigneurs du pais campent avec leurs 
tentes, ou bien logent dans ces Quiervansaras.... 

Le jour suivant, sixiesme de Juillet, apres avoir marche cinq 
heures dans des plaines descouvertes, nous arrivasmes a I'une des 
portes de Constantinople, que Ton appelle la porte d'Andrinople^ 
et dautant que- pour aller a Pera oli est le logis du Roy et la 
demeure des Ambassadeurs^, il faut passer au milieu de la ville, et 
traverser le port dans une barque, ce qui nous eust este fort incom- 
mode, a cause de nostre esquipage, nous trousvasmes plus a propos 
de faire le tour de la ville et celuy du port, encores que le chemin 
fut un peu plus long. 

Ainsi nous employasmes vingt journees a venir de Belgrade a 
Constantinople^, ayant marche en tout, cent soixante et dix-sept 
heures : mais parce que ce pais est plain et uny, excepte en quel- 
ques endroits de Bulgarie, et que les carosses y roulent bien, nous 
fismes plus d'une lieue par heure: de sorte que j'estime que de 
Belgrade a Constantinople il y ait environ deux cents lieues de 
France, et de Paris a Constantinople sept cens que nous fismes en 
deux mois et vingt- trois jours ^, apres lesquels nous arrivasmes a 
Pera, qui est I'un des faux-bourgs de Constantinople^... 

^ See pp. 27 and 187. ^ ggg pp_ ^j ^nd 190 f. 

'^ Pindar's party occupied twenty-four days in the same journey, viz. from 
the 6th to the 30th of May, 1620. 

^ Pindar's party accomplished the same distance in the opposite direction 
in four months all but two days. Pindar travelled via Venice and Northern 
Italy, while Des Hayes took the route via Strasburg and Vienna. 

^ See note on p. 190. 


2. A Narration of the Journey from Constantinople to Dujikirke 

overland} fuade by Mr. fames Modyford, Mr. Richard Nevett 

and mee Robert Bargrave'^. 

By the Guidance of Allmighty God we sett out from Galata of 
Constantinople on the 9th Day of Septr. x\nno 1652 mounted on 
admirable horses... as also a wagon to carrie our Luggage, which 
we hird for 100 Lyon dollers (or ;^2 2 sterling) to go about 800 
miles (to Leopolis in Poland)... we dind at Papas-cue... and went 
thence the remainder of six howers Journey to Ponte Piccolo^, 
where is only remarkable a faire Bridge and a large Lake 

Septr. the loth. We took in our way Ponte Grande*, a Towne 
so named from a large and no less stately Stone Bridge, about a 
quarter of a mile in length over a Lake as is the Former ; and 
passed onn to Celebrea'^ an auntient City full of ruinous old 
Christian buildings, Pillars and Inscriptions; but such as I could 
neither gather ought from my selfe, nor be enform'd of by Others : 
time having worne out all memorable markes of Antiquity both 
here and throughout the Country from the knowledge of the Stupid 
Inhabitants whose Minds, as much enslav'd as their bodies are 
otherwise employed then about such Curiosities : This days travell 
was about ten howres over high Land very fertile, affording store 
of Caccia and a curious prospect of Palaces, of Plaines of Foun- 
taines and of the Seae. 

Septr. the nth. We came about seven howers travell to a 
Towne called Chourlie^ over a Corne Land Plaine, keeping about 
two miles distance from the Seae, on as even and as pleasant 
Ground as can be seen besprinkled with many pretty villages, faire 
country houses, and numerous Fountaines j whose beauty as well 
pleasd our Eyes, as theyre Liquor our panting Thirsts. Here we 
mett a wonderfull Concourse of Passengers and near an hundred 

1 The extracts here given are taken from Razvlinson MS. C. 799, fols. 49 — 
5 1 . Only those passages have been selected in which the route followed by 
Bargrave was identical with that described by Mundy in Relation II. 

"^ Robert Bargrave, who was a "younger sonn" of Dr Isaac Bargrave, 
Dean of Canterbury (see the Diet, of Nat. Biog.), spent the years 1648 — 1652 
in travelling in southern and central Europe, and has left a quaint and 
interesting MS. chronicle of his experiences. 

^ See pp. 45 and 213. * See pp. 46 and 213. 

^ See pp. 47 and 213. ^ See pp. 47 and 212. 


Carrs and waggons drawen by Buffaloes, this Road lying from 
Andrinople being seldom less employd : On these Plaines an 
incredible Quantity of Sheep have theyr Winter Quarters, for the 
Supply of Constantinople but they are incompatible {for want of 
Shade) of the Summers heat. 

Septr. the 12th. We remained at Chiourlee...we went on the 
13th some eight howres travell along the same continued Plaine, 
plentifully stor'd with Fowles and hares, of which our Gunns 
furnishd us that night with a supper at a Towne calld Burgoss\ 
a small but very pleasant place in the Chief street whereof is a 
faire Mosque (or Church) adornd with curious Fountaines on the 
one side, and on the Other with a stately Cane^ for Travellers 
conteining three large Quadrangles cloistered round, having within 
them very faire Chambers : Both Mosque and Cane had the same 
Founder, and are joind with a faire Cupula cross the Street, one to 
the other. In the Cane the Charitable Founder has bequeathed 
Provision for a dayly Supper to all Travellers Gratis'^ vizt. for every 
Company where Armes are hung up and a Carpet Spread, a 
sufficiency of Bread and admirable Pottage made of Mutton and 
wheat which for Curiosity sake we tasted of By the way I noted 
and was throughly enformd, that the Turkes Charitie is chiefly 
exercised in building of Canes'* and Fountaines for convenience to 
Travellers in memorie perhapps of theyr own advance by wandring 
motions when such Helpes as these were most gratefull — 

Bulgaria...! could note litle but the strange abundance of 
Chattering Magpies and of scolding women to which Exercise 
theyr Language^ helps much and tis probable those mimick birds 
are decoyd hither by the Delight they have in the Musique. ...The 
women here do allmost all the worke, at lest theyr shares with the 
Men; having a masculine proportion apted for it. Theyr Habit 
is a kind of Gowne without Sleeves wrought round at the Bottome, 
as are also theyr smocks so ordering the length of Either that the 
works on both do appeare. They weare Sylver Rings almost 
on every finger Bracelotts of black and white Beads or Shells 
upon theyr wrists and great Collars of sylver Coines about theyr 

1 See pp. 48 and 212. ^ See pp. 52 and 212. ^ See aitte, p. 212. 

■* See an(e, p. 211. ^ See pp. 78 and 207. ^ See pp. 77 and 207. 



The Travels of Richard Symonds^ from Dover 
TO Turin in 1649. 

I St. January, 1648^, English Accompt, left London I I had in 
money 9/. o. o., besides old gold one Elizabeth 22s., one ii5". 

^ Richard Symonds, eldest son of Edward (or Edmund) Symonds, was 
born at the Plumtrees (now the Buck), Black Notley, Essex, in 1617. He 
joined the royalist army, in 1643, '^^^ became a member of the troop which 
formed the king's lifeguard. In January, 1649, Symonds set out on his 
European travels and remained abroad till about the end of 1652. During 
these years he set down his impressions in various note-books, which contain 
much valuable memoranda relating to the topography and genealogy of the 
places he visited, as well as many interesting artistic notes. 

The two volumes used in Appendix G are entered in the British Museum 
catalogue of MSS. as follows : — [a) Harl. MS. 943. Another of Mr. Symonds' 
Manuscripts; wherein he has inserted, (1) Several notes relating to his own 
private Affairs, and the disposition of them. (2) Notes relating to his Charges 
in travailing into France, A. D. 1648 — 9. (3) Observations made by him in 
France, touching the Countrey, the People, their Fashions, Manners, and 
Customs, with Heraldical Matters, Church-Notes, &c. (4) Like Observations 
on his Journey from Paris to Italy, by the way of Savoy. (5) Discourses and 
Observations, touching various matters, thought worthy of remembrance by 
Mr. Symonds. (6) Notes concerning Mr. Symonds his Journey from Alexandria 
to Genoa and so to Rome ; with Lists of Books and Pictures, (b) Harl. MS. 
1278. A Modern MS. in 8vo. bought of Mr. Peter le Neve and written by the 
hand of Mr. Richard Symonds. It containeth — (i) His observations made 
upon his View of all the Public Buildings in Paris ; with Copies and Draughts 
of Arms, Inscriptions, Epitaphs, Habits, Dials, &c. (2) At the beginning, 
is a Table of the said Buildings, as Churches, Monasteries, Colleges, &c. 

The passages extracted from these two MSS. are those relating in any way 
to Mundy's journey from Turin to Dover and to the buildings in Paris of 
which he has an account in Relation II. A few of Symonds' entries of 
expenses are given, but many curious and interesting observations have, 
perforce, been omitted, since they have no direct bearing on Mundy's 

Of the seventeen note-books left by Symonds, four only have been printed 
in extenso. These contain his Diary of the Marches of the Royal Army during 
the great Civil War. They were edited for the Camden Society in 1859 by 
Charles Edward Long. Other note-books of Richard Symonds have been 
largely used by Morant in his History of Essex and by Walpole in Anecdotes of 

For a detailed account of the life and works of Richard Symonds (who 
died cii-c. 1692) see the account in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. 

^ i.e. 1648/9. 

^ The notes at the beginning of Harl. MS. 943 (from which the above 
extracts are taken), are very disconnected and are interspersed with numerous 
entries of items of expenditure. 


Elizabeth, i thick peice, i thin peice. Exchang'd to Paris 
5 5 /....For which I received there but 50/., and abated 5 livres 
for provisions besides. 

Porters, carrying portmantu, is. ; passage in the Gravesend 
barge, 6d. ; portage at Gravesend, 6d. ; breakfast there, 2s. ; Horse 
hyre for my selfe and a guide to Sittingburne, 18 myle, lox. ; 
thence to Canterbury, 15 myles\ ^s. ; Servant, 2d. ; bayte there, 
IS. 6d. ; Post and guide from Canterbury to Dover, 8i-. ; Hostler, 
6d. ; bayt at Canterbury, d>d. ; gave the boy that rode with me all 
the way to Dover, is. ; my post boy, is. 

At Dover at the Greyhound ^ but if ever I passe agen, to ride 
to the Queens Armes at the peere, for many reasons, especially 
for the convenience of being neere the botes and sparing expences : 
Supper, fire, lodging, etc., i2.f. ...All that part of Dover which is 
calld the peere ^ was gaind out of the sea since the memory of 
man, for a fore the waves washt the rocky shore as under the 
castle now. 

Wednesday, fowle weather, and the paquet bote was at Callis. 

Thursday, about nine in the forenoone, I enterd a shallop, 
and at two afternoone, was at Cains'*. Passage, 5i'. ; porter, 7^. ; 
boy, 2d. ; porter at Callis, 'jd. ; lodging at Dover, Wednesday 
night, 2 j-. ... Market bote goes from Dover to Callis, Tuesdays and 
Fridayes. The coaches of passage goe from Gravesend to Can- 
terbury on Tuesdays and Fridays of corse My lodging at Callis, 

supper, lodginge and dinner 4 and 5 January, 6s. 6d. ; Charitie, 
2d. ; wine, i pint and mad: Flomrey, ^d. 

Jantiary 5, 1648, Friday^. I set out with the Messenger 

^ Mundy gives the distance between Canterbury and Sittingbourne as 
II miles. See p. 135. 

2 Mundy also lodged at this inn in 1620. See p. 134. 

^ See p. 134 for Mundy's remarks on the " peere " and harbour at Dover. 
'* Mundy made the passage from Calais to Dover in three and a half hours. 
See p. 134. 

^ This portion of Harl. MS. 943, relating to Symonds' journey from Calais 
to Paris, exists in duplicate. The second copy is about a century later than 
the original. It consists of ten quarto pages, bound up with Sloane MS. ^11^ 
(Biographical Anecdotes, Bibliotheca Birchiana) and is en\.\t\edi,Jotn-nal 0/ the 
Travels of Richard Symonds, 1648 jg. The copyist prefixes the following 
biographical notes to his extract from Symonds' account of his travels : — " He 
was the son of Edward Symonds of Black Notley in the Kounty of Essex 
by his Wife Anna — ; which Edward by his last Will dated October 12, 1636, 
appoints his Son Richard his sole Executor. He leave to his two sons Edward 
and John six hundred pounds each to be paid them at their several ages of 


from Callais towards Paris, 12 o' the Clock, having left London 
I January, English accompt. We left Callis about one o'clock, 
and about seven that night, we Came to Bollon thorough a hilly 
Country, and by reason the Water has made deep gulls every 
where, tis a very scurvy passage, worse than ever I rode in 
England, now and then a fair Sandy Way. Near Callis some 
Villages stands thick, but very small, where a few Cottages built of 
stone and thatcht are neare the Church, which also is poore. 
Here the Country people plough with three small horses, that go 
all a breast, and wheel ploughs as in Kent, and lay their Land as 
in Kent, but with this difference, they lay all one way alike, but 
these in France remove furrowes. Only one small thatcht Abby 
on our right hand, five or six miles from Callis I saw in this 
Journey. A very playne hilly Country, no Wood but what is 
about some houses. Their Cottages stink as bad as the in- 

From Bullen wee marcht along the shore. BuUen is no 
garrison. The Town stands upon a high HilP, and in the middle 
the Church, which is large. Wee lay at the golden Horn in the 
lowTowne^. Here is a monastery of Capuchines. This Country, 
both in ground, but especially the Houses, is like Cornwall. This 
soil is better, and more fruitfull, not so rockie. 

About one of the Clock we got to Montrill, a strong Garrison 
upon the summitye of a Hill^ and four or five Churches in it. In 
one of them on the left hand, as you enter into the west end, lies 
an old Monument of a Knight in old Armour like our Templars'*. 
It is a faire town and many hansome howses and good shops. I 
saw many hares in the Cokes shops. Here the country people 
pull off their hatts and goe out of the way with their Waynes, 
which Waynes are drawne with three horses, and the Waggoner 

three and twenty Years. To his Daughter Anne ^500 to be paid at the age of 
twenty years, or at the day of her marriage, which shall first happen. Edward 
Symonds was baptis'd at Black Notley 20 December 1621, John 10 April 1627, 
Anne 31 March 1631." 

' See p. 132. 

^ Mundy lodged at "The Grayhound," which was also in the "lower 
Towne." See p. 132. 

* Mundy describes Montreuil as "a small Cittie with three walls." See 
p. 132. 

^ There is a sketch by Symonds, in the MS., of the "Arms embossed over 
the figure." 


sitts on the neare horse behind. Browne horses are all as I have 
yet seen. 

That night went to a Village called Berney', four or five 
howses, as most of the rest of all Villages in this Country have. 
This passage was good, an open Country, and some hills adorned 
with Woods such like some parts of Northamptonshire. 

Sunday early we left that hostelrie and early at Masse time we 
entered Abbeville "^ so called, as I suppose, from some famous 
Abbey. There, indeed, part of a great church and lofty and other 
buildings remain, which shew a great fabrique. There is five or 
six more Churches, besides Religious houses. This is the best 
buildings I have yet seen in France. Riding, Shoeing, Waggoning, 
&c. are no Novelties on a Sunday. In this passage we came by 
many Churches, which stood not above half a myle from each 
other. We came near an Abbey, where, in the woods, are snares 
of Ropes and pullyes sett upon the Trees to catch birds. About 
Callis and this part of Picardy are many such crows, which are 
about Cambridge, and calld Royston Crows. The Chancels of the 
Countrey Churches are for the most part higher then the church. 
The steeple a Wall, wherein two holes are cutt for two small 
ting tang bells. The A^illages have not above five or six poor 
Cottages of stone, thatcht ; a few trees; the Country playne. 
The houses have an outward Doore besides the inward of thick 
spHnts, not much different from our Essex Gates to preserve 
braking open. 

Abbeville is fortified strong, and many Trees in rows within 
the Works I Fair Churches here, and a good towne, but dirty, 
especially in the market-place, which is large. Many Crosses in 
this town, wherein the Crucifix is as big as the Life. Two or three 
small Chapels in the high way with an Altar of stone and a statue. 

After dinner we went to Poix; they call it nyne miles'*. This 
passage and Country is likest to Cambridgshire, chalky, playne, 
champagne and hilly. Thin of parishes. The woods are not 
fenct in, but open to the Champagne. 

1 The Bearne of Mundy, who calls it "a poore Towne." See p. 132. 

^ See p. 1 3 1 f. 

=• Mundy had no time to make observations at Abbeville, as he stayed there 
"only to breake fast." 

■^ Symonds, no doubt, had reason to distrust the native estimate of the 
distance between Abbeville and Poix. Mundy gives 18 miles between the two 
places. See p. 131 f. 


In Abbeville, I saw two wild bores heads and pawes nayled at 
the Gate of a gentlemans Howse in the town. In the valley, as 
we past, four miles, as I take it, from Abbeville, we came by a 
small Garrison. They call it Pont d'armee\ Upon the draw- 
bridge is a Wolfes head and clawes nayled.... 

Poix is a small village ^ Here, as elsewhere, the lower parts. 
of the windowes are latticed and glazed above. Here, in this inn,, 
the Woman servants, or Maid servants that wayted on us, helped 
the fellows to fill the tumbriel with dung. On the top of the hill 
stands a Castle of chalky stone, a grove neare it ; also the Church,, 
which is faire, not like our Churches. Tis covered with blew 
shingles, which lookes afar off like lead. 

9 January, Julia7i accornpt. Munday morning wee marcht 
from thence through a fair hilly Country, where the Villages 
stand in the Vallyes for the most part. The hills are plowed, 
being a sandy and Chalky soil. But this journey was far better 
then any of the former. About the middle of the way, on the 
left hand, wee left a lofty, large and fair Castle. No Gentlemans. 
bowses all this way, but one, and that was in our way near that. 
Castle. Many Dovehouses and great flocks of pidgeons. 

In the beginning of the Evening we entered the faire, and the: 
best towne I have yet scene in France, of Beauvois^. Six or 
seven Churches, one of them very high, of the fashion of the 
Abbey of Westminster. The houses in this town are very high, 
the streets well paved, but Dung-hills all the way in the middle of 
them. The Churches are lofty, and much adorned with statues, 
outside ; Many of the Virgin Mary sitting and holding the dead 
body of our Saviour in her Lap. This town is seated in a Valley : 
the rivers run through it, and the lofty hills, which inviron it, are 
adorned with a multitude of Vineyards. The situation not unlike 
to Salisbury, and the prospect also, though the river divides itself 
nothing so often. The great Church in this town is extreme lofty. 
In the quire, near the Alter, are many large, flat stones, inlayd 
with brass, for Bishops and churchmen, their inscriptions circum- 
scribd in old French Characters, as our old ones are also in 
England. I saw no arms in the Windowes, but faire old Glasse, 
nor noe old monuments of any notice. Tis called I'Eglise de 

^ See p. 131. Mundy agrees with Symonds in the distance betweea. 
Abbeville and "Pondormy." 
^ See p. 131. 


■S. Pierre. The south ile is the faire Entrance, whereto you 
ascend upon many fair stone steps. The two doores are large, 
and very fairely carved in Wood of stories of our Saviour. The 
Font is adorned with the Statues of our Savior in the middle and 
his six Disciples on each side of him. The habitt of the Church- 
men, whereof I saw many, is black gowne and whood hanging 
■with a long poke behind ; under it a demy surplice laced at 
bottom. The marketplace is so large, that a regiment of foot 
■of looo men may march in Battalia. The Windowes are of 
squared pillars of Wood, and the Glass is square also, and lett 
into them. Some of them, the pillars, are in the fashion of 
flowers De Lis, &c. 

About ten of the Clock, wee left this town, and marcht over 
a champagne, hilly, chalky and not very plentifull Country. Yet 
many of the hills are tilld, and yield hopes of an ensuing 
plentifull harvest. And when we had past a long Cawsey and 
bridge, wee entered Beaumond', which has two or three Churches 
and a very old, ruind, yet fortified Castle. This Towne is built 
of stone and of no great note. This is i6 Myles from Paris ^, 
and stands in the Confines of the Country or Province of France. 

Next morning wee passed through a Country which is as far 
beyond Picardy as England beyond Wales, both for Gentlemans 
howses, neat Villages, a fair Cawsey of stone almost all the way 
to Paris ; Vineyards and Orchards of Cherryes, apples and peares 
most part of the way, on either hand. ...The villages are for the 
most part consisting of a Gentlemans howse, a pretty Church, 
and in many not above six, seven or eight howses with Orchards 
and a Grove for the most part within a Wall. 

We entered St. Dennis*, where the faire Abbey is much 
beautified with a stately Church, where the Kings of France are 

To the Messenger^ for my passage from Callis to Paris, he 
bearing all my charges and finding horse, ii Crownes, 2. 15. o. ; 
to the boy, ^d. ; Gave to servants in my passage^ is. 6d. The 

^ See p. 131. 

^ Mundy also gives the distance between Beaumont and Paris as 16 miles. 
See p. 131 f. 
^ See p. 130. 

* Symonds' notes of his daily expenditure are scattered over his MS. and 
interspersed with his account of scenery or buildings. 


two French men that went with me paid but three pistols^ a man 
for this Journey. Expended by the way 10^/. ; and in enter- 
teyning three Captains of Colonel Rookebeyes Regiment at 
Beaumond, 2s. To the messengers master at Paris for my 
Portmantue, which did weigh 36 Pound (I was allowed 5/.), at 
4d. the /., los. The messenger La liberie had of me at St. 
Dennis, partly for wine, partly for passage, etc., is. 3^. 

1 1 January. My lodging at St. Cristofers in La Rue de Roy, 
from Thursday night to Satterday afternoone and dyett, los.-... 
Enterd into Pension at the three Mores heads in La Rue St. 
Jaque, Tuesday, 15 January ^... My being in pension at the Three 
Mores, in Rue St. Jaque, three weekes, to the 15 of February, 
3/.; Porter, lod.; going up Nostre Dame steeple, 3^.* and St. 
Etienne, 2d. ; Gave my landladyes servant, ^d. ; the maid, S^-^--- 
Bootes mending, ^d. ; Paid my landlady at the Three Mores to 
the 2nd. of March, two weekes at a pistol the weeke i/. 13^'. 4d.^ ; 
The Ceremonies of the Church, i^. 3^. ; Paid my landlady at 
Three Mores to the 9th March, 15^. 10^.. ..wood lod. ; Barbier, 
-8th March, cutting my hair, 2od. and cleansing my teeth, 40^. he 
"was not pleased.... Paid my pension to the i6th March, one 
Weeke, i6s. 8d. ; razor, yd. Making cleane my watch, 2id. ; 
cristall for it, 21^. ...Paid my landlady one weeks money aforehand 
to the 24th March, 16s. 10^. ...Virgils six books of Aeneads in 
latine and French, 55-. ; paid one moneth hyring my lute to 
29th March, 30^. ...Paid my Landlady at Three Mores, ist April 
to the 6th April, i /. i t,s. ^d.... Bootes, setting up, etc., 5X. . . . inkhorne, 
4^.; gloves mending and washing, 20^.... Bleeding, 19th May, 
.20^.... at my lodging in Rue Sept Voyes, five dayes chamber rent, 
2 5^.... Sword, blackinge scabbarde, 3^-. 3^.; Prayer booke, 6d. ; 
gloves, mending and washing, 2od. ; Looking glasse, i^d.; Paid 
my pension to the 19th April, 16s. 3^. ; Mending my cloth suite, 
etc., 40^. ...bleeding, 19th May, 2od. ; big leeches, 20th May, 54^. 

1 i.e. about £2. \is. od. The pistole, a Spanish gold coin, was worth, in 
the 17th century, from i6j. dd. to \%s. 

^ Here follow numerous items of expenditure for food, wine, books, 
■ clothing, etc. 

^ Symonds stayed in Paris for nearly seven months, while Mundy only 
remained in the city for one clear day. See pp. 124 — 130. 

•* Mundy also "ascended" one of the "two great steeples" of the "great 
•Church of our Lady." See p. 130. 

^ Here follow numerous trivial items of expenditure. 

^ Syinonds values a pistole at ids. 8d. See above, note i. 


Friday night, May 28//?, I removed to the Quatre Vents, Rue 

[?] Priedue, neere Place Maubert Hat, 8 francs; journey to St. 

Clou, Ruel and St. Jermains, horse, 35^.; Dinner, i5(/. ; Paid 
Madame Martyn for a moneth from the 26th May, 45 livres, 
?)£• ^S^-i ^^^ 4°^- f<^^ washing. To St. Denys, ist July, dinner, 
4o^....Seing Cardinal Richlieu's Palais, 20^.... Paid for letters 
from the first till July, 6s. Sd....i pr. linnen stockings, 2od. ; To 
my master of French, 5^-. and "js. 6d. for a fortnight twice a day 

Parish The method of discovering or describing this faire 
and large Citty, divide into four Quarters. First that Quarter 
wherein is the kings howse called the Louvre. Secondly, ' that 
quarter wherein is the Bastyle. srdly, the quarter wherein is 
the Colledg of Sorbonne and the fauxbourg of St. Germans. 

The kings howse calld the Louvre at Paris ^. Next the 
River is a long building of stone which is the gallery, coverd 
with blew Slate'*. The fore gate stands westward, where as soone 
as you enter you ascend some stepps of stone which looke into a 
large garden'^, which ascent is a stayrecase all of stone of Ovall 
forme, the Pillars of Black Marble. The Garden is of many 
walkes and knotts of box as the garden at White hall in Essex. 
About the sides are Cipresse trees about twelve in all, which grow 
high and the body is prund up about a mans height from ground, 
the boughes not tyed as ours in England. Right over against the 
entrance into this Royall Palace, which is but begun and not halfe 
perfected, I suppose (as not intended), within a stone wall, is 
a larg garden almost halfe a myle square, in plans upon a flat, 
where, at the entrance, you looke thorough a walke on each side 
planted with shee Elmes, but the Cawsey, as all other the walkes 
in that garden, is so troublesomely dirty tis a labor to walke in it. 
In the middle is a grove of Cipresse tall and Box make the hedges 
pretty close, So that Box is below and Cipresse above in the same 
hedge. There is a faire pond also in that garden and three 

1 The following descriptions of the Louvre, St Innocents, etc. are taken 
from Harl. MS. i-zjS, which contains Symonds' Notes on Churches and Public 
Buildings in Paris. 

2 There is a gap in the MS. here. 

^ See pp. 126 — 128 for Mundy's description of "The Loure." 
■* Here Symonds has a rough sketch of the building. 
'' See p. 127. 


Crosse walks of thick and tall box, some groves of Elmes, some 
squares of box knotts. One side on the right hand as you come 
in is althorough out of box knotts, where the hedges are neately 
kept as thus '. Next some of the walls, as in many other places 
of France is planted of beech wood, which grows like a hedge to 
defend you from the hot reflection of the Sun upon those walls. 

Chasteau Royal de Louvre. The first Court is begun to be 
built very lofty and large, the front with statues over the port. 
The Gallery next the Water is not halfe-way rooft, paved with 
brick and two Row of square stones in the middle of black and 
white marble. The spaces betweene the Windowes was designed 
to have the prospects of all the famousest Citties of the World in 
painting, not one perfected nor begun. The Roofe has halfe 
statues and antique worke upon painting of Mosaique^. In a 
little Gallery going into the great one^ are the pictures of all the 
Kings of France from St. Fouys at length and the heads of all 
their severall great officers about them ; their Queenes the other 
side and their Ladyes'*. Monsr. Bunel was a painter in this 

Under the long gallery is a place is called the Bureau d'Adresse. 
Here a man has bookes of Servants and Lacquies names. Every 
lacquey that wants a master, for 5^. has his name entred and 
condition, and those that want servants come to him and give 
him ^d. also for his payment of helping him to him. 

The Roofe has many storyes of men and women. At the 
farther End aloft sitts Henry IV. in a throne and his Court about 
him. In the middle is a square place rayld in and a step higher 
then the other for the King and Queene to be in when there are 
bien du monde. No other paintings of note in this large Howse 
except four seasons done by Bassano small, the things lesse then 
the life.... 

Des Hostels plus Remarquables en Fauxbourg S. Germain. 
In the large Street at the foregate of Louxemberg in the middle 
of the street that which was the house of the Marquis d'Ancre* is 

^ Here is a rough sketch of box trees cut into two different shapes. 

2 In Uarl. MS. 943, Symonds says, " Much of the Roofe [of the Louvre] 
is guilt but not a quarter of it." 

^ In Harl. MS. 943, Symonds says that the "little gallery is as you goe 
from the Queen of Englands Cot into the long gallery." See p. 128. 

'' Seep. 127. ^ Seep. 129. 

M. 15 


now written over the Gate, Hostel pour Les Embassadeurs Extra- 
ordinaires^.. Hostel de Luxembourg. The one side next the 
Nunnery of Mount Calvaire is finisht and fairely guilded within. 
The One side is a gallery flat Roofe but fairly guilded, and on the 
sides the story of the life of Marie de Medicis^.... 

Eglise Sto. Innocents. There is in Rue St Denys, a small 
church and low, No handsome Church within, a faire Monument 
of a brasse in the east end of the South yle of a Woman a foot 
from ground, Tis of a Nun 1400 and od^, her portrait in solid 
brasse. TheHangins of the body of the church were the biggest 
paintings I ever saw and rarely done, much spoyled and raffled, story 
of our Saviour, Many persons in a peice, much plate, very large, 
Pilate examining Our Saviour rarely done. The Church yard is 
large & a Cloister Round it whose roofe is all full of sculls and 
bones*. This is the burying place of all strangers, Many crosses 
that have Inscriptions at the head of the graves.... 

Eglise de Nostre Dame. Tis seated in a hole very low, from 
Pont Nostre Dame tis downe hill to it. Two lofty great Towers 
at the west end which have vast Bells in them^. Many old statues 
are at this w^est end, our Saviour in the middle and six of his 
disciples on either hand, all flattish and very long. Above is the 
last judgment with a world of bodyes and people.... This Church 
is very broad considering the height, which is very low in the 
yles, and has four Rowes of Pillars in the body and Quire.... 
Some old Glasse remaining in the North side of the Quire and 
much in the Crosse Windowes ; the Statues of Saints on the 
South part of the Crosse are far bigger then the life, for men 
passing under them lookt like pigmies at the distance.... The 
Roofe of this Church and Chancel is coverd with Lead, which 
is rarely scene here 

Their Dyett*^. In our Pension and in my Inn also it was 
ordinary to [have] rost beife at night, burne the out side and the 
blood within when you cutt it. They have sallads all the winter 

* See p. 126. 

2 This palace was unfinished when Mundy visited Paris in 1620. See 
p. 126. 

'■^ The figures evidently refer to the century in which the lady lived and not 
to her age. 

* See p. 129. ^ See p. 130. 

® From this point the extracts are taken from Harl. MS. 943, Symonds' 
Notes of Travels m France and Italy. 


of CoUyflower stalks. In their pottage they putt long herbes and 
often gobbets of Turnips and sops of bread, without thicking of 
oat meal.... 

A Mountebank and his boy on Sunday hanging his Crocodyle 
Skins and selling his medicaments with his quack confidence to the 
people under the brasen Horse of Henry IV. upon Pont Neuf'.... 

3 August. Left Paris and, with the messager of Nevers^ 
Went first night, being Tuesday, twelve leagues; this Journey 

many pretty howses in the Villages, as the Seigneur de la village 

Wee lay in a walld bourg. ...This was no rich Country. 

Wednesday, five in the morning, wee rode through a Rocky 
Country... the little Valleyes not fruitfull...few Churches and 
poore ones, playne Country — 

This day we passd through Montargig^, where stands an old 

Chasteau belonging to the Duke of Orleans The River is 

small and pretty meadowes ; boats made here.... 

La Buciere...a pleasant place, but barren... a little afore wee 
came to the next Ville or Bourge, which is small and Joyned to 
the Loyre^. Here is a Canall that was made about twenty yeares 
since, which Joynes the Loyre which is at Montargis. At the 
Mills are sluces to lett in the botes so they mount up hills. 
Les Escluses — sluices rose, they are filled, the botes passes. 

Briare*. Without the towne is the Cemitere...many Barren 
hills and dales in this fore noone passage to Bony^, a walld towne 
upon Loyre.... The Loyre is broad having much sands and wast 
ground, of every side unfruitfuU. Tis a rude Valley from Briare, 
and high hills every side the Loire, woodye, and the Country 
neither very pleasant nor fruitful^, abundance of Noyers, Walnut 
Trees, in this place neare Bony. ...Right against Bone, on the 
other side the Loyre, top of the hill in the province of Berry, is 
a pretty little bourg walld they call Beau Lieu, one Church — 
This night wee lay at a walld Ville they call Coane upon the 
river. Cone sur Loyre ^... The Ville is walld and draw bridged; 

1 See p. 125. Here follows a list of the books which Symonds left in Paris 
and of those which he took with him on his journey to Turin. 

^ Symonds' route from Paris to Briare was via Montargis and La Bussiere. 
Mundy and his party, travelling in the opposite direction, followed the Loire 
from Briare to Orleans and thence to Paris. See jjp. 121 — 124. 

^ Probably Gien is meant. See p. 122. * See p. 121. 

5 Mundy, however (see p. 123), found " the Countrey downe the River very 



a pritty River runs in divers places. Over against this on the side 
of Berry, on the sumity of a Mounteyne, is the httle Ville de 
Sainct Loire S which they call Papaute des Huguenots.... 

This morning, Friday, easily to dinner (by the Loyre side) 
at the Charite'. This passage was yet the most pleasant I have 
seene in France, for many meadowses and good Corne was in the 
level. The Loyre broad and full of shelves of sand. La Charite 
is walld, has three parish Churches, three howses of Religion, a 
Grenier du Sel and a President etc., is on the side of the hill, 
very well paved and cleane, none like it in all our passage. In 
the mountaynous hills round it are many vineyards, and below, 
walnut Trees and Corne. Here is a stone bridge^ goes from this 
Towne to a little island full of houses in the Loyre. Sandy way. 

Thence after dinner to Pougues ^, in the Winter a Dirty way 
and deepe, a Woody Country and a league or two from the Loyre, 
but in the high Rode to Nevers^ 

Last of Angus t....l^eh Nevers in the way to Lyons® Lay at 

Roanne'*, a large towne upon the River of Loyre ; all the howses 
have very flat broad Roofs and large Eves, the shops on arches of 
stone ; in the evening, shut. Wee passt it to the Chapeau Rouge, 
a very fair Inn. The people were sitting in the streets peeling of 
Hemp, burning of the stalks to give them light. The other chief 
Inn, which is the Loup, is accounted the best between Lyons and 

Paris The Botes, which are covered with Deale, go from Hence 

to Orleans six dayes^ which [?]^ they ask demy pistolP. ...The 
Custome is to sell a Bote here for i8 Livres, And the boatmen 
will carry one to Orleans tout express for i6 crownes''. The 

Boates go no higher up the River then 2 leagues Roanne has 

but one parish church.... 

^ Sancerre. See p. 121. ^ See p. 121 for the bridge at La Charite. 

^ Symonds travelled by road, while Mundy went by boat down the Loire, 
and would thus miss Pougues, which is not on the river. 

* See p. 120. 

^ From Nevers, Symonds went, via Moulins and La Palisse to Roanne, 
while Mundy followed the Loire, passing Decize, St Aubin-sur-Loire and 
Marcigny. See p. 120. 

® Six days was the time occupied by Pindar's party in the passage from 
Roanne to Orleans. 

'■ Word illegible. 

2 Apparently, per passenger. See note i on p. 223. 

^ Pindar only paid "Ten Frenche Crownes per boate." See p. 120. 


Thence, friday, ten of the clock, wee rode over a hilly 
mountaynous Country, not fruitfuU, yet having in the narrow 
valleyes many pleasant meadowes, though no Rivers.... 

That night Wee lay at Terrara^ in a hole, a little bourg, 

This next morning, being Satterday, wee passt a more pleasant 
Country, lesse hilly, more Chasteaus and buildings. At noone 
got into the mountayneous descent downe to Lyons. 

Lyons is very Rocky and mountaynous ground in that side of 
the towne We enterd, having a castle upon the lofty inaccessible 
Rock towards the River of Soane. A long street at bottome of 
that mountayne on the Soane side. Two bridges over the Soane. 
At the second Port was an officer to take our names, and where 
wee would ly, and where our Cloke baggs were opend. The 
Evesche' or Cathedral Church is not large nor very remarquable; 
tis dedicated and caled L'eglise de S. Jean. The Exchange for 
merchants^ all Soane side. Many steeples coverd with Tin. 
Some howses with divers colourd Tyles. The Belle Cour is a 
large flat, and Rowes of Trees, where the people sett and walke.... 
The River of Roan v/ith his swift streame runs on the south side 
of the towne; both^ meet in the lower end of the Citty.... 

I have not yet seene in all this Country [France] a man or 
woman with a pimpled red drunken face Nor a Puritan sqynt eye, 
very rarely.... 

Munday, 6 September, one of the clock, left Lyons, tooke the 
way of Turin, a playne pleasant way, sandy country having 
pleasant little seates [on the] sides of the hills. Seven leagues to 

Tuesday, 7 September. Through pleasant Valleyes, especially 
one where was the largest and fairest meadow I have seene in 
France, a castle, a chasteau, aloft on the hill and a handsome village 
below. Then between, some woody hills but the valley not barren. 
Many Chesnutt Trees in this passage. The Vynes which are but 
few are supported by strong crotches, seven or eight or nine foot 
above ground, then Fenced. Many Vynes run up into the lofty 
black Cherry Trees; many Timber Trees and Walnutts also. 

^ Tarare. See p. 119. 

^ Mundy speaks of the "great Traffique" at Lyons. See p. 119. 

^ i.e., the Saone and the Rhone. See p. 119. 

* Bolognie seems to be an error for Bourgoin. See p. 118. 


Wee dyned at Pont Bon Voisin \ two leagues and halfe on our 

journey The beginning of the Hills. This was the Hemp 

Harvest here, for all their brookes are stinkyfyd with that [?]^ 
Sadade de Gascogne. Two Sangliers heads over the door of our 
Inn.... Here wee rode over a pretty Large River that runs to 
Grenoble ^ Grenoble is five Leagues from this place and the 
Grand Chartreux is three or four. Over this bridge wee entred 
Savoy ^, where was a Guard who confirmed our Bill of Health. 
Wee ascended a lofty hill which is calld Le Montagne de Gibelet^ ; 
a pretty large. lake" afore wee came at it, many timbre Trees and 

Cottages and some small Churches Wee arrived at Chambery, 

a good Ville, the Chiefe of Savoy. The people call it Sambery. 

In the walls of this Citty and suburbs are three parish Churches 

The Howses are lofty and flat roofd'^ — The hills are lofty round 
and near the Citty. Kill Pigeons putting the head under a wing 
and throw it to the ground. The Inhabitants speak French, but 
most with a smack of Italian''. About twelve of the clock. Wee 
left this Citty and rode through the Valleyes over no mountayne, 
but wending up and downe in a pretty valley. Wee past many 
parishes, yet but five leagues that night... on the left hand we left 
a lofty Castle upon the Rock, inaccessible, commanding a pritty 
bourg below it, both calld Mont Mellian''; 1631, The King of 
France and Cardinal Richlieu in person beseiged it 14 moneths, 
after drew off sans rien faire, 500 men within it. Tis always 
victuald for three yeares. There are five places one above another 
that command each the other. The low walls have square 
musquet holes below the Top. A broad River ^" runs by this 
bourg. ...Wee lay at Egbelle". ...Here the Mountaynes are the 
highest yet, and snow melting and running downe, The Topp and 

^ Pont de Beau voisin. See p. 118. 

2 Word illegible. 

^ Symonds is mistaken. He crossed the Rhone at Pont de Beauvoisin, 
while Grenoble is on the Isere, which at this point is nowhere near the main 

* See p. 118. ^ i.e., Aiguebelette. Seep. 117 f. 

® The Lac d' Aiguebelette. See p. 118. 

^ See Mundy's description of Chambery on p. 116 f. 

8 See p. 114. 

^ The "Mummelan" of Mundy. Seep. 116. 

^* i.e., the Arc. 

^^ Aiguebelle. Mundy calls the place Gabella. Seep. 116. 


sides of the mountaynes full of wood The Embassaders armes 

of Venice and other Countryes are in the Inn or post howse^ 

It raynes almost alwayes on the top of the Mountaynes. 

Thursday morning, at seven o' the clock, wee sett out and got 
to our dining place by twelve, being four leagues and somewhat 
more. This passage was all on the sides of the Rocks, by a 
Rapid shallow strong roring River, called Lizere^, which goes by 
Grenoble, The mountaynes yet loftyer then the former, and a 
league in length ; they seeme to bee ready to fall on our heads. 
Many great stones were lying below. This River eates up the 
Valley^, yet there are Villages and small Churches on the sides of 
the Hills, the Sun shone from the early morning, yet came not 
on the South side of the way till about ten or eleven o' the Clock. 
Snow in some places on the top. 

Wee dyned at La Chambre*. Neare this is remayning a 
Ruyned old Castle, fortifyd, And a Wall afore wee caime to this 
towne from the Rock to the River to stop the passage, but not 
now of use. This journey I saw many of the villagers with great 
throats*, especially the women ; few children have it. Our Host 
here had a little gullet. I askt him the reason, and some said 
twas the Snow water. He laught at that, and said it was the Ayre ; 
he never dranke any Water in his life. Here Plums were hangd up 
by the stalks in strings, one not touching the other, thirty or forty 
in a string, which last and eat well at a year or two old. This is 
the middle of our Journey. The language here is chiefly French, 
but bad enough*'. Water they call De Leager; depessa for 
depesche, make hast; for ouy they say, Way, woy. 

After dinner by the River side, sometimes over bridges, some 
of large Arches. At a league end, wee came to the Bishoprick of 
St. Jean de Morian'', a pretty bourg or Ville till wee entred it, but 
within so close and stinking, being that the sun enters not by 
reason of the height of the bowses and broad Eves. Here is but 
one Church and One Convent of Capucins and two or three other 

^ Mundy "lay att the signe of the Ramme" at Aiguebelle. See p. 116. 
'^ Read L'Izere. Symonds mistook the Arc for the Isere. See note 2 
on p, 230. 

^ See p. 115. 

* Mundy does not seem to have stopped at this usual halting-place. 

^ Goitre. See p. 117. 

® See p. 114 f. ^ See p. 1 1 5 f . 


houses of Religion. Their Timber here is Sappin, and for Tables 
and Chairs, walnutt. Th[ey] are still by the River side\ the 
valley being still eat up by this roaring devourer. Some times a 
little church and two or three howses on the sides of the 
mountaynes. The Hills Rocky and high, Snow in some places. 
In all villages in the way in the Crosses is cutt a place where 
a little image of the Blessed Virgin is. Upon a bridge this — 
En passant par ce lieu, Salutez La mere de Dieu. 

Wee lay at St. Michel^, a close nasty bourg, four lieues 
distant from the last night. A Castle aloft comands it, small, and 
not much fortifyd.... 

The swelling of the Throat is cald De Gouetre^ ou Bron- 
chocesse, Latin Broconsolus. This landlord also was swelld, 
and he says tis not the eyre nor water, but a Rhume that falls 
from the head. Those that live above in the mountaynes have 
lesse or^no swelling. This River nourishes no fish but Des Truits, 
which are very good. . . . 

Friday morning. Wee rode by the side of the Rude moun- 
teynes and Hills, being fuller of Deale trees then the former. 
The rude River conteyning almost all the Valley "* 

Wee dyned at Modene^, a small Village, three lieues. After 
dinner, four leagues to Lanbourg®, a small village. In this way, 
wee saw Higher Mountayns with more quantity of Greene Trees, 
Vizt., de Pine and de Sapine ; They have no other greene Trees, 
as the inhabitants say. This was the most fearefull passage'', for 
the way was high oftentimes and the downfall hideous, The 
River runing at bottome, which many times could not be dis- 
covered, did it not discover it selfe by its noyse. Very many 
sappins of divers sorts and kinds. The Streight sort is of three 
kinds, broad tops and broad long leaves, two, smaller leaves, and 
another sort.... This is at the bottom of the two high mountaynes 
that exceed all the rest in this passage. Tis calld Mont Sinnys®. 
Now wee turne our way over this mountayne on the right hand, 

^ The Arc. See p. 1 15. 

^ Mundy dined at St Michel. See p. 115. 

^ See p. 117 and ante, p. 231. ^ See p. 115. 

® Modane. Mundy's halting-place was Bramant. See p. 115. 

® Lanslebourg. The Lambort of Mundy. Seep. 114. 

^ Mundy says that it was "wonderfull steeple." See p. 113. 

^ Mt Cenis. Seep. 112. 


leaving the River on the left hand. Here they call Claret Wine, 
Vin Ruggis, Corruptedly speake such kind of French as it is 
generally, though divers speake corrupted Italien^ Three 
Evesches in Savoye. March and Aprill are the most dangerous 
moneths to passe these wayes. 

We hyred horses Satterday morning, and mules, of purpose to 
mount the high mountayne. One descended in a Chaire for 5^-.^ 

A lake on the top^ Grasse mowing, hay in Crocks and Snow 

in great abundance. Lizards and Grasshoppers skipping and 
runing in the descent of the hill and was as hott as on the top it 
was cold.... 

Wee dyned at La Novaleze^ a small Bourg. Here wee had 
our title of health allowd. The river ^ descends into Savoye, 
which is the snow water melted, in as great violence as the other 
goes the other way to Grenoble ^ Now wee were at the bottome 
of the Great rocky mountayne that divides Savoy and Piedmont. 
After dinner, wee went with the River, in a Valley betweene the 
Rocks, and Lay at St. Ambrosio'^. On the top of the rock, near 
this bourg, is the building of a monastery of Benedictines, very 
rich. Here the inhabitants carried Dung to their ground in a low 
cart of four equal built wheales, drawn by two oxen. The people 
speake halfe French and halfe Italien corrupt. Five leagues this 

Next morning, being Sunday, to Turino, Ten myles, for now 
the account begins by Myles of This passage. Looking behind us, 
wee saw winter and felt it that day afore, and now by reason of the 
wind and fresh grasse, wee seemed to be in the spring, and anon 
in the height of Summer. Many Castles in Piedmont upon the 
frontiers. One which was on our right hand was besieged and 
had four armyes at one time at the siege and reliefe de Villiano^... 
The Vineyards in the way side are much different from those of 

^ See p. 114 f. 

^ Pindar also descended the mountain "in a chaire betweene two men," 
but in the contrary direction. See p. 113 f. 

^ See p. 113. 

* Mundy "lodged att the Posthowse " at Novalese before ascending 
Mt Cenis from the Italian side. See p. 112. 

^ The Dora Riparia, a tributary of the Po. 

" See anfe, note 2 on p. 230, and note 2 on p. 231. 

^ Mundy's halting-place was Bussoleno. See p. ri2. 

^ Avigliana. Mundy calls the place Viana. See p. iii. 


France. For a Row of maples growes in the Corne feilds, 
whereon the vynes run and hang, and these rowes in some pasture 
feilds grow within six or eight foot distant in two rows and the 
vynes are conducted upon poles betweene each other ^. Here 
the plowd land was deep ridges like ours in England.... The 
prospect of Turin is a company of dirty red flat howses, few or no 
steeples onely four towres coverd with Tin of the dukes palace. 

Turino^. A deepe grasse [?J^ and well fortifyd, A Cittadel 
entire next the Alpes sides. Entering the port, wee showd our 
bills of health, and the officers gave us a ticket of health to be 
intertayned at our Inn, And tooke note of all our names. At 
supper the servant of the Hostelrye takes all our names and sends 
them to the Governour. ...By reason of the Dutches of Savoy, who 
is sister to the late King of France **, the people here also as many 
French as Italian.... La maison de madame has many roomes 
furnisht with good peices of painting. All the Dukes of Savoy on 
Horseback in a large roome. All the Dutchesses at large with 
other ladyes in another Roome. Divers peices of painting upon 
board, St. John Baptist and a Jew, old and rare like N. Bruyns 
work. Some of Michael Angelo, Not many of Titian.... 

The Stable of the Duke is doubled pillerd within, of brick 
coverd with plaster, three horses between each pillar, poles going 
between each horse. The Manger differs from all I have scene. 
There is no Rack. But that which is our manger is the place 
where the Hay is putt, deeper and broader then ours, Lathed 
below, that the dust may fall downe, And that the Hay may not 
be blowne. There are three divisions for the horse to put in his 
head, that are made onely by crosse sticks. He eates his Gates in 
a small square box is made at one corner. A Division of deale 
Boards betweene every Horse. This, as all the Stables in France, 
and in their Accademyes, is pavd with Stone. The grasse about 
this Towne is broad and dry, many Gardens at bottome, walks of 
Brick like that at Callis of stone ^ 

1 See Mundy's description of the Italian vineyards on p. 105. 

'^ See pp. 109 — III. ^ Word illegible. 

* See p. 110 for the marriage of Christine, sister of Louis XIII., to the heir 
to the dukedom of Savoy, in 1619. 

^ The remainder of //arl. MS. 943, with the exception of the items of 
expenditure which follow, contains notes of places and buildings that have no 
connection with Mundy's narrative. 


To the Messenger of Nevers from Paris to Pougues, 9 Crownes, 
four nights. To the man, xii^. ; dyet and lodging 15 days at 
Pougues, at 52^. a day.... Dyet and lodging at Nevers at the Troys 
Carreaux at 30(/. a day... lost at cards, two pistols... lost at Tennis^ 
i.f. bd. To the fellow that playd the messenger for us from 
Nevers to Lyons, four dayes Journey from Nevers to Lyons, from 
Tuesday morning 8 o'clock, arrived at Lyons one Satterday 
afternoone, 30 livres, 30 francs. At Le feu de France in Lyons 
at ^od. a day To Tuesday noone, 7th September, two days; a 
Coach ride, 5^". ; priests dinner, \^d.; shoes, 50^.; To servants, 2od. 

To the Fellow for horses to Turin, being seven dayes, at 
3 pistols and halfe, 13 livres; in that Journey fiom Lyons to 
Turin at /^od. a day giving to servants and all 

To the Viturino or guide that went a foot and fed our horses, 
25^. ; gloves, 2od. ; Bootes setting up, 3 livres, 15 sols^ of Turin. 
Lodging and eating at the Rosa Rossa in Turin, three dayes at 3 
livres a day of Turin, 13 livres to a pistol of Spayne 

\^th September, from Turyn to Genoa, two pistoUs and halfe. 
Bill of health at Turin, 30^. ; Dinner by the way, an eg and a frog 
and ill wyne, 151^.... 

^ See pp. 98 and roo. 


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Du Verdier, Le Sieur. Le Voyage de France, par Jodocus Sincerus 

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Evliya Efendi. Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia and Africa in 
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France. Travel and Topography. 

Direction for some person who intended to travel into France 
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France. Travel and Topography {co?it.). 

A Briefe description of my travels taken by my selfe anno 

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A Journall of a voyage thro' France and Italy 1658 — 1659. 

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See also Clenche, J. ; Gentlemans Guide, The ; S. D. 
Fraser, Charles. See Naima. 

Gainsford, Thomas. The Glory of England ^ London, 1618. 
Galland, Antoine. Journal de, pendant son sejour a Constantinople, 
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Gentlemans Guide, The, in his Tour through France, wrote by an 
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Glanville, John. The Voyage to Cadiz in 1625. Being a journal 

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Grimston, Edward. The History of the Imperiall Estate of the 

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Hakluyt Society's Publications, See Bent, J. Theodore. 
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Hammer, J. (von). See Evhya Efendi. 

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" 943. See Symonds, Richard. 
1278. See Symonds, Richard. 
2286. See Mundy, Peter. 
6243. See Cornwall. 
6796. See Constantinople, Voyage k. 
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^ For the complete title of Gainsford's work, see Appendix E, p. 187, note i. 
^ For the full title of Grimston 's work, see p. 25 and Appetidix E, p. 182, 


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Italy. Travel and Topography. 

Account of a Journey over Mount Cenis into Italy with de- 
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A Brief Account of the Roads of Italy for the Use of Gentlemen 
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Nouveau Guide du Voyageur en Italie. Milan, 1829. 

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Johnson, John Willes. The Traveller's Guide through France, Italy, 
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Journall, A, of a Gentleman in the retinue of the Ambassador of the 
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Keane, A. H. See Cawston, George. 

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Keppel, Major The Honble. George. Narrative of a Journey across 
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La Mothe, M. C. J. de B., Countess d'Aulnoy. Relation du Voyage 
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Lascells, Richard. An Account of the Journey of Lady Catherine 
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Le Bruyn, Corneille. Voyages au Levant, c'est a dire dans les 
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1 For a fuller title of this work, see note 7 on p. 155. 


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Long, Charles Edward. See Symonds, Richard. 

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Peck, Francis. Letters with pedigrees and information, &c. {Add . 
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Philipot, John. A Perfect Collection or Catalogue of All Knights 
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Pinkerton, John. A General Collection of Voyages and Travels in 
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Pococke, Richard. Tour through France and Northern Italy, 1733 — 
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^ For full title, see p. i. 

^ See note 2 on p. i and Inti-oduciion. 

M. 16 


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Purclias, Sam. His Pilgrimes, &c. 4 vols. London, 1625. 

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Rawlinson MSS. A. 315. See Mundy, Peter. 

A. 414. See Harby, Erasmus. 

C. 799. See Bargrave, Robert. 

D. 120. See France. Travel and Topography. 
D. 197. See Englefield, Sir F. 

D. 207. See Bridges, John. 

D. 1285. See Abdy, Sir Thomas. 

E, B. An Epitome of All the Lives of the Kings of France. From 
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Record Office, The Public, MSS. at. See State Papers, Foreign 

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Sanderson, John. The Voyage of (in Purchas His Pilgrimes). 

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4217. See Lascells, Richard. 

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^ For the full titles of the ist and 7th editions of Sandys' work, see note 6 
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State Papers, Foreign Archives. Levant Company. 


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Stowe MSS. 180. See Stampes, Mr. 
gi6. See S. D. 

Struys, John. Voyages and Travels, Through Italy, Greece, Mus- 
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Symonds, Richard. Travels in France and Italy. {Harl. MSS. 943 
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Symonds, Richard. Diary of the Marches of the Royal Army during 
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Tavernier, J. B. Collections of Travels Through Turkey into Persia, 
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Taylor, Major John. Travels from England to India in the year 
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Tonkin, Thomas. Collections for the History of Cornwall. {Add. 
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Tournefort, N. A Voyage into the Levant : Perform'd by Command 
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Wadmore, Jas. Foster. Some Account of the Worshipful Company 
of Skinners of London. London, 1902. 

Wilkinson, Sir J. Gardner. Dalmatia and Montenegro: with A 
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1 For the full titles of Harl. MSS. 043 and 1278, see Appendix G, p. 217, 
note I. 

16 — 2 


Wyche Family, The. Notes on. See Peck, F. {Add. MS. 24 121.) 
Inventory of the Estate of Richard Wyche. See Harby, Sir 
Erasmus. {Rawl. MS. A. 414.) 

Yriarte, Charles. Les Bords de I'Adriatique et le Montenegro. 
Paris, 1878. 

Yriarte, Charles. Venise. Histoire, arts, Industrie, la ville, la vie, &c. 
Paris, 1878. 

Yule, Col. Henry, and Burnell, A. C. Hobson-Jobson. A Glossary 
of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases. New ed. 
London, 1903. 

Zinzerling, Jean. See Du Verdier. 


Abbeville, Pindar's party lialt at, 
xlviii, 132, 220 n. 3; description 
of, 131 ;?. 6, 132 «. 1, 220, 221 ; 
pistols made at, 132 7i. i ; churches 
at, 220 

Abbot, Bartholomew, passenger on 
the Koy ill Alerchant, xxiii, 14, 15 ; 
escorts Pindar from Constantinople, 
44, 45 ; takes leave of Pindar, 47, 
47 n. I 

Abbot, George, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, succeeds Bancroft, 136 11. i 

Abbot, Sir Morris, owner of the 
Rovall Merchant, xxiii, 15 n. i, 
166, 167 ; Chas. Vivian bound to, 
xxiii 11. 4, 15 «. 2 ; Governor of 
the East India Co., 15 n. i ; a 
member of the Levant Company, 
42 n. 5 

AbduUa Ckhaun ('Abdullah Khan), 
governor of Patna, 8 

Abdy, Anthony, a member of the 
Levant Company, 42 ;/. 5 

Abdy, Sir Thomas, Roger Vivian 
accompanies, on the Continent, 
xxiii 11. 4 ; his Travels (Razvl. MS. 
D. 1285) referred to, 117 n. 6, 126 
«. 3 

Absa. See Hafsa 

Abydos, castle, on the Asiatic side 
of the Dardanelles, 157, 157 «. 2, 
197, 198 

Account of the Roads of Italy referred 
to, 99 n. 3, loi n. 4, 106 n. 4 

Achin, a factory settled at, 9; 
Mundy makes two visits to, 9 

Adda, river, Pindar's party cross the, 
xliii, 106, 106 n. 2 

Add. MS. 10623. See Chiswell, 

Add. MS. 22978. See Pococke, 
Richard, Travels of 

Add. MS. 24121 (Peck's notes on 
the Wyche family), referred to, 158 
n. 3 

Add. MS. 27332, referred to, 93 71. 3 

Add. MS. 33420, contains extracts 
from Mundy's MS., Ixii 

Add. MS. 34177 (Journey over Mt. 
Cenis), referred to, 108 n. 5 

Add. MSS. 19278 — 19281, contain 
copies of Mundy's voyages to India 
and China, Ixi 

Adige, river, floating mills on the, 
72 n. 4 

Adrianople, Pindar's party halt at, 
xxviii, XXX, 49, 49 n. ■i,; a guard 
accompanies Pindar from Constanti- 
nople to, xxxiii ; the Grand Signior's 
house at, xxx, 49 ; description of 
the road from Constantinople to, 
45 n. 6, 46 n. 2, 48 71. 4, 184, 212, 
215, 216; Mundy's and other de- 
scriptions of, 49, 49 n. 4, 156, 211 ; 
description of the road to Philip- 
popolis from, 60 ; other names for, 
155, 156, 211 ; by whom built and 
repaired, 155 

Adriatic Sea, xli, 147 ; marriage of 
the Doge of Venice to the, 95, 
96 n. I 

Adventure, the, 169 

Agha. See Kdpi dgha 

Agra, capital of Hindustan, 4, 10 ; 
removal of the Court from, 4 n. 3 ; 
Mundy journeys to, 7, 8, 10; Shah 
Jahan's entry into, 8 ; description 
of, 8 

Ahmad L, Sultan of Turkey, im- 
prisons A. Garraway, 14 n. 11 ; 
grandson of Sulaiman I., 195 ; his 
sons, 22 n. i; appoints Mustafa his 
successor, 22 «. i ; Mundy sees, 32, 
33 ; his mosque at Constantinople, 
33 n. I, 35 n. 4; portents at close 
of his reign, 39 n. 4; Cossack raids 
in his reign, 63 n. i ; his treatment 
of the English, 177; number of his 
"virgins," 198; death of, xxiv, 21, 
22 71. I, 178 



Aiguebelette, Pindar precedes his 

attendants to, xlv, 117; Mundy 

dines at, 118; other spellings of 

the name, 115 n. 4, 118 n. 3 
Aiguebelette, Lac d', abundance of 

fish in the, 118, 118 w. i; Symonds' 

remarks on the, 230 
Aiguebelette, Mont d', Pindar's 

party cross the, xlvi, 117, 118; 

steepness of the, 118, 118 n. 2; 

Symonds ascends the, 230 
Aiguebelle, Pindar's party lodge at, 

xlv, 116; description of, 116 n. 2; 

Mundy's spelling of, 116, 116 n. 2; 

Symonds lodges at, 230; character 

of the country round, 230 
'■Ajenii-oghldn, 49 n. 4 
Ak Palanka. See Bela Palanka 
Alau'ddm III., confers insignia on 

Osman L, 64 n. i 
Alba Graeca. See Belgrade 
Albanian Alps, 79 n. i 
Alcadia, no English merchants at, 

Alcazar, the, in Seville, xxi, xxi n. 4 
Aleppo, xxiv, liv, 160, 173 
Alexander the Great, 19 n. 2, 55, 

154 n. I, 210 
Alexander III., Pope, inaugurates 

the ceremony of the marriage of 

the Adriatic, 96 n. i 
Alexandretta. See Scanderoon 
Alexandria, Symonds travels to, 

217 11. I 
Algarve, province, xxii, xxii n. 5 
Algiers, 45 n. 3 
Aliaga, confessor to Philip III., 

intrigues against the Duke of 

Lerma, 140 n. 2 
Alicante, Mundy touches at, 15 
Ali Sultan Khalifeh. See Biiriin 

Alleppo Merchmit, the, Mundy makes 

his third voyage to India in, xvi, 

xlii, lix, 10, 103, 103 n. 5 
Alps, Pindar's party cross the, xliv, 

112; towns among the, mean, xlv, 

Ambassadors, in Constantinople, 

Iv, 14 n. II, 22 n. I, 35 n. 2, 36, 

36 n. 3, 37, 41, 41 n. 3, 43, 45 

n. 6, 47 n. 3, 64, 65, 175, 180, 191, 

196, 214; in Venice, xli, 93, 108 

n. 6, 126, 126 n. 2 ; in Turin, xliv, 

109 ; in England, 92 ;z. 3 
Amboise, George d'. Cardinal, mini- 
ster of Louis XII., xix n. 3 ; the 

great bell at Rouen named after, 

xix n. 3 
America, 6 

Amphitheatre, at Verona, Mundy's 
description of, 101, 102; Sandys' 
description of, xlii, lix, 102, 103 ; 
Coryat's description of, 103 n. 4 

Amsterdam, Mundy's voyage to, 9 

Amurath IV. See Murad IV. 

Amusements. See Pastimes 

Anatolia, governor of, 62 w. 2 

Ancre, Marechal d', murder of, Iv, 
129, 129 n. i; his house in Paris, 
129 7t. I, 225 

Andalusia, fertility of, xxii 

Angel, The, inn at Sian, xliv, 109 

Angerville, Pindar's party reach, 
xlvii, 123, 123 ;z. 6; road from 
Paris to, described, xlvii, 124 

Antigonus, battle between Eumenes 
and, 154 71. 1 

Antoninus, column of, at Rome, 

Appendix, Mundy's, to his MS., 10; 
Mundy's, when added, lix, 10 n. 1 

Apsley, Sir Allen, recommends 
Lawrence Spike, 42 w. i 

Aqua dulce. See Fresh Waters, 

Aquapulco, Mundy's intended voy- 
age to, 6 

Aqueduct at Constantinople, 189, 
190 ; made by the Emperor Valen- 
tinian, 195 ; repaired bySulaiman I., 


Arabia, map of, in Mundy's MS., 
6 n. I, 30 n. 2 

Ararat, mts., 19 n. 2 

Arc, river, Pindar's party follow the, 
xlv, 115, 115 n. 3; rapidity of the, 
xlv, 115, 115 n. 3, 115 n. 4, 116 
n. 2, 230, 230 7i. 10, 231, 232 ; 
why so called, 115 «. 3 

Arcadius, Emperor, his deeds com- 
memorated on the Historical Pillar, 
34 n. 2, 196 n. 2 

Archangel, Mundy's travels to, 6, 
9, II 

Archipelago, the Greek, 20, 167, 
213, 214 

Armada, the Spanish, xx n. 6 

Armenians, at Constantinople, their 
churches, 25, 185 ; in Pindar's 
train, 43, 43 n. 4 ; occupations of 
the poorer class of, 76 ; intermarry 
with Bulgarians, xxxvi, 76 ; their 
spoliation of the Cordeliers, 199 

71. 2 

Arpajon (Chatres), road from Paris 
to, populous, xlvii, 124; Pindar's 
party lodge at, xlvii, 124; situation 
of, 123 ti. 6, 124 n. 2 ; when so 
named, 124 n. 2 



Arsenal, at Venice, the, Mundy's 
description of, xli, 93-97 ; other 
descriptions of, 93 n. 5, 94 n. i, 
95 n. I, 97 n. I ; how guarded, 96 

Artenay, Mundy's party pass through, 
xlvii, 123, 123 n. 6 

Arundel, Thomas Howard, Earl of, 
his sons study at Padua, 100, 100 
«. I 

Arz-oda, Hall of audience, at Con- 
stantinople, 36 ; by whom erected, 
36 n. I ; Tavernier's description of, 
36 n. I 

Ascension Day, ceremonies in 
Venice on, xli, 95, 95 n. 3, 96 ;«. i 

Asia, map of, in Mundy's MS., 
6 n. I ; the Hellespont divides, 
from Europe, 197 

Asper, aspero, aspre, 77 n. 2, 81, 
177, 186 ; value of an, 27, 81 n. 7 

At-maidan, the, at Constantinople, 
32, 34 n. I ; Sanderson's descrip- 
tion of, 32 11. 3; Grimston's de- 
scription of, 32 n. 3; Sandys' de- 
scription of, 32 n. 3 ; column of 
serpents set up in, 33 n. i ; the 
Egyptian pyramid in, 33 ii. 1 ; 
compared with SmithfieJd, 195; 
the ancient name for, 195 

Augustins, Convent of, in Paris, 

125 71. 5 

Augustus Caesar (Octavius), be- 
sieges Salona, 147 n. 3 ; defeats 
Brutus and Cassius, 153, 154 n. i 

Austria, 68 n. 4, 201 ; Duchy of 
Milan ceded to, 105 n. 8; contends 
with France for the Valtellina, 153 
n. I 

Avertpiller. See La Verpilliere 

Avigliana, Pindar's party lodge at, 
xliv, III; castle at, 1 1 1, 1 1 1 «. 5 ; 
description of, in n. 4; siege of, 


Avret Bazar, the, at Constantinople, 
29, 34, 186, 190, 194 ; for what 
used, 34 n. i, 34 n. 2, 196 n. i ; 
the Historical Column in, 196 

Ayachapezi, the holy gate, 185 

Ayamonte, Mundy goes to, xxii, 14, 
24; situation of, xxii, 14 «. 4; figs 
and oil exported from, xxiii 

Ayasophia. See S. Sophia 

Babaeskeesee. See Eski Baba 
Baden Treaty of, effect of, on 

Milan, 105 «. 8 
Badgers, in England, 5 
B air am, amusements at the feast of 

the, 58, 59; observance of the, 58 

n. 2, 184 

Bajazet. See Bayazld 

Balkan, mountains, xxxi, 61 ; robbers 
lurk among the passes of, 61 n. 3; 
separate Bulgaria from Roumania, 
209 ; other names for, 209 

Baltic Sea, the, Mundy's voyage to, 

9. II 

Banairaca, river, 204 

Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
succeeded by Abbot, 136 «. i 

Bantam, East India Company's 
factory at, 162 

Barbarossa, Frederick, defeated by 
the Venetians, 96 ft. i 

Barbary Corsairs, in the Mediter- 
ranean, 16 fi. 7, 171 

Barbyses, river, 44 «. 4 

Barcelona, market for pilchards at, 
137 n. 6 

Baretti. See Neuman and Baretti 

Bargrave, Isaac, Dean of Canter- 
bury, father of Robert Bargrave, 
215 n. "2 

Bargrave, Robert, his Voyages and 
Journeys (Rawl. MS. C. 799) re- 
ferred to, see notes on pp. 48, 55, 
56, 89, 90, 91, 96, 99, 137 ; ex- 
tracts from his Voyages andjmirneys, 
215, 216; son of Isaac Bargrave, 
215 n. 2 

Barnes, Sir Thomas, 49 n. 3 

Barton, Sir Edward, ambassador to 
the Grand Signior, his journey 
from Constantinople to Belgrade, 
47 n. 3 ; first resident ambassador 
at Constantinople for the Levant 
Company, 171 
Bashds, grandees, 21 n. 6, 29, 36 n. 
4, 49 n. 4, 64 7t. I ; Mustafa deposed 
by the, 21 ; of Buda, 75; riches 
of the, at Constantinople, 186, 
188, 189; houses of the, at Pera, 

Basing House, Mundy's visit to, xvi 
Bassano(Giacomo da Ponte), picture 

by, in the Louvre, 225 
Bastille, the, 224 
Batachin. See Batotschina 
Baths, at Constantinople, 29, 37, 37 
n. 1, 184, 190; Mundy's remarks 
on, in Turkey, xxxi, Iv, 53, 54 ; 
Blount's remarks on, 53 n. 2 ; at 
Belgrade, xxxv, 73, 74; at Sophia, 

Batotschina, Pindar's party dine at, 
xxix, xxxiv, 71; other spellings 
of the name, 71 n. i ; palangha at, 
7 1 «. I ; robbers in the neighbour- 
hood of, 7 1 «. I ; Des Hayes dines 
at, 203 



Battacala (Bhatkal), settlement of 
factory at, 9 

Baudier, Michel, of Languedoc, his 
work translated by Grimston, 25, 
183 n. 2 ; full title and contents of 
his work, 183 n. 1; born in Lan- 
guedoc, 183 «. 2. See also Grim- 
ston, Edward 

Bavaria, 201 

Bayazid II., mosque of, at Con- 
stantinople, 35 7t. 4 ; enlarges the 
Top-khdna, 39 tz. 1 ; size of S. 
Sophia in the time of, 194 ; defeats 
Selim at Chorlu, 212 

Bayonne, Muridy stays a year at, 
XV, xvii, 13, 24; Mundy's second 
visit to, 116 71. 5, 138, 139 Ji. 3, 
145; Mundy's remarks on, xx ; 
costume of the inhabitants of, de- 
scribed, XX ; expulsion of the Eng- 
lish from, XX 

Bazistdns, markets, at Constantinople, 
29) 37> 37 '«• 3- 185- 186, 189, 190, 
194 ; Mundy's description of, Iv, 
53, 54; various descriptions of, 
53 n. I ; at Belgrade, xxxv, 73 ; at 
Adrianople, 211 

Beamond, Farnam, travels in Pin- 
dar's train, 41; leaves Pindar at 
the Fresh Waters, 44 ; overtakes 
Pindar at Chorlu, 48 

Beaulieu, on the Loire, 227 

Beaumont, Mundy's description of, 
xlviii, 131 ; situation of, 131 n. 3, 
222; Symonds' description of, 222 ; 
distance between Paris and, 222, 
222 71. 2 ; character of the country 
surrounding, 222 

Beauvais, Pindar's party dine at, 
xlviii, 131 ; description of, 131 «. 6, 
221, 222 ; character of the country 
surrounding, 221 ; situation of, 
compared with Salisbury, 221 

Beglerbeg (begler-begi) , Bey of Beys, 
of Rumelia, 62, 62 n. 2, 152, 208, 
2 r I ; sends a guard to Pindar, 66, 
208 ; of Buda, transferred from Bel- 
grade to, 20I 

Bela Palanka (Musa Palanka, Ak 
Palanka), Pindar's party re-inforced 
at, xxix, xxxiv, 68, 69; other names 
for, 68 71. r, 205 ; Des Hayes halts 
at, 205 

Belgrade, arrival of Pindar's party 
at, xxxv, 1, 43 n. 4, 72; waggons 
hired from Constantinople to, xxxvi, 
44 ; post road from Constantinople 
to, xxviii, xxix, xxx, 45 7i. 6, 214; 
forests of, 48 «. 3 ; taken by Sulai- 
man the Magnificent, 52 n. i, 74 

71. 4, 149, 201, 201 71. i; Pindar 
hires a house at, xxxvi, 72 ; floating 
mills at, xxxv, xlvi, 72, 72 7Z. 4, 
149, I .so;?, i; Blount's remarks on, 
72 71. I, 149; PouUet's description 
of, 72 71. I ; abundance of fish at, 
xxxv, 73, 73 71. I, 200; buildings 
at, xxxv, 73, 200, 200 71. 3; castle 
and fortress at, xxxv, 74, 74 ;z. i, 
74 w. 2, 149, 150, 151, 200; Bus- 
bequius' description of, 74 7Z. i ; 
ferry-boats at, xxxv, 75 ; boats at, 
for transport of salt, 75; ordnance 
at, xxxv, 75, 200; Pindar hires 
horses at, xxxvi, 75, 81; governor 
of, 75, 201 ; Pindar's party leave, 
xxxvi, 78, 201 «. 3; Poullet's re- 
marks on the road from, to Sara- 
jevo, 80 7z. 5 ; time occupied in the 
journey between Valjevo and, 149, 
149 7t. 3; ancient names of, 149, 
199; graveyard at, 149; Zindana 
tower at, 151; Des Hayes' descrip- 
tion of, 199, 200, 2ot; route taken 
by Des Hayes to Constantinople 
from, 199 7i. 1 ; compared with 
Constantinople, 199; inhabitants 
of, xxxv, Iv, 201 ; description of 
the country around, 200 ; stations 
of the Orient Express between Con- 
stantinople and, xxviii, xxix ; time 
occupied in the journey from Con- 
stantinople to, xxix, xxxv, xxxvii 

Bell, Richard, his Joiir7ial {Sloa/ie 
MS. 811) referred to, 15 «. 7, 16 
71. 2, 17 «. 2, 17 ;z. 3; confined in 
the lazaretto at Leghorn, 17 ;«. 2 

Belonius, his estimate of the number 
of doors in S. Sophia, 194 

Bengal, 7, 10 

Bergasse. See Lule Burgas 

Bernay, Pindar's party dine at, xlviii, 
132; Symonds halts at, 220, 220 
71. I ; description of the country 
around, 220 

Berry, province, 227, 228 

Bessarabia, a portion of, called 
Bugdamia, 51 11. 1 

Bey of Beys. See Beglerbeg 

Beziers, in Languedoc, Des Hayes 
beheaded at, 199 7i. 2 

Biscay, province of, 138, 139, 139 

7t. 2, 139 71. 3, 142 71. I 

Biscina, ambassador at Venice from 
Savoy, 93 77. 4 

Bishopsgate Street Without, 
Pindar's house in, 1, 136 7i. 3 

Bithynia, 197 

BiyukChekmeje, Pindar's party en- 
camp near, xxviii, xxx, 46, 47 ; 



bridge at, xxx, 46, 46 «. 4, 215; 
other names for, 46 n. 4, 47 n. 3, 
73 «. 4, 164, 213; Sulaiman re- 
builds the bridge at, 195 ; Des 
Hayes dines at, 213 

Blackamoor's Head, The, at S. 
Jean de Maurienne, 115 

Black Notley, Richard Symonds 
born at, 217 n. i, 218 n. 5 

Black Sea, the, xxv, xxxiii, 20, 24, 
27, 47 n. 4, 62, 149, 183, 187, 191, 
195, 202 ; extent of, near Pompey's 
Pillar, 21; Sandys' description of, 


Black Tower, the, on the shore of 
the Bosphorus, 197 

Blackwall, coaches hired from, to 
IsHngton, xlix, 136 

Blau, Otto, his Reisen in Bosnien 
referred to, 80 n. 4 

Blount, Henry, his Voyage into the 
Levant referred to, see notes on 
pp. 21, 26, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 61, 
62, 63, 69, 71, 72, 74, 78, 79, 86, 
88 ; his route to Constantinople, 45 
n. 6, 49 n. 4, 146 w. 3 ; Mundy 
quotes from his work, Ivi, 11 n. i, 
146-157 ; full title and contents of 
his work, 146, 146 n. 2, 146 «. 5 ; 
account of, 146 n. 4 

Boar, wild, flesh of, palatable, 20 

Boats, at Belgrade, xxxv, 75 ; hired, 
from Calais to Dover, 134, 134 
n. 1 ; hired, from Gravesend to 
Blackwall, xlix, 136; hired from 
Roanne to Orleans, xlvi, 120, 228, 
228 n. 9 ; description of, at 
Roanne, 228 

Bodleian Library, the only com- 
plete copy of Mundy's MS. at the, 
Ivii, Ixiii 

Bodmin Priory, connection of the 
Mundys with, xiv 

Boesbec, Auger Ghislin. See Bus- 

Bonny, Pindar's party pass, 121, 
121 n. 6, 122 7t. 1; a. walled town, 
227; description of the country 
from Briare to, 227 

Bordeaux, 1 16 it. 5 ; Mundy passes 
through, 116 ;?. 5, 139 

Bore, on the Seine, Mundy's de- 
scription of, xix 

Boromeo, Carolus, Cardinal of 
Milan, canonized, 106, 106 n. 7 ; 
buried in the Duomo, Iv, 106, 107 ; 
description of his tomb, xliii, 106 
;/. 7, 107; Lithgow's opinion of, 
106 n. 7 

Borovaglava, plateau, Pindar's party 

reach the, xxxix, 84; other names 
for, 84 n. I 

Bosna, river, 82 n. 2 

Bosna Serai. See Sarajevo 

Bosnia, mountains of, xxxvi 

Bosnia, pasha of, 81 «. 6 ; Sarajevo 
the capital of, 148, 148 n- 1 

Bosnians, quarrel between the Ve- 
netians and, xxxvii, xxxviii, 81, 
81 n. 6 

Bosphorus, the, 183, 193, 194 ; ex- 
tent of, 197 ; castle on the shore of, 

Boulogne, Pindar's party lodge at, 
xlviii, 132 ; description of, 132, 
132 n. 8, 219; country around, 
compared with Cornwall, 219 

Bourg-la-Reine, Pindar's party 
reach, xlvii, 124; Mundy's and 
Coryat's names for, 124, 124 n. 5 

Bourgoin, Pindar's party dine at, 
xlvi, 118; called Bolognie by Sy- 
monds, 229, 229 n. \-j country 
from, to Pont de Beauvoisin de- 
scribed, 229 

Bramant, Pindar's party lodge at, 

Brampore (Burhanpur), 8 

Breda, Treaty of, xvi, lix 
Brenta, river, 98 n. 5 ; locks on the, 

98, 98 11. 6 ; country houses on 

banks of the, xlii, 98, 99 n. r 
Brescia, Mundy's description of, 

xliii, 104 ; sufferers from goitre at, 

xliii, 104 ; other descriptions of, 

104 n. 3 ; arms made at, 104 n. 3 ; 

subject to the Venetians, 104 «. 3 ; 

situation of, 104 ;/. 4 
Brett, Sir Alexander, testifies to the 

efficiency of Francis Lowe, 45 n. 3 
Briare, Pindar's party pass, 121, 121 

n. 8, 122 n. i; barrenness of the 

country around, 227 
Brioni, L, Pindar's party sail past, 

xl, 89, 89 n. 3 
Brissac, Louis XHI. reconciled with 

Marie de Medici at, 128 n. 4 
British Museum, the, copies of 

portions of Mundy's voyages at, 

Iviii, Ix, Ixi 
Brittany, Mundy's visit to, lii, 143, 

143 n. 7 
Brutus, defeated by Augustus Caesar, 

153, 154, 154 n. I 
Bucentaur, Mundy's description of 

the, xli, 95, 96 ; destruction of the, 

96 n. I 
Buckingham, Marquis of, recom- 
mends Sir John Eyre to the Levant 

Co., 179; incapacity of his nomi- 



nee, i8o, i8i ; his influence in 
Eyre's favour, 182; Gainsford's 
book dedicated to, 187 11. i 

Buda, xxxiii, 65, 85 «. 4, 150 n. i, 
201, 204; Bdshd of, 75 

Buffaloro, 107, 107 n. 2 

Bugdamia or Bugdania, 51 ; dis- 
trict designated by, 51 «. 1 

Bulgaria, 61, 62 n. i, 69 n. 5, 77 
n. 2, 151, 201, 214; how separated 
from Servia, 204, 209; compared 
with Servia, 206 ; Christian popu- 
lation of, 207 

Bulgarians, xxxvi 43 n. 4 ; costumes 
of the, Iv, 76, 77, 77 n. i, 207, 216 ; 
ornaments of the, 76, 77, 77 n. r; 
food of, 77, 77 n. 2, 206, 207 ; 
dances of, 77, 78; language of, 78, 
78 n. I, 207, 207 fi. I, 216 

Bull-fights, at Valladolid, 141 

Burgas. See Lule Burgas 

Burnt Column, the, 34, 34 n. 3, 
35; description of, 35 «. 2; erected 
by Constantine the Great, 196, 196 
n. 3; relics beneath, 196 n. 3 

Burun Kasim, ambassador from 
Shah 'Abbas to the Grand Signior, 
Iv, 65, 65 n. I ; his reception at 
Constantinople, 65 

Busbequius, A. G. (Boesbec, Auger 
Ghislin), his Travels into Turkey 
referred to, see notes on pp. 21, 34, 
35) 51, 52, 54' 60, 62, 68, 69, 70, 
72, 73. 74. 77, 78 

Bussoleno, Pindar's party dine at, 
xliv, 112; a halting-place for Mt. 
Cenis, 112 n. i, 233 n. 7 

Byzantium. See Constantinople 

Cadiz, Mundy's voyage to, 14, 24 
Cadiz, the Bay of, 14 n. i 
Caesar, Julius, his engagement with 

Pompey, 153, 154, 154 iz. i 
Caique, a boat, 28, 38 n. 2 
Cairo, Osman's intended removal to, 
22 n. r ; Blount's voyage to, 146, 
157 n. 4 
Calabria, Duke of, son of Rene of 

Sicily, no n. r 
Calais, Pindar's journey from Paris 
to, xlviii, 130, 131 n. 6; Pindar's 
party lodge at, 133; description of, 
xlviii, 133, 133 ti. 3; fortifications 
of, xlviii, 133, 133 n. 3, 133 n. 7; 
churches at, xlviii, 133, 133 n. 5 ; 
Pindar's departure from, delayed, 
xlviii, 134; mole at, 134; Pindar's 
party cross to Dover from, xlviii, 
xlix, 134, 136; packet-boat service 

from Dover to, 218 ; cost of passage 

from Dover to, 218; description of 

the country round, 219; Symonds' 

expenses to Paris from, 222, 223; 

"walks" in, compared with those 

at Turin, 234 
Calendar of State Papers, Colonial 

Series, East Indies, referred to, 

15 n. 2, 23 n. 4, 168 
Calendar of State Papers, Domestic 

Series, referred to, see notes on 

pp. 13, 42, 44, 45, 92, 139, 161, 

168, 182 
Calvaire, Mount, nunnery in Paris, 

Cambrai, 165 
Cambridgeshire, compared with the 

country around Poix, 220 
Camburgas. See Kumburgas 
Camden Society, Publications of 

the, Symonds' Diary of the Marches 

of the Royal Army, referred to, 217 

n. I 
Camels, 8 
Campbell, John, confined in the 

lazaretto at Leghorn, 17 «. 2 
Campi Philippici. See Philippick 

Canals, in Venice, 98 
Candia, Pindar hires a house at 

Venice of the Governor of, 91; 

taken from Venice by the Turks, 

91 n. 6 
Candyssh, Thomas, his portrait in 

Mundy's MS., 11 n. i 
Cannaregio, xli, 91, 91 «. 3 
Canterbury, Pindar's party lodge at, 

xlix, 135 ; Mundy's description of 

the cathedral and city of, xlix, 135; 

Symonds posts to Dover from, 218 
Canterbury, Archbishop of, Pindar 

entertained by the, xlix, 136 
Canton, river, 9 
Capello, Girolamo, governor of 

Candia, 91 n. 6 
Cape Merchant (supracargo), 8 
Caphila, Mundy's journey with a, 8, 

Capi Agha. See Kdpi agha 
Capoochee Bashee. See Kapiji- 

has hi 
Cappee Keoy. See Kapuli 
Caramoussal, Carmousal, Cara- 

mussale, a Turkish merchantman, 

38 n. 3 
Caratch, a poll-tax at Constanti- 
nople, by whom paid, 26, 186 
Cardinal's Hat, The, at Vercelli, 

xliv, 109 
Caristran. See Karistran 



Caroches, 1-29 n. 1; hired at Padua 
for Pindar's party, xlii, 100; defi- 
nition of, 100 11. 3 

Carpathian, mountains, 68 n. 4 

Cassanpasha Palanca. See Hassan 
Pasha's Palanka 

Cassius, defeat of, 154, 154 n. i 

Castello, Vincentio, a Greek, a 
member of Pindar's train, 43 ; left 
at Paris to wait on Dominico, 
xlviii, 42 71. 5, 130, 130 ;/. 4 

Castile, 139, 139 n. 3 

Castleman, Richard, travels in Pin- 
dar's train, 41 ; made free of the 
Levant Company, 41 «. 8 

Castro Marin, Mundy's visit to, 14; 
situation of, xxii, 14 n. 5; figs and 
oil exported from, xxiii 

Cat and the Bell, The, at Lodi, 
xliii, 106 

Catch, a, hired from Calais for Pin- 
dar's party, xlviii, xlix, 134; defini- 
tion of, 134 n. I 

Cathedrals, at Seville, xxi; at Milan, 
xliii, 106, 107 ; at Paris, see Notre 
Dame; at Canterbury, xlix, 135 

Catherine, the Infanta, wife of 
Charles Emanuel of Savoy, no 
n. 5 

Caucasus, mountains, 19 n. 2 

Cavalcaselle, Pindar's party reach, 
xlii, 103; distance of, from Venice, 
103, 103 n. 7 

Cavaletta, the, inn at Verona, xlii, 
loi, loi n. 5 

Cayalucke. See Kialik 

Caymalcam. See Kd^inmakan 

Cenis, mt., 112 11. i, 112 n. 2; 
Gainsford's description of, 112 «. 3, 
113 n. 5; Mundy's account of the 
crossing of, xlv, 113, 114; Lake at 
the top of, xlv, 113, 113 «. 2, 233 ; 
house built for Christine of France 
on, xlv, 113; height of, xlv, 113, 

113 n. 1; descent of, xlv, 113 n. 2, 

114 n. I, 148, 232, 233; inns in 
the district of, poor, 1x5 n. 6 

Certificates, of efficiency, from Pin- 
dar to his escort, xxxiv, 69; of 
health, xl, xli, 88, 90, 230, 233, 
234> 235 

Cesy, Monsieur de, French ambas- 
sador at Constantinople, xxvii, 43 
n. I 

Cettina, river, 84 n. i, 84 Ji. 7, 85 
n. I, 8^ n. 4.; Pindar's party cross 
the, xxxix, 85 

Chambery, Pindar's attendants lodge 
at, xlv, ri6, 117; description of, 
xlv, 116 7Z. 4, 116 «. 6, 117, 117 

n. 2, 117 n. 5, 117 n. 6, 230; 
language of the inhabitants of, 230 

Champion country, open ground, 
xxx, 50 u. 2, 60, 60 n. I, 153, 220, 

Change Alley, Garraway's CofTee 
House in, 14 «. 11 

Chapeau Rouge, Le, at Roanne, 

Chapman, John, . provisional am- 
bassador at Constantinople till 
Roe's arrival, 41 «. 3, 181 

Chardin, Sir John, his account of 
the Levant Co. quoted, 172-174 

Charles I. of England, Peter Wyche 
sent to Spain by, 163 ; George 
Sandys, a gentleman of the Court 

of, 192 71. 3 

Charles V., Emperor, 105 7t. 8; 
improves Valladolid, 140 ti. i 

Charles VI., of France, Pont S. 
Michel built in the reign of, 125 
w. I 

Charles Emanuel I., Duke of 
Savoy, 109, 109 71. 4; family of, 
no, no 71. 5, iro «. 6; his five 
sons, no, no ;?. 6; meets Pindar 
on Mt. Cenis, 113; his heir, 116 
;/. I 

Charleton, Mr, marries Anne 
Wyche, 164 

Chatal-Burgas. See Lule Burgas 

Chateauneuf-sur-Loire, Pindar's 
party pass, 122, 122 7i. 4 

Chatham, 135, 169 

Chatres. See Arpajon 

Chazvush., a, overtakes Pindar's 
train, xxxiii, 65, 65 71. 3 ; leaves 
Pindar at Pirot, xxxiv, 66 ; is over- 
taken by Pindar, xxxiv, 70 

Chelmsford, Mundy passes through, 
143; spelling of the name, 143 

71. 3 

Chequeen. See Sequin 
Chequers, The, at Canterbury, xlix, 
135; mentioned by Chaucer, 135 

71. 2 

Cherries, plentiful, at Valjevo, xxxvi, 

Cherso, I., xl, 88, 88 n. 5, 88 «. 6, 
88 n. 7 

Cheylas, compared with Janissaries, 
43 11. 2 

Chickin. See Sequin 

China, Mundy's voyage to, Iviii, i, 
2, 3 71. I, 6, 8, 9, II 

Chios. See Scio 

Chirmenli. See Hermanli 

ChishuU, his Travels /« Ttu-key re- 
ferred to, 31 71. 2, 33 71. I, 33 71. 1 



Chiswell, Richard, his Travels {Add. 
MS. 10623) referred to, see notes 
on pp. 89, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 

Chivasso, Pindar's party lodge at, 
xliv, 109 

Chorlu, Pindar's paity arrive at, 
xxviii, XXX, 47, 47 «. 4; Poullet's 
description of, 47 «. 4; other spell- 
ings of, 47 n. 4; three of Pindar's 
train rejoin at, 48 ; Blount passes 
through, 156; site of a battle be- 
tween Selim I. and Bayazid II., 
212 ; tortoises at, 212 ; Bargrave's 
description of the country around, 
215, 216 

Christine, of France, marries the 
Prince of Piedmont, xlv, no, no 
n. 4, 113, 234, 234 n. 4 

Christopher, The, at Beauvais, 131 

Churchman, John, builds the old 
Custom House, 59 ;/. i 

Cider, made in Jersey, 144 

Cilicia, straits of, 19 n. 2 

Clarke, Dr E. D., his Travels re- 
ferred to, 44 n. 4, 46 11. 2, 46 n. 4, 
47 11. 3, 47 n. 4, 48 n. 2 ; his route 
from Constantinople to Adrianople, 
45 n. 6 

Clarke (Clearke), John, travels in 
Pindar's train, 42, 43 ; released 
from quarantine, xl, 87, 91 «. 4; 
disinfected, xl, 87 ; hires a house at 
Venice for Pindar, xl, xli, 91 

Clissa (Kllsh), Castle, situation of, 
xxxix, 85, 85 n. 4, 85 w. 5; history 
of, 85 n. 4; taken from the Vene- 
tians by the Turks, 148 ; strength 
of, 148, 148 ;?. I 

Clocks, in Turkey, Mundy's remarks 
on, 74; Poullet's remarks on, 74 
n. 3 

Coaches, hired, from Orleans to 
Paris, xlvii, 123; hired, from Paris 
to Calais, xlviii, 130; convey Pin- 
dar's party from Blackwall to Isling- 
ton, xlix, 136 

Coins. See s.v. Asper ; Crown ; 
Ecu ; Lira ; Piastre ; Sol 

Coke, Thomas, in charge of the Earl 
of Arundel's sons, 100 w. i 

Colare. See Kolar 

Colchester, Mundy sent to, by 
Richard Wyche, li, 143, 145 

Cole, Mundy's journey from Agra 
to, 7 

Colossus, the, at Constantinople, 

Columns, at Constantinople, the 
Serpent, 33, 33 n. i, 185, 195, 195 
n. 4 ; the Egyptian, 33, 33 n. 2, 

195 ; the Historical, 34, 34 n. 2, 
196; the Burnt, 34, 35, 35 «. 2, 
196, 196 «. 3 

Constance, Thomas, joins Pindar's 
train at Padua, 10 1 

Constantine the Great, 29, 32 n. i, 
3.^ ''• 2, 34 n. 2, 35 71. 2, 184 ; 
builds and enriches Constantinople, 
189, 192, 193; sets up the Burnt 
Column, 196 «. 3; banner of, xxi 

71. 3 

Constantine's Column. See Co- 
lumns, the Burnt 

Constantine's Palace, wild beasts 
at, 37. 190, 196; descriptions of, 
37 «• 6 

Constantinople, Mundy's voyage 
to, XV, xxiii, liii, 3, 7, 10, 14-21, 
24; Mundy's journey overland to 
London from, xv, xxvii— xlix, 7, 10, 
41-136 ; events at, during Mundy's 
time, xxiv, xxv, Iv, 21, 22, 23; 
Mundy's remarks on, xxiv, xxv, 
xxvi, 25, 30-40; Sandys' descrip- 
tion of, 21, 26, 192-198 ; Grimston's 
description of, 25, 26, 183-186 ; 
Gainsford's description of, 27-30, 
187-192 ; various descriptions of, 
21 7i. t; earthquakes, fires, and 
plague at, xxiv, xxv, 39, 40, 190, 
192; ambassadors at, xxvi, Iv, 23, 
36, 41, 64, 65, 175-182, 196, 214; 
route to Belgrade from, xxxvii, 45 
7z. 6, 46 71. 2, 48 71. 4, 60, 199- 
214, 215; English merchants at, 
22, 44, 164, 176, 177; compared 
with London, 188, 191, 192 

Constantinople, river of. See 

Co7itii7iiacia, certificate of, granted to 
Pindar's party, 88, 90 ; Far la^ to 
perform quarantine, 88 71. 1 ; Bar- 
grave's allusion to, 90 7i. i 

Copper, contract of Richard Wyche 
and others for, xvi, 1, li, 138, 139, 
139 71.6, 161 ; suit at Valladolid 
regarding, 139 

Coprian, Signor, travels in Pindar's 
train, 42 

Cordeliers, the, Des Hayes sent 
to obtain restitution for, 199 

71. 2 

Cornwall, Mundy's native county, 

xvi, lii, Ivii, Ixi, 2 7i. 5, 13, 143; 

trade of, in pilchards and tin, xvii ; 

Mundy's description of, lix, Ixii ; 

compared with the country round 

Boulogne, 219 
Corpus Christi, feast of, 141 
Corvasco, 106 «. 5 



Coryat, Thomas, his Crudities re- 
ferred to, see notes on pp. 90, 91, 
92, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, loi, 102, 
103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, III, 
113, 114, 115, 117, ii8, 119, 121, 
124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 
^S'^i 133! 1^'s style compared with 
Mundy's, Ivii 

Cosne, Pindar's party pass, i2t, \t,\ 
n. I, 121 n. 4, 122 It. I ; Symonds' 
description of, 227 

Cossacks, their depredations, xxxiii, 
62, 63, 6^ n. I 

Cotroman, builds the castle at Sara- 
jevo, xxxviii, 8r «. 4 

Coulon, Le Sieur, his Fidele Con- 
diicteur pour le Voyage de France 
referred to, see notes on pp. 121, 
122, 125, 126, 127, 130, 131, 132, 
133 ; his Fidele Condiicteiir pour 
le Voyage d'' Espagne referred to, 
145 n. 6 ; his Rivieres de France 
referred to, see notes on pp. 117, 
118, 120, 122, 131, 144 

Courten (Curteene), Sir William, 
Mundy takes service under, xvi, 
lix, 8 ; sends a fleet to India and 
China, 8 

Court Minutes of the East India Co., 
referred to, lii, 145 n. i, 159 n. 3, 
160 n. 4 

Courtney, J. S., his Guide to Pen- 
zance referred to, Ixii 

Covel, Dr John, his Diary referred 
to, see Early Voyages in the Levant; 
his route from Constantinople, 45 
n. 6 

Crema, in Venetian territory, xliii, 
105, 106 n. 5 

Croatia, 68 n. 4 

Crown, The, at Pisieux, 131 

Crown, The, at Pont Reray, xlviii, 131 

Crowns, coins, value of, 130, 228 

Cunny, John, a member of Pindar's 
train, 43 

Currants, produced at Zante, 18, 18 
n. 3 ; the Levant Company's trade 
in, 159, 161 

Curut Chisme. See Qiirut Chesme 

Custom House, the, in London, 
situation of, 59 n. i ; burned down, 
59 n. I ; rebuilt, 59 n. i 

Custom House Quay, 38, 59, 59 
n. I 

Cydarius, river, 44 n. 4, 195 

Czabaoz, taken by Sulaiman the 
Magnificent, 52 fi. i 

Dallam, Thomas, his Diary referred 
to. See Early Voyages in the Levant 

Dalmatia, 81 n. 6; Pindar's party 
pass the shores of, xl, 88 ; Blount's, 
voyage to, 146, 147 

Dalmatian Alps, 84 n. i 

Dantzic, Mundy's journey to, 6, 9,, 
11; Mundy's description of, 10 

Danube, river, 71, 71 ;/. 5, 71 n. 6„ 
74, 74 w. I, 75 ; abundance of fish 
in the, xxxv, 73, 200 ; other names 
for the, 149, 149 n. 7; Blount's de- 
scription of the, 149; tributaries of 
the, 1 49, 150 n. I, 201 ; peculi- 
arity of the current of the, xxxv, 
149, 150, 150 n. I ; water mills on 
the, 72, 73, 149; clearness of the 
water of the, 150, 150 n. 2 ; how 
far navigable, 20a ; Des Hayes* 
remarks on the, 200, 20 1, 202 

Dardanelles, The (river of Con- 
stantinople), 20 n. 2, 20 n. 3; 
width of, 197; castle on the shores 
of, 197 ; see also s.v. Hellespont 

Dardanelli, castles, guard Constanti- 
nople, 157, 157 n. 2 

Darius, King of Persia, defeated at: 
Issus, 19 n. 2 

Davis, Cary, travels in Pindar's, 
train, 41 ; leaves Pindar at Kuchuk 
Chekmeje, 46; with Pindar's train 
in Paris, 46 n. 3 ; accompanies. 
Mundy to the Louvre, etc., xlvii, 

Davis, Henry, Mundy travels to- 
Spain with, 1, 138, 138 n. 3; de- 
livers letters to the Levant Com- 
pany, 138 n. 3 

Davis, Captain John, Mundy serves,, 
as cabin-boy, xvii, xviii, lo, 13, 14; 
perhaps the recusant, son of Wm^ 
Davis, 13 w. 5 

Davis, Captain John, of Limehouse„ 
a servant of the East India Com- 
pany, 13 «. 5 

Davis, Captain John, of Sandridge^ 
explorer, 13 w. 5 

Davis, Rice, Welshman, member of 
Pindar's train, 43 

Davis, William, of " Gracious Street,"' 
father of John Davis, 13 /?. 5 

De Beauveau, Henri, his Relation 
Journaliere referred to, 85 n. 4, 88. 
n. 3 

Deccan, the, 8 

Decize, Pindar's party lodge outside, 
xlvi, 120, 228 n. 5 ; description of, 
120, 120 n. 6 

Deems, John, member of Pindar's 
train, 43 

Delhi, capital of Hindustan, 4; re- 
moval of the Court from, 4 w. 3 



Delia Valle, Pietro, his Voyages re- 
ferred to, see notes on pp. 20, 21, 
23. 3i> 32, 33. 37> 38, 39' 40' 53. 
63> 64, 75 

Delphi, the Column of Serpents 
brought from, 195 ?«. 4 

Delrosse, Jacques, builds the Luxem- 
bourg, 126 n. 3 

Denia, Marquis of. See Lerma, 
Cardinal Duke of 

Denmark, Mundy's travels in, i ; 
Des Hayes' mission to, 199 Jt. 2 

Derbend, pass, 61 n. 1 

Des Hayes, Louis, Baron de Cour- 
memin, holds office under Louis 
XHI., 199 «. 2; his mission to the 
East, 199 11. 2 ; his route from Bel- 
grade to Constantinople, xxxi, 45 
Ti. 6, 199 n. I, 214; his escort from 
Nisch to Adrianople, 67 n. 2 ; his 
remarks on the current of the 
Danube, 150 n. i ; returns to 
France, 199 ?i. 2 ; sent on other 
missions, 199 n. 2 ; arrest and 
execution of, 199 n. 2; full title of 
his Voiage de Levant, igg; editions 
of his work, 199 n. 3; extracts 
from his Voiage, see Appendix F, 
pp. 199-216; his Voiage referred 
to, see notes on pp. 43, 46, 47, 49, 
51, 52, 54, 60, 61, 62, 66, 67, 68, 
69, 70, 71, 72, 73. 74, 75 

Diana, statue of, in the Louvre, 126, 

127, 127 «. I 
Dictionnaire Historique, Le Grand, 
referred to, no n. 6, 144 n. i, 144 
n. 2 
Dictumary of National Biography, 
referred to, 14 n. 11, 109 n. 7, 126 
n. 2, 146 jz. 4, 163 fi. 4, 178, 179, 
187 n. I, 192 n. 3, 215 71. 2, 217 
n. 1 

Dieppe, Mundy crosses from Dover 
to, 1, 116 n. 5, 138, 138 n. 4, 139 

^- 3) 145 

Dilly. See Delhi 

Dinaric Alps, 79 w. r 

Diocletian, Spalato built within his 
palace precincts, 86 n. 3, 147 

Dniester, river, Caspar Gratiani 
perishes crossing the, 51 «. 3 

Dogliana. mountains, location of the, 
83 n. 5; country between Sarajevo 
and the, 148; compared with the 
Alps, 148, 148 71. 2 

D'Oksza, Th., his Histoire de V Em- 
pire Ottoi7ia7i referred to, 64 71. i 

Doljanca or Doljani, river, 83 //. 5 

Dollar, value of a, 100, 100 71. 4 

Dolphin, The, at Poix, 131 

Dominico, Signer, Pindar's drago- 
man, 42 ; a Greek, 42 n. 5 ; taken 
ill in Paris, xlviii, 42 n. 5, 130 j 
recommended to the Levant Co. 
by Pindar, 42 71. 5 ; appointed 
secretary to Sir John Eyre, 42 «. 5 ; 
his services refused by Eyre, 42 
71. 5 ; writes a certificate for Pin- 
dar's escort, 69 
Domuz-dere, a village, 195 

Dora Riparia, river, 233, 233 n. 5 

Dos Hermanas, oil-mills at, xxii ; 
situation of, xxii, xxii 7i. 2 

Dover, passage from Calais to, xlviii, 
xlix, 134, 134 71. 4, 136; harbour 
and pier at, 134, 134 71. 5, 218, 
218 71. 3; inns at, 134, 218; 
Mundy halts at, on the way to 
Spain, 1, 138 ; Symonds' journey 
from, to Turin, 217-235 

Dowlany Hills, Pindar's party 
ascend the, 83, 84 ; what heights 
intended by, 83 71. 5 ; steepness of 
the, 83, 83 71. 6 

Downing, Captain Joshua, com- 
mander of the Royall Merchant, 
xxiii, 14, 167, 168; account of, 14 
n. 10, 168-170; inspector of cord- 
age at Woolwich, 168 ; inspector 
at Chatliam dockyard, 169 ; com- 
missioner of the Fleet at Ports- 
mouth, 169 ; his " Notes on the 
Navy," 169; unpopularity of, 169; 
overworked, 169 ; applies for his 
discharge, 169 ; illness and death 
of, 169, 170; his family, 170; last 
reference to, 170 

Downing, Joshua, son of Captain 
Joshua Downing, 170 

Downing, Martha, daughter of 
Joshua Downing, 170 

Dragoman, a Christian village, 206; 
Des Hayes misses the road to, 

Dragomans (interpreters). See 
Dominico; Gratiani, Caspar 

Drake, Sir Francis, his portrait in 
Mundy's MS., ri «. 2 

Drapers' Company, the, the Garra- 
ways, freemen of, 14 7i. 11 

Drave, river, 75 71. 3 

Dreadiioiight, the, 169 

Drina, river, 79 71. 4, 80 71. r, 80 
71. 3 ; Pindar's party ferried over 
the, xxxvii, 80 

Drubbing, a punishment for offenders 
in Turkey, =,7 ; illustration of, 55, 

Ducat, of Venice, value of a, 92, 

92 71. t 



Due Torri, the, at Verona, loi 
n. 5 

Du Loir, Le Sieur, his Voyages 
referred to, 36 «. 3, 36 n. 4, 37 n. i, 
38 ?2. 2, 40 «. I, 52 «. 5, 56 n. 3, 
88 71. 3 

Dumont, Le Sieur, his New Voyage 
to the Levant referred to, see notes 
on pp. 26, 33, 52, 53, 56, 57, III, 
113, 115 and 117 

Dunkirk, Bargrave travels from Con- 
stantinople to, 215 

Duny, river. See Danube 

Duomo of Milan. See Cathedrals 

Dutch, the, lose ships in a storm, 

Du Verdier, his Voyage de France 
referred to, see notes on pp. 115, 
120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 

i.3o> 131. 132 
Duvno Polje, 84 n. 5 
Dw^ina, river, Mundy's intended 

journey up the, 6 

Eagle, the, Sir John Eyre's goods 
laden on, 181 

Eagle and Horn, the, at Malegnano, 
xliii, 106 

Early Voyages to the Levant referred 
to, see notes on pp. 15, 16, 17, 18, 
19, 20, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 164 

Earthquakes, at Zante, 18 ;z. 3, 19; 
at Constantinople, 23 n. 3, 29, 39, 

East India Company, the, Mundy's 
petition to the Directors of, lii ; 
Sir Henry Garraway, a Director of, 
liii, 14 «. 11; Clement and Job 
Harby, Directors of, liii ; Sir Morris 
Abbot, Governor of, 15 n. i ; 
Mundy entertained as factor by, 
xvi, 1, lii, liii, liv, 8, 144, 144 n. 6, 
145 7z. I ; connection of Richard 
Wyche, senior, with, 159, 161; con- 
nection of the family of Richard 
Wyche with, 162, 164, 165; com- 
pared with the Levant Company, 
172; rise of the, 172; records of, 
referred to, see Court Mitmtes; 
Factory Records 

East Indies, the, Mundy's voyages 
to, liv, Ixi, I, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, II 

East Sea. See Baltic Sea 

Ecus (French Crowns), 120, 120 n. 3, 

Edward, a footman, a member of 

Pindar's train, 43 
Edward the Black Prince, tomb 

of, in Canterbury Cathedral, 135 

Egypt, Blount's voyage to, 146, 156; 
Sandys' travels in, 192 «. 3; Con- 
stantine's Column brought from, 


Elizabeth, Queen of England, sends 
emissaries to Turkey, 171 ; inau- 
gurates the Levant Company, 171, 

Ellis, Edward, emissaiy to Murad 
III., 171 

Emanuell, a Greek, travels in 
Pindar's train, 43 

England, 5, 8 ; Mundy's travels in, 
xvi, I, 9, 10, II 

Englefield, Sir Francis, his Travels 
{Rawl. MS. D. 197) referred to, 
119 n. 5, 125 n. 5, 128 n. 3, 129 
n. 4, 138 n. 4 

English, the, expelled from Gascony, 


English Channel, xlviii 

English merchants, their life at 
Constantinople, xxv, 22 ; at Con- 
stantinople, reside at Pera, xxviii, 
22 n. 2, 44 ; at Leghorn and in the 
Islands of the Mediterranean, 16, 
17 «. I 

Ensigns and Flags, Turkish, 65 

Eski Baba, Pindar's party pass by, 
xxviii, 48 ; other spellings of the 
name, 48 w. 4 ; Des Hayes halts at, 
212; country between Adrianople 
and, described, xxx 

Essex, gates in, compared with doors 
in Picardy, 220 

Etampes, Pindar's party dine at, 
xlvii, 123, 123 n. 6, 124 

Eumenes, battle between Antigonus 
and, 154 7z. i; death of, 154 w. r 

Europe, map of, in Mundy's MS., 
6 71. I, i[ 7t. 2, 146 71. I ; Mundy's 
travels in, i, 7, 9, 10, 11 71. 2; 
Bargrave's travels in, 215 n. 2 

Europeans, unpopularity of, at 
Sarajevo, xxxvii, 81 

Eurydice, lamented by Orpheus, 
152, 152 n. 5, 209 

Euxine. See Black Sea 

Evagrius, his estimate of the dimen- 
sions of S. Sophia, 194 

Evan. See Ivan 

Evliya Efendi, his T7-avels zV? 
Etu-ope referred to, see notes on 

PP- 31. 32, 33> 34. 35. 37. 39. 4© 
Expedition, the, Mundy sails on, for 

Sural, xvi, liv, Ivii, 7 
Eyre, Edward, nephew of Sir John 

Eyre, 182 
Eyre, Sir John, son of Sir William 

Eyre, 179; recommended as am- 



bassador by Buckingham, 179; the 
Levant Company compelled to ap- 
point as ambassador, 179, 180; 
Dominico chosen as secretary for, 
and refused by, 42 n. 5 ; succeeds 
Pindar at Constantinople, xxvi, 23, 
23 7t. 6, 41, 42 n. 5, 179, 180, 181; 
pays his respects to the Grand 
Signior, 36; his incapacity and un- 
popularity, 181; his conduct com- 
plained of, 181; is recalled to 
England, 23 n. 6, 41 n. 3, 181; 
his defence, 181 ; his claims re- 
ferred to the Privy Council, 182; 
death of, 182- 
Eyre, Sir William, of Great Chauld- 
field, Peccasod, father of Sir John 
Eyre, 179 

Factory Records, Surat, referred to, 

165 71. I 

Falkland, Lord, a friend of George 
Sandys, 192 n. 3 

Falmouth, Mundy's voyages to and 
from, xvi, 11, 145; an important 
seaport in the 17th century, xvii, 

Fanfani, Pietro, his Vocabolario re- 
ferred to, 88 n. 2 

Fardles, of indigo, 8 ; of saltpetre, 8 

Fasana, Canale di, Pindar's party 
pass through the, xl, 89, 89 n. 4 

Ferdinand IL, Emperor of Ger- 
many, ordnance taken from, by 
the Turks, 75, 150, 150 n. 3 

Feria, Duke of, governor of Milan, 
Pindar exchanges visits with, xliii, 
106; death of, 106 11. 5 

Ferronerie, Rue de la, Henri IV. 
murdered in the, 129, 129 n. 2; 
situation of, 129 n. 2 

Feu de France, Le, at Lyons, 

Filibe. See Philippopolis 
Finch, Sir John, 49 n. 3 
Finland, 1 1 
Fires,- at Constantinople, xxiv, 29, 

39, 40, 190 
Fish, abundance of, at Scanderoon, 

20; at Belgrade, xxxv, 73, 73 n. i 
Fisher, Thomas, pi'esents a copy of 

Mundy's MS. to the India Office, 


Florence, 17; Duke of, 17 ;?. i 
Forde (Foord), Mr, chaplain at 
Constantinople, 175; a successor 
requested in place of, 175 
Fountains, number of, at Constan- 
tinople, 25, 184; erected by Turks 
for travellers, 216 

France, Mundy's travels in, Ixi, r^ 
116 n. 5, 1 19-134, 138, 139 n. 3, 
139 n.\; map of, in Mundy's MS., 
116 n. 5, 121 n. 8; 122 n. 5, 
139 71. I ; how divided from Savoy, 
118; contends with Austria for the 
Valtellina, 153 it. i; Symonds' 
notes on, 217 ;z. i 

Francis I. of France, founds the 
port of Havre, xviii «. 4 

Francis de Gonzaga, Duke of 
Mantua, marries Margaret of Savoy, 
no 71. 5 ; death of, 1 10 «. 5 

Francis of Roxas and SandwaL 
See Lerma, Cardinal, Duke of 

Frangoise-Catherine, of Savoy, a 
nun, no 71. 5 

Franks, the, quarrel of the Bosnians- 
with, xxxvii, xxxviii, 81 

Freeman, John, recommended as 
Consul at Smyrna to succeed 
Greene, 44 71. 6 

Freeman, Ralph, member of the 
Levant Company, 42 7i. 5 

Freight, charges for, on the Royall 
Merchant, 166, 167 

Fremlen, William, representative of 
the East India Company at Agra, 
7 ; sends Mundy from Agra to 
Surat, 8 

French crowns. See Ecus 

Frenchmen, six, accompany Pindar's 
train, xxvii, 43 ; the six, travel in 
carts, 44 ; the six, hire a boat from 
Spalato, xl, 88 

Fresh waters, the, near Pera, xxviiij 
44' 44 n. 4, 47 71. 3, 48 71. I 

Frith, a hurdle, 68, 68 n. 2 

Fumahone, at mouth of Canton R., 

Gabella. See Aiguebelle 
Gabelletta. See Aiguebelette 
Gabinian way, the, a pass over the 

Prologh Mts., 84 71. I 
Gainsford, Thomas, Mundy quotes 
from his Glory of E7iglaitd, Ivi, 
27-30; Mundy's style compared 
with that of, Ivii; his Glory of 
E7igla7id referred to, see notes on 
pp. 3, 18, 20, 27, 39, 43, 50, 51, 62, 
63, 65, 67, 99, 104, 112, 113, 115, 
116, 121; his description of Con- 
stantinople, 27-30, 187-192; full 
title of the work of, 187 n. i; 
epitome of the life of, 187 7i. i 
Galata, a suburb of Constantinople, 

xxvii, 25, 29, 31 71. I, 38, 38 7t. I, 

44 71. 4, 57, 185, 215; English 
merchants from, escort Pindar, 



xxvii, 44, 46, 47, 172; description 
of, 190, 196, 197; inhabitants of, 

Galland, Antoine, his Journal re- 
ferred to, 64 n. I 

Galleass, Galliass, Galliegross, at 
Pola, xli, 89; description of a, 89, 
89 M. 5, 89 n. 6 ; built at the 
arsenal at Venice, 95 n. i ; of State, 
see Hucentaur 

Galleons, Spanish, off Cape St 
Vincent, 16 

Galleys, built at the arsenal at 
Venice, 93, 95 n. i ; sails of, made 
by women, 94, 94 //. i ; Venetian, 
ply between Spalato and Venice, 


Gallipoli, 157 

Ganges, river, Mundy's journey to 
the, 10 

Garda, lake, ships on, xlii, 104; 
extent of, 104, 104 n. i 

Garraway, Anthony, merchant in 
Constantinople, 14 /«, 11 

Garraway, Arthur, a prisoner in 
Constantinople, 14 ;/. 11 

Garraway family, the, account of, 
14 ;/. 1 1 

Garraway, Sir Henry, son of Sir 
Wm. Garraway, a director of the 
East India Company, liii; freeman 
of the Drapers' Company, 14 w. 11 ; 
Lord Mayor of London, 14 «. 11; 
director of the Levant Company, 
14 11. II, 42 n. 5 

Garraway, James, passenger on the 
Royall Merchant, xxiii, 14; pro- 
bable parentage of, 14 n. 1 1 

Garraway, Thomas, son of Sir 
William Garraway, 14 n. 11; 
original proprietor of Garraway's 
coffeehouse, xxiii, 14 n. 11; the 
first retailer of tea, 14 w. 11 

Garraway (or Garway), Sir William, 
head of the family, 14 n. 11 

Garraway, William, son of Sir 
William Garraway, 14 n. 11; a 
director of the East India Com- 
pany, liii, liv; Mundy's connection 
with, liii, liv ; dies in Persia, liv 

Garraway's Coffee-house, 14 n. 11 

Garway family, the. See Garraway 
family, the 

Gascony, Mundy's first visit to, xx, 
13, 24; lost by the English, xx, 
Iv; Mundy's second visit to, 138 

Gaston-Jean-Baptiste de France, 
Duke of Orleans, 124, 124 «. 7 

Gaul, map of, in Mundy's MS., 
6 n. I 

Gaunches or Ganches, description 

of, 55, 55 "• 5, 56 

Gaunching, a punishment for male- 
factors in Turkey, Iviii, 55; de- 
scription of, Iviii, 56; illustration 
of, -:.^, 58 

Gemoniae, the Zindana at Belgrade 
compared with the, 151, 151 n. i 

Genoa, Symonds' journey to, 2i7«. i ; 
Symonds' expenses from Turin to, 


Gentleman'' s Guide, The, m his Tour 
through France referred to, 114 
n. 1, 115 n. 6, 117 n. 1, 124^ n. 1 

George d'Amboise, name of the 
great bell at Rouen, xix ; descrip- 
tion of, xix; inscription on, xix; 
when melted down, xix ;/. 3 

Gergeau, Gerseau. ^i?^ Jargeau 

German Empire, extent of the old, 
148 n. 5 

Gibraltar, Mundy touches at, 15 

Giedicula. See Yedi Kiile 

Gien, Pindar's party lodge at, xlvii, 
122; description of, 122 n. i, 227, 
227 n. 3; a Protestant town, 122, 
122 n. I ; retaken by the Catholics, 
122 n. I 

Giralda, the, at Seville, Mundy's 
description of, xxi, 97 

Giraldillo, the, on the Giralda, de- 
scription of the, xxi, xxi n. 3 

Gladiators, combats of, in amphi- 
theatres, 102 

Glanville, John, his Voyage to Cadiz 
referred to, 14 «. i 

Glascock, Henry, factor, 8 

Glasney College, Cornwall, Mundy's 
grandlather "chantor" of, xiii, xiv 

Glover, Sir Thomas, his account of 
Barton's journey, 47 n. 3 ; ambas- 
sador at Constantinople, 50 n. 2, 
171, 175; nominated for re-appoint- 
ment as ambassador to Constanti- 
nople, 180, 180 n. 2 

Goa, Mundy's voyage to, 9 

Goitre, sufferers from, at Brescia, 
xliii, 104; cause of, 104, 231, 232; 
prevalence of, in the Alps, xlv, Iv, 
117, 117 71, 5; Symonds' remarks 
on, 231, 232 

Golden Apple, the, at Chambery, 
xlv, 117 

Golden Gate, the, at Constantinople, 
32 n. 2, 193 n. 2 

Golden Head, the, at Calais, 133 

Golden Horn, the, at Boulogne, 
132 n. 7, 219 

Golden Lion, the, at Chivasso, 
xliv, 109 




Golden Star, the, at Padua, xlii, 99, 

99 '>^- 3 
Gondolas, xlii, 96 n. i, 97, 98, 

98 n. I 

Granada, Mts. of, xxi 

Grande Chartreuse, La, 230 

Grand Malligan. See Malaga 

Grand Signior, the, 10, 21, 25; 
permits Pindar to return to Eng- 
land, 23; his reception of ambas- 
sadors, xxvi, 36, 36 n. 4, 37, 214; 
his orders for Pindar's safe conduct, 
xxxiii, 67 ; his presents to ambas- 
sadors, 36 11. 3 ; ambassadors to, 
46 n. 2, 65, 65 n. I ; his seraglio 
at Adrianople, 49, 49 n. 4, 156; 
gift from Shah 'Abbas to, 65, 
65 n. I ; his treasure in Belgrade 
castle, 151; his stable for camels 
at Philippopolis, 155; his galleys 
at Constantinople, 196 

Gratiani, Caspar, rise and downfall 
of, Iv; dragoman to Glover and 
Pindar, xxxi, 50, 50 n. 2, 51 ; 
obtains Sir Thomas Shirley's re- 
lease, 50 n. 2 ; envoy to the 
Emperor Matthias, 50 ii. 2 ; Voi- 
vode of Moldavia, xxxi, 50 n. 2, 
5 1 ; his brother and sister become 
Muhammadans, 50 n. 2 ; Lithgow 
meets with, 50 n. 2 ; made Duke of 
Naxia, 5 1 ; intrigues with Sigismund 
of Poland, 51 w. 3; is deposed, 51 
n. 3 ; perishes at the battle of Jassy, 
51 w. 3 ; another version of his end, 
51 n. 3 

Gravelines, 133, 133 n. 2 

Gravesend, Pindar's party lodge at, 
xlix, 135; waggon hii-ed from Dover 
to, xlix, 135 boats hired from, to 
Blackwall, 136; Mundy halts at, 
on the way to Spain, 138 ; Symonds 
travels from London to, by barge, 
218; coach service to Canterbury 
from, 21S 

Grayhound, the, at Boulogne, xlviii, 
132, 219 n. 2; at Dover, xlix, 134, 
134 ;z. 6, 218, 218 n. 2 

Great Sapphire, the, report of her 
condition, 169 

Greece. See Rumelia 

Greeks, at Constantinople, 198 ; their 
churches, 25, 185; in Turkey, pay 
a poll-tax, 26, 26 n. i, 186; in 
Belgrade, 74 n. i 

Greene, Lawrence, junior, Mundy 
remains with, at Constantinople, 
XXV, xxvi, xlix, 23, 23 11. 4; pi'O- 
bable parentage of, 23 n. 4; his 
property in Virginia, 23 11. 4 ; 

escorts Pindar from Constantinople, 
44, 47, 47 n. r ; succeeds Salter as 
Consul at Smyrna, xxv, 44 n. 6; 
dispute about the salary of, 44 «. 6 ; 
case of, supported by the King, 
44 n. 6; petition of, detailing his 
services, 44 n. 6 

Greene, Lawrence, senior, director 
of the Levant Company, 23 n. 4; 
agent for chaplains of the Levant 
Company, 23 n. 4; member of a 
committee of the East India Co., 
23 11. 4; death of, 23 n. 4 

Greenland, trading company to, 

Grenoble, 230, 230 n. 3, 231 

Gretia. See Rumelia 

Grimston, Edward, his translation 
of Michel Baudier's History of the 
Imperiall Estate of the Grand 
Seigneurs referred to, 22 n. i, 25, 
25 n. I, 30 n. 2, 32 n. 3, 62 n. 2, 
63 71. 3 ; Mundy's quotations from 
his work, Ivi, 25-27 ; his descrip- 
tion of Constantinople, 183-186; 
dedication of his work, 183 n. 2; 
full title of his work, 25 n. i, 
183 7Z. 2 

Grimston, Sir Harbottel, nephew of 
Edward Grimston, 183 n. 2 

Grisons, the, 153 n. i 

Grotzka, Pindar's party halt near, 
xxix, xxxv, 71 ; palangha and 
khans at, xxxv, 71 ; a man staked 
at, 71, 72 ; other names for, 71 n. 5, 
201, 201 w. 4; Des Hayes halts at, 
201 ; situation of, 201 

Guadalquiver, river, xvii, xxi n. i, 
14 n. I 

Guadiana, river, xviii, xxii, xxii n. 3, 
14 n. 4 

Guier, river, boundary between 
France and Savoy, 118, 118 «. 4 

Guilliams (or Gwilliams), Abell, 
merchant, escorts Pindar from 
Constantinople, 45, 47, 47 n. i ; 
apprenticed to John Williams, 
xxvii n. 3; made free of the 
Levant Company, xxvii 11. 3 

Guipuzcoa, province of, 138 

Gujarat, 7 

Guzman, Alonso Perez de, Duke of 
Medina Sidonia, retires to and dies 
at Sanlucar, xx, xx n. 6 ; commands 
the Spanish Armada, xx, xx n. 6 

Hadrian, Emperor, rejDairs Adrian- 
ople, 155, 211 

Hafsa, or Khafsa, Pindar's party 
halt at, xxviii, xxxi, 49; bridge at, 



xxxi, 49 ; other spellings of the 

name, 48 n. 4, 49 n. i; Des 

Hayes' description of, 212; kkdn 

and mosque at, 212 
Halles, Rue des, in Paris, 129 n. 1 
Hamburg, Mundy's voyage to, 11 ; 

trading company of, 172 
Hammer, J. (von), his Histoire de 

r Empire Ottoman referred to, 50 

n. 2, 51 71. 3, 64 71. I 
Hanging, how performed in Turkey, 


Hans. See KIid7is 

Hapsburg, Spanish line of, rulers of 
Milan, 105 71. 8 

Harby, Clement, cousin of Richard 
Wyche, senior, liii, 160, 163 

Harby, Sir Erasmus, son of Job 
Harby, 164 

Harby, Sir Job, Mundy's connection 
with, liii ; brother-in-law of Richard 
Wyche, liii, 138 «. i ; son-in-law of 
Richard Wyche, senior, liii, 160 ; 
executor to the will of Richard 
Wyche, liii, 161 ; marries Elizabeth 
Wyche, 163; knighted, 164; made 
a baronet, 164 ; bequest to, 164 

Harby, Lady. .S't'i? Wyche, Elizabeth 

Harebone, William, emissary to 
Murad III., 171 

Harl. MS. 288 {Dt7'ectio7is to 
Travelle7-s), referred to, 100 n. 2, 
loi n. 2, lor 7t. 6, 104 n. i, 104 7i. 3 

Harl. MS. 943 {Note-book of Richard 
Symo7ids), contents of, 217 7t. i, 
234 71. 5; duplicate copy of, 218 
11. 5; quoted, 218-224, 227-235 

Ha7-l. MS. 1278 (Note-book of H. 
Symonds), quoted, 224-226 

Harl. MS. 2286, history and descrip- 
tion of, Iviii, Ix, Ixi ; discrepancies 
between Rawl. MS. A. 315 and, 
see notes on pp. i, 2, 7, 8, 13, 14, 
15, 16, 20, 23, 41, 55, 56, 57, 59, 
64, 83, 84, 95, lor, 106, 117, 119, 
123, 125, 132, 136, 137, 138, 139, 
141, 142, 143, 144, 145 

Harl. MS. 6243, referred to, xiv 71. i 

Ha7-l. MS. 6796 ( Voyage de Fi-a7ice a 
Cot2sta7ititiople), referred to, 150 n. i 

Harleia7i Miscella7ty, the, vol. v., 
referred to, 94 71. i, 99 w. 3, 106 

71. 4 

Harlots, punishment of, in Turkey, 


Harvey, Roger, Henry Hunt appren- 
ticed to, xxvii 71. 3 

Hassan Pasha's Palanka, Pindar's 
party lodge in a khd7i at, xxix, 
xxxiv, 71 ; other names for, 71 ;?. 2 ; 

distance of, from Kolar, 202 ; Des 

Hayes lodges in a khdTt at, 202 ; 

Turks and Christians at, 202 
Havre de Grace, called Newhaven 

by Mundy, xviii, xviii «. 4 
Hebrus, river. See Maritza 
Hellespont (river of Constantinople), 

the, 20, 20 «. 2, 31, 156, 157, 157 71. 2 
Henri IH. of France, begins the 

Pont Neuf, 125 71. 5 
Henri IV, of France, statue of, on 

Pont Neuf, xlvii, 125, 125 «. 5, 

227 ; portrait of, in the Louvre, 

127, 225 ; murder of, Iv, 129, 129 

71. 2 
Henry IV. of England, tomb of, at 

Canterbury, 135 
Heraclea, ruins of, 156 
Herbert, Edward, Lord of Cherbury, 

English ambassador in Paris, 126 

71. 2 

Hermanli, Pindar's party halt at, 

xxviii, xxxi, 51 7i. 4, 52; khdn zX, 

52 n. 4, 53 

Hero and Leander, referred to, 157 

Herzegovina, xxxvi, 78 ti. i, 79 «. i 

Heylyn, Peter, his Full Relation of 

two you7-7ieys referred to, 125 ti. i, 

125 «. 5, 130 «. I, 130^.5, 131 «. 9, 

132 71. 8 

Hindustan, 4, 7 

Hippodrome, the, at Constantinople. 

See At-maidan, the 
Hissarlik, on the site of Troy, 157 

«. 3 
Histoi7'e de Fra7ice, Ab7-ege Chrono- 

logique, referred to, 12% n. 4 
Historical Pillar, the, 34, 34 7i. 2, 

35> .S5 «• I. 196; set up by 

Arcadius, 196 w. 2 
Hobhouse, J. C., his your7iey 

tlvoiigh Alba7iia referred to, 20 

n. 4, 31 n. 2, 32 n. i, 32 n. 3, 35 

n. 3, 38 n. 2, 48 n. 3, 52 n. 5, 53 

71. I, 136 71. 8, 174 71. I 

Hobso7i-Jobson (Yule and Burnell, 
Glossary), referred to, 26 n. 2 

Hoemus, Mts. See Balkan Mts. 

Holland, Mundy's travels in, xvi, 
Iviii, T, 9, II 

Holyoke, Francis, his Dictionary 
referred to, Ivi, 155 «. 7 

Hondius, maps by, in the Raivlinso7t 

MS., Ix, I 71. 1, II 71. 2, 84 71. 4, 

109 «. 6, 113 «. I, 115 «■ 2, 115 «. 6, 
1 16 n. 5, 118 71. 2, 121 71. 8, 122 71. 5 
Horses, hired at Belgrade for 
Pindar's party, xxxvi, 75; cost of 
hiring, xxxvii, xliv, 75 71. 4, 81, 82, 
119, 119 n. 6; discharged at Sara- 

17 2 



jevo, 8i; hired from Sarajevo to 
Spalato, xxxvii, 82 ; hired from 
Lyons to Roanne, xlvi 

Horse-tails, Standard of the Seven, 
stories of the origin of, 64 ii. i 

Howard, Henry Fredericlc, son of 
the Earl of Arundtl, studies at 
Padua, 100 71. I 

Howard, Thomas. See Arundel, 
Earl of 

Huguenots, strongholds of the, on 
the Loire, 121, 121 n. 3, 228 

Humes, Thomas, a Scot, member of 
Pindar's train, xlii, 43, loi n. i ; 
left behind at Padua, xlii, loi 

Hungarians, the, Lithgow-'s descrip- 
tion of, 68 n. 4; in Belgrade, 74 
It. i; Belgrade taken from, 149, 
149 n. 4; defeated at Mohacz, 149 
n. 4 

Hungary, 72 n. i ; war between 
Turkey and, 52, 52 n. r, 201 ; 
Mundy's incorrect idea of, 68, 68 
n. 4; extent of, in the 17th century, 
68 It. 4, 200; Blount's travels in, 
146 ; Valjevo on the borders of, 149 

Hunt, Henry, apprenticed to Roger 
Harvey, xxvii n. 3 ; made free of 
the Levant Company, xxvii «. 3 ; 
escorts Pindar from Constantinople, 

Husband, a, steward, paymaster, 42 
n. 5 

Ibrahim Pasha, builds a khdit at 
Tatar Bazarjik, 209 

Ikhtiman, Pindar's party arrive at, 
xxix, xxxii, 61; situation of, 61, 
62; other spellings of the name, 61 
n. 8 ; description of the country 
between Sophia and, 208; inhabit- 
ants of, 208 

Illustrations, in Rawl. MS. A. 315, 
Ix, 4, II 71. 2, 58, 59 

Illyria, 148 71. 5 

I/idex, the author's, referred to, 11, 

14 71. 2, 15 71. 4, 15 71. 5, 15 71. 6, 

15 71. 7, 16 71. 4 

India, Mundy's voyages to, xvi, liv, 
Ivii, lix, I, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11; 
Mundy petitions for employment 
in, Hi, liii; a large portion of 
Mundy's MS. dealing with, Ix; 
extent of, 4, 5; inhabitants of, 4; 
productions of, 4; derivation of the 
name, 4, 4 «. 4; description of, 8; 
alluded to, 19 7t. 2, 165 

Indian Ocean, trading places in the, 
5 w. I 

India Office, the, a copy of Mundy's 
first and second Voyages to India 
at, Ixi 

Indigo, 8, 10 

Indus, river, name India derived 
from, 4; derivation of name of, 

4 71. 4 

Inns, in Turkey. See Khd7is 
Interpreters (dragomans). See 

Dominico ; Gratiani, Caspar 
Iron Cross, the, inn, in Rue St 

Martin, xlvii, 124 
Irun, Mundy goes to, 1, 138, 138 71. 5, 

139' 139 «• 3 
Irvine, William, his Ari/iy of the 

I/idian Moi^htils referred to, 64 7t. i 
Isabella of Savoy, marries the 

Duke of Modena, no 7i. 5 
Isere, river, 115 71. 3, 230 n. 3; 

Symonds mistakes the Arc for the, 

231, 231 71. 2 

Iskanderiin. See Scanderoon 
Isker, Isca, river, xxxiii, 63 7i. 2, 

Islington, Pindar's house at, xlix, 


ISSUS, 19 71. 2 

Ister, river. See Danube 

Istria, 147, 147 71. i; capitano of, 

xli n. I, 89 
Istria, Cape of. See Punta di 

Italians, at Constantinople, their 

churches, 25 
Italy, Mundy's travels in, i. 214 «. 4; 

map of, in his MS. , 6 «. i ; lazarettos 

at the seaports of, 87 ; Symonds' 

notes on, 217 71. i 
Ivan or Jura Ivan, Pindar's party 

reach, xxxviii, 82; distance of, from 

Sarajevo, 82 ;z. 6 
Ivan Planina, xxxviii, 82 71. 6; 

other spellings of, 82 71. 6 

Jablanitza, river, Pindar's party 
follow the, xxxvi, 79 «. 2 

Jackson, John, uncle of Peter Mundy, 
xiii, xvii, Ivi; rector of North 
Petherwin, xiii 

Jadar, river, xxxvii, 80 71. 3, 80 7t. 5 

Jagodina. See Yagodin 

James I., King, supports Lawrence 
Greene's claim, 44 71. 6; renews 
the charter of the Levant Company, 
171 ; Peter Wyche sent to Spain to 
announce the death of, 163 

James, Richard, a member of a 
Committee of the East India Co., 

23 71. 4 



Janissaries, the, effect revolutions, 
2 r «. 4, 2 1 11. 6, 22 n. I, 29, 43 ;;. 2, 
51 ;/. I, 190; a guard for Pindar, 
xxvii, xxxiii, xxxiv, 43, 65, 66, 70; 
by whom established, 43 n. 2 ; a 
guard to the Persian ambassador, 
65 ; their attire, 65, 67 n. 1 ; protect 
the roads around Nissa, 68 n. 3, 
204 ; the Seraglio at Constantinople 
guarded by, 188; act as permanent 
guards to various embassies, 188 
n. 4; serve as a guard for the Vice- 
roy of Rumelia, 211 

Janizar, cape, 157 

Japan, Mundy's voyage to, xvi, 9 

Jaral. See Xaral 

Jargeau, Pindar's party pass, 122; 
other spellings of the name, 122 
n. 2, 122 11. 5 

Jassy, defeat of Caspar Gratiani at, 
51 n. 3 

Java. 5 

Jebbatore. See Gibraltar 

Jemberli Tash. 6"«<? Burnt Column, 

Jersey, Mundy's visit to, xvi, lii, 
144, 145; Mundy's description of, 
144 ; cider produced at, 144 ; 
language of the inhabitants of, 


Jerusalem, Pes Hayes directed to 
establish a French consul at, 199 
n. 2 

Jews, at Constantinople, their 
Synagogues, 28, 185; compelled to 
~act as hangmen, 56 n. 3 ; at 
Belgrade, 73, 74 n. \ ; at Venice, 
furniture hired of, xli, 92; position 
of, at Venice, 92 n. 2 ; \\ovf treated 
by the Turks, 152; taxes paid by 
the, at Constantinople, 186, 198; 
farm the customs at Constantinople, 

Jezar Mustafa Pasha. 6't'^ Mustafa 
Pasha Kuprusu 

Joan of Arc, her statue at Orleans, 
xlvii, 122, 122 n. 7; her exploits, 
Iv, 123 

Job's Tomb, the burial place of the 
Sultan's children, 189, 190 

Johnson, J. W. , his Traveller'' s 
Guide referred to, 106 n, 7, 115 
n. 6, r 16 n. 3, 118 n. 7 

youah, the, sails for Surat, 7 

JonruaU of a Voyage thro' France 
and Italy. See Sloane A/S. 2142 

Juan II. of Spain, establishes the 
Court of Chancery at Valladolid, 
139 n. 5; makes his residence at 
Valladolid, 140 n. i 

Kaik, a small skiff, 28 n. 3 

Ka'iliunakdm, deputy-governor, 75 
n. 6, 201 

Kaniza, taken by the Turks, xxxv, 
75> 75 ''• 3 ; description of ord- 
nance taken at, 75 n. 3 

Kdpi, gate, 61 n. 2, 152 n. 6 

Kapi dgha, chief door-keeper, 36 n. 4, 
64 n. I, 211; gates of the Seraglio 
guarded by the, 188 

Kapiji-bdshi, chamberlain, 36 n. 4, 
64 n. I 

Kaprulov Derbend, pass. See 
Kapulu Derbend 

Kapuli or Kapujik, Pindar's party 
pass through, xxix, 61; Alexander's 
arch at, fii ; various spellings of the 
name, 6r n. 5, 152 n. 5; Thermo- 
pylae supposed to be at, 152 n. 6; 
on the borders of Bulgaria, 209; a 
pass through the Balkans at, 209 

Kapulu Derbend, pass (Kaprulov 
Derbend), Pindar's party traverse, 
xxxii, 61, 61 n. 2 

Karabali, ihe residence of ambassa- 
dors to Constantinople, 191 n. 2 

Karistran, Pindar's party pass, xxviii, 

48 ; distance of, from Chorlu, 48 n. 1 
Kasim Beg. See Burim Kasim 
Kasim Pasha, a suburb of Con- 
stantinople, 30, 31 ; Evliya Efendi's 
account of, 3 1 n. i 

Kazi, Kddi, the, at Belgrade, visits of 
Pindar and 1 'es Hayes to, xxxvi, 
72, 72 n. 3; at Valjevo, sends a 
guard to Pindar, xxxvi, 78 

Keeleesh. See Clissa 

Kelly, Dr P., his Universal Ca?nbist 
referred to, 92 ;?. i, 98 71. 4, 100 n. 4 

Kentish, Mr, bearer of letters from 
Pindar to the Levant Co., 177 

Keppel, Major George, his Journey 
across the Balcaji referred to, 67 
n. 3, 71 n. 7 

Kerkoporta (Circus-gate), the, at 
Constantinople, situation of, 32 n. 2, 
193 n. 2; when and why destroyed, 
193 n. 2 

Kest, George, marries Joan Mundy, 

Ketch. See Catch 

Khafsa or Hafsa, Pindar's party halt 
at, xxviii, xxxi, 49; bridge at. xxxi, 
49 ; other spellings of, 48 n. 4, 

49 n. I ; Des Hayes' description 
of, 2 r 2 

Khalll Pasha, signs a treaty between 
Turkey and Persia, 65 n. i 

Khans (caravanserais), in Turkey, 
allusions to, xxxi, xxxiv, xxxv, 



xxxvii, xxxix, 49 ft. 4, 52 n. 4, 70, 
71, 8b, 80 n. 5, 85, 85 n. 2, 152, 
156; at Kiichuk Chekmeje, Mundy 
and Des Hayes lodge in, xxviii, 46, 
213; descriptions of, Iv, 52, 52 «. 5, 
53. 54. 73. 73 n. 4, 202, 203, 213, 
214, 216; excellence of, between 
Adrianople and Constantinople, 48 
n. 4, 202, 211 ; built by rich 
bashds, 186, 211, 212, 216 

Khardj, tribute, 26 n. r, 186 

Kialik, Pindar lodges at, xxviii, xxxi, 
54 ; Mundy's description of, 54 ; 
other spellings of the name, 54 n. 2 ; 
inhabitants of; 210 

King, Mr, the Levant Company's 
chaplain at Constantinople, 23 n. 4 

Kiosks, at Constantinople, 28, 28 
n. I, 188, 189 

Knolles, Richard, his Histo7-ie of the 
Turkes referred to, Ivi, 43 n. i, 50 
n. 2, 51 11. 3, 65 n. 3, 67 n. i, 75 
n. 3, 75 n. 6 

Kolar or KuUar, Pindar's party dine 
at, xxix, xxxiv, xxxv, 71; palangha 
at, xxxv, 71, 71 n. 4; other spell- 
ings of the name, 71 n. 4; Des 
Hayes halts at, 202 ; inhabitants of, 

Kolubara, river, xxxvi, 78, 78 n. 4, 

79 «• 4 

Konjica or Konitza, Pindar's party 
reach, xxxviii, 83, 83 n. 3; distance 
of, from Sarajevo, 83 n. i ; other 
spellings of the name, 83 n. i 

Koum Kale, 157 n. 3 

Kuchuk Chekmeje, Pindar halts at, 
xxviii, XXX, 45 ; khan at, xxviii, 46, 
213, 214; other names for, 46 «. 2; 
bridge at, xxx, 46, 46 71. 2, 215 ; 
halting place for ambassadors, 46 
n. 2, 47 n. 3, 213; Sulaiman re- 
builds the bridge at, 195; fish at, 
213; Des Hayes' description of, 
213, 214 

Kumburgas, Pindar's party pass, 
xxviii, 47 ; situation and descrijnion 
of, 47 n. 1, 47 n. 3 ; other spellings 
of the name, 47 n. 2 

La Bussiere, Symonds' description 

of, 227 
La Chambre, situation of, 116 n. 3 ; 

Symonds dines at, 23 r ; fortifications 

of, 231 
La Charite, Pindar's party halt at, 

xlvi, xlvii, 121; bridge at, 121, 

121 n. I, 111 n. 2, 228; description 

of, 121 n. 2, 228 J country around 

described, 228 

La Crosse, inn at Dieppe, 138 n. 4 
La Liberte, a messenger employed 

by Symonds, 223 
Lambert. See Lanslebourg 
Lane, John,, son of Richard Lane, 

42 7Z. 2 

Lane, Richard, travels in Pindar's 
train, 42 ; owner of the Samaritan, 
42 n. 2 ; repudiates his son's debts, 
42 n. 2; hires a boat for Pindar's 
party, xl, xlix, 88 ; hires a waggon 
for Pindar's baggage, 135 

Lnnsdowjte MS. 720 ( Voyage cT Italie), 
referred to, see notes on pp. in, 
112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 
121, 122 

Lanslebourg, at the foot of Mt. 
Cenis, xlv, 112 n. 2, 114, 232; 
Pindar's party halt at, xlv, 114; 
other spellings of the name, 114 
;/. 2 

La Palisse, 228 n. 5 

Lapland, 11 

Laughlyne, Christopher, recom- 
mended by Downing as purser, 

La Verpilliere, Pindar's party lodge 
at, xlvi, 118; other spellings of the 
name, 118 «. 8 

Lazaretto, at Spalato, xl, 86; de- 
scription of a, Iv, 87, 87 11. I ; why 
established, 87 

Leate, Nicholas, secretary of the 
Levant Company, 176 

Le Bruyn, Corneille, his Voyage ait 
Levant referred to, 31 «. r, 32 «. 2, 

33 «• I. 33 «• ^ 

Leeseecheechee. See Lisicici 

Leghorn, Mundy's description of, 
xxiv, 16, 17; decoration of houses 
at, 16, 16 n. 8, 17 n. i ; other 
descriptions of, 17 n. i ; lazaretto, 
at, 17 n. 2; \h^ Royall Merchant 
bound to, 16, 166 

Le Hamel, Pindar's party halt at,, 
xlviii, 131 ; situation of, 131 11. 7 

Lello, Henry, ambassador at Con- 
stantinople, 171 

Le Neve, Peter, Symonds' MS- 
bought from, 217 n. i 

Leonidas, King of Sparta, his prow- 
ess at Thermopylae, 152 n. 6, 153 

Leopolis, Bargrave journeys to, 215 

Lerma, Cardinal, Duke of, dies att 
Valladolid, li, Iv, 140, 140 n. 2; his 
tomb, 140, 140 n. 3; cause of un- 
popularity of, 140 w. 2 ; his soni 
supplants, 140 n. 2; created Car- 
dinal, 140 «. 2 ; retires from Madrid^ 
140 n. 2 



Levant, the, trade of the English in, 
172; Blount's voyage to, see Ap- 
pendix A ; Sandys' travels in the, 
see Appendix E ; Des Hayes' 
journey to the, see Appendix F 

Levant Company, the, directors 
and members of, xxiii n. 4, xxvii, 
14 n. ir, 15 n. i, 15 n. 3, 23 n. 4, 
162, 172; history and constitution 
of, 16 n. 5, 171-173; ambassadors 
of, xxvi, xxvii, 22 n. i, 23 n. 5, 
171, 173, 176, 177, 178, 180, 181, 
182; Greene's case referred to, 
44 w. 6; a consul for Smyrna 
recommended to, 44 11. 6; Henry 
Davis delivers letters to, 138 n. 3; 
compared with the East India Com- 
pany, 172; Chardin's account of 
the, 172-174; value of the trade of, 
173 ; salary paid to officials of, 173 ; 
connection of the Wyche family 
with, xxiii, 159, 160, 164; charters 
the Royall Merchant for Constanti- 
nople, 166-168; position of the, at 
Constantinople, in Mundy's time, 
174; decline of the prosperity of, 
174; suffers from the depredation 
of pirates, 176 

Ley family, the, of Penzance, 
original owners of Add. MS. 
33420, Ixii 

Lido, Fort, 90 n. 2 

Lido, Port, at entrance into the 
lagoons of Venice, 89, 89 n. 8, 
90 11. 2, 96 n. I 

Light horsemen, hired from Graves- 
end to Blackwall, 136; definition of, 
136 n. 2 

Lion s Whelp, pinnace, 169 

Lira, value of, 92 n. i, 98, 98 n. 4, 
^9, 100 n. 4, 123, 235 

Lisicici, Pindar's party reach, 
xxxviii, 83 ; distance of from 
Konjica, 83 n. 3 

Lithgow, William, his Painefull 
Peregrhiations referred to, see notes 
on pp. i6, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 31, 
50, 55, 62, 67, 68, 88, 96, 99, 106, 

Little Bridge, the. See Kuchuk 

Livanjsko Polje, the, 84 n. 7 
Livius, Titus, buried at Padua, 

99 '^- 5 
Livno, 84 n. 6, 84 n. 7 
Livorne. See Leghorn 
Livre. See Lira 
Ljubowija, river, Pindar's party 

follow the, xxxvi, xxxvii, 79 ;^. 2, 

79 "■ 5 

Lobster boat, Mundy's trading 
voyage to London in a, xvi 

Lodi, Pindar's party dine at, xliii, 
106; in the Duchy of Milan, 
106 n. I 

Loire, river, 116 n. 5; shallowness 
of, in summer, xlvi, 120, 122, 228; 
towns on the banks of the, xlvi, 
120, 120 n. 2, 121, 121 n. I, 122, 
122 n. 7; Pindar's party travel to 
Orleans 011 the, xlvi, Iv, 122, 
136; floating mills on the, xlvii, 
122; description of the country 
on its banks, xlvi, 123, 227, 227 
7Z. 5 ; Symonds' description of the, 


Lonato, Pindar's party lodge at, xlii, 

London, Mundy's journey overland 
from Constantinople to, xv, xxxvii- 
xlix, 1, Ivii, 7, 24; Mundy's descrip- 
tion of occurrences in, 10; compared 
with Constantinople, 30, 188, 191, 
192 ; the Exchange in, compared 
with that in Paris, 129 n. 4; 
Mundy's journeys to and from, 
145 ; Mundy writes his second 
Appendix in, xvi, lix 

Long, Charles Edward, edits Sy- 
monds' Diary of the Marches of 
the Royal Army, 217 ;^. i 

Longjumeau, xlvii, 123 n. 6, 124 

Loucharick. See Su^uraz 

Louis XII. of France, orders the 
building of Pont Notre Dame, 
125 n. I 

Louis XIII. of France, his am- 
bassadors at Constantinople, xxvii, 
xxxi, 199 n. 2; his sister marries 
the Prince of Piedmont, no n. 4, 
113, 234 11. 4; his reconciliation 
with his mother, 128 n. 4; plans 
the death of the Marechal d'Ancre, 
129, 129 n. I 

Loup, Le, at Roanne, 228 

Louvre, the, Mundy's description of, 
xlvii, 126-128; Symonds' descrip- 
tion of, 224, 225 ; other descriptions 
of, 127 n. 3, 128 n. 1, 128 n. 2, 
128 11. 3; gardens surrounding, 127, 
127 n. 5, 224, 225; registry-office 
beneath, 225 

Low Countries, the, 133 

Lowe, Francis, son of Sir Thomas 
Lowe, xxvii n. 3, 172; made free 
of the Levant Company, xxvii «. 3 ; 
escorts Pindar from Constantinople, 
45, 47, 47 n. I ; ? in action at 
Algiers, 45 n. 3 ; a merchant at 
Galata, 172 



Lowe, Sir Thomas, father of Francis 
Lowe, 167, i'j2; governor of the 
Levant Company, 172 

Lubeck, 1 1 

Lucy, Captain, visits Pindar at 
Venice, 92 

Lugar Nuevo, the Guadiana flows 
underground from, xxii «. 3 

Lule-Burgas, 47 ;?. 3, 48 n. 4, 156; 
Pindar's party halt near, xxviii, 
XXX, 48 ; other names for, 48 «. 3 ; 
Des Hayes halts at, 212; mosque 
and k/ian at, 212, 216; Bargrave's 
description of, 216 

Lussin, L, xl,- 88 ;z. 5, 88 n. 6, 
88 71. 7 

Luxembourg Palace, the, Mundy 
visits, xlvii, 126 ; for whom built, 
T26 «. 3; description of, 126 ;?. 3, 
225, 226 

Lyons, Mundy's description of, xlvi, 
119; Pindar's party lodge at, xlvi, 
119; cost of horse hire from Turin 
to, xliv, 119; other descriptions of, 
119 n. 4, 229; water-mills at, xlvi, 
119, 149; Symonds' route to, 228, 
228 ;/. 5; country between Tarare 
and, described, 229; Symonds' ex- 
penses from Nevers to, 235 

Mabe, residence of the Worth family, 


Macao, Mundy's voyage to, 6, 9, ir 

Macedonia, 152, 152 /z. 5; Blount's 

voyage to, [46; Sophia reckoned 

in, 151 

Madagascar or St Lawrence, 

Mundy's voyage to, 1, 9, 11 
Maiden Tower, at Scutari, 197 
Mainwaring, Sir Henry, visits Pindar 
at Venice, 92 ; commands English 
soldiers for Venice, 92 w. 3, 92 
n. 6; suit against, for taking 
Wardeman's ship, 92 w. 6; par- 
doned, 92 n. 6 
Majorca, 15 

Malacca, Mundy's voyage to, 9 
Malaga, Mundy touches at, 14, 15, 


Malay Peninsula, the, 5 ;?. i 

Malefactors, how punished in Tur- 
key, 55, 56, 57; in France, punish- 
ment of, I 23, 124 

Malegnano, Pindar's party lodge at, 
xliii, ro6 

Maltravers, James, Lord, son of the 
Earl of Arundel, xlii, roo; studies 
at Padua, xlii, 100, 100 jj. i ; inter- 
changes visits with Pindar, xlii, 100 ; 
dies at Ghent, 100 ft. i 

Manilas (Philippine Is.), Mundy's 
intended voyage to the, 6 

Manneringe, Captain. See Main- 
waring, Sir Henry 

Mantua, Duke of. See Francis de 

Maps in Mundy's MS., the World, 
I n. I, 6, 6 u. I ; Europe, 6, 6 «. i, 
r I n. 2 ; Turkey, 6 n. i ; Arabia, 
6 «. I ; Italy, 6 «. i ; Savoy, 6 n. i, 

109 ft. 6, 118 fi. 2; Gaul, 6 ft. I, 
116 ft. 5, 121 ft. 8, 122 M. 5; 
Asia, 6 n. 1 ; the track of Mundy's 
voyages marked on the, 6 

Marcigny, Pindar's party reach, 
120, 228 ft. 5; monastery at, 
120 ft. 4 
Margaf-et., the, of Weymouth, 45 ft. 5 
Margaret, of Savoy, marries the 
Dukeof Mantua, iio«. 5; dispute 
about the custody of her child, 

1 10 ft. 5 

Mai-gett {Margarett), the, Mundy sails 

for England in, li, 141; goes to 

Aleppo for the Levant Co. in, 141 

«. 3 
Marie, of Savoy, a nun, no ;/. 5 
Marie de Medici, portrait of, in the 

Louvre, xlvii, 127, 127 ft. 4; is 

reconciled with her son, 128 ft. 4 
Maritza, river, xxxi, xxxii, 54 «. 9, 

i55> '56, 209, 210, 211; Mustafa 

Pasha's bridge over the, 2 10 
Mark Antony, fights against Brutus 

and Cassius, 153, 154 ft. i 
Market, of Women. See Avret- 

Marketon. the Mundys of, xiv 
Marlborough Downs, compared 

with the Philippic Fields, 153; 

battle fought on the, 153 
Marmora, Sea of (Propontick Sea), 

47 ft. 4, 183, 212, 213; extent of, 

Marne, river, compared with the 

Morava, 204 
Marquise, Pindar's party follow the 

coastline to, xlviii, 133 
Mars, god of war, amphitheatres 

consecrated to, 102 
Marseilles, 119 ti. 1 
Martin, Mme, Symonds' landlady, 

Maf-y Rose, the, Lawrence Spike 

recommended as purser for, 42 

■n. I 
Matthias, Emperor, embassy to, 

from the Grand Signior, 50 ft. 2 ; 

Caspar Gratiani treats with the, 




Maubert, Place, 224 

Maurice, son of the Duke of Savoy, 
marries his niece, i [O n. 6 

Mauritius, I., Mundy's arrival at, 9 

Mecca, Osman'spretended pilgrimage 
to, 22 ;;. t 

Medici, Marie de, the Luxemliourg 
built for, 126, 126 11. 3; pictures of 
her life in the Luxembourg, 226 

Medina Sidonia, Duke of. See 
Guzman, Don Alonso Perez de 

Mediterranean Sea (the Straights), 
15 n. 4, 15 II. 5, 16, 20; Mundy's 
voyage in the, xxiii, 15-18, 84 «. 4; 
English trade in the, 159, 171 

Medvednjik Planina, the, Mundy's 
party cross, xxxvi, 79 ;^. 2, 79 
ft. 4 

Meeching, original name of New- 
haven, xviii «. 4 

Menavinus, Antonius, his remark 
on the capacity of S. Sophia, 

Menick, Sir John, his testimony as 
to R. Wyche's son, 159 

Merchants, English, trading under 
the Levant Company, 16, 16 11. 5; 
their residence at Constantinople, 
22 n. 2 ; their life at Constantinople, 
22 ; Eyre quarrels with the, at Con- 
stantinople, 181 

M eredith, Jane, marries Peter Wyche, 

Messina, 15 n. 7, 16 

Mestre, Canale di. See Cannaregio 

Mexico, Mundy's intended voyage 
to, 6, 6 n. 2 

Milan, post-road from Venice to, 
xlii, loi 7!. 4; Pindar's party dine 
at, xliii, 106 ; Pindar exchanges 
visits with the governor of, xliii, 
106; cathedral at, xliii, 106; castle 
at, xliii, 107, 107 n. 1 

Milan, Duchy of, 105 n. 6, 105 n. 8 ; 
extent of the, 106 n. i ; boundary 
of the, xliii, xliv, 108, 108 n. 5 

Militsch, Mt., ascent of, by Pindar's 
party, probable, 84 n. 2 

Miljacka or Miljatzka, river, xxxviii, 

82, 82 7Z. 2 

Mills, description of, at Belgrade, 
XXXV, xlvi, 72, 72 n. 4, 73, 82 n. 3, 
119; on the Maritza, 72 n. 4; at 
Sarajevo, xxxviii, 82, 82 «. 3 ; at 
Lyons, xlvi, 119; on the Loire, 
xlvii, 122 

Mincing Lane, Richard Wyche's 
house in, 136, 161 

Minorca, 15 «. 7, 16 

Modane, Symonds dines at, 232 

Modena, Duke of, marries Isabella 

of Savoy, i 10 «. 5 
Modyford, James, travels with Bar- 
grave, 2 r 5 
Mogol, the Great, 8 
Mohacz, the Hungarians defeated at 

the battle of, 149 fi. 4 
Moisselles, Pindar's party pass 

through, xlviii, 131, 131 n. 6 
Moldavia, Caspar Gratiani made 

governor of. xxxi, Iv, 50 n. 2, 51 ; 

called Bugdamia by Mundy and 

others, 51 7i. 1 
Molton, Captain Robert, commands 

the Margett, li, 141; Mundy sails 

with, 143 
Molucca, Islands, 5 
Monsieur. See Orleans, Duke of 
Montargis, Des Hayes the son of a 

governor of, 1 99 «. 2 ; Symonds' 

description of the country between 

Paris and, 227; castle at, 227; boats 

built at, 227 
Montmelian, bridge at, 115 n. 3; 

Pindar precedes his followers to, 

xlv, 116; description of, 116 «. 2, 

116 n. ^, 230; castle at, 230; siege 

of, 230 
Montreuil-sur-mer, Pindar's party 

lodge at, xlviii, 132; description 

of, 132, 132 11. 4, 219, 219 n. 3; 

other spellings of the name, 132 

n. 4 
Moody, Mr, merchant at Galata, 

escorts Pindar from Constantinople, 


Morans, chairmen, 11471. i 

Morant, Philip, his Histoiy of Essex 
referred to, 217 n. i 

Morava, river, 70 «. 5, 70 71. 7 ; 
Pindar's party cross the, xxxiv, 70; 
Poullet and Des Hayes cross the, 
70 71. 6, 204 ; source and outlet of 
the, 203, 204 ; compared with the 
Marne, 204 

Moravia, 68 «. 4 

Morea, the, 18 ;/. 3 

Morel, Bartolome, casts the Giraldillo, 
XXI n. 3 

Moryson, Fynes, his Ili7iera7y re- 
ferred to, 31 71. 2, 37 71. 6, 38 «. I, 
38 ;/. 2, 40 71. 1 

Moscovia. See Russia 

Moscow, Mundy's intended journey 
to, 6 

Mosques, at Constantinople, 25, 29, 

3.3> 3.S «• 1. 35> 35 «• 4> 39 «• i. 
185, 189, 193, 194; in Turkey, 53, 
54; at Belgrade, 73, 74; at Sara- 
jevo, xxxviii, 82, 82 71. I, 148, 148 



n. 3 ; at Sophia, 152, 156 ; at 
Adrianople, 156, 211; built as acts 
of reparation, 210, 216 

Mostar, route of railway from Sara- 
jevo to, xxxviii, 82 n. 5, 83 n. 4 

Moulin, Symonds passes, on the way 
to Roanne, 228 n. 5 

Muhammad II., 31 n. i, 36 n. i, 
39 11. I ; fortifies the Seraglio at 
Constantinople, 35 n. 5 ; builds the 
Seraglio at Sarajevo, 8r w. 2 

Muhamrriad III., takes Kaniza, 75 
n. 3 

Muhammad, the Prophet, birth of, 
34 II- 2, 35 n. 2 

Meleto, Patriarch at Constantinople, 

37 «• 4 

Mundy, — , aunt of Peter Mundy, 
wife of John Jackson, xiii 

Mundy, — , brother of Peter Mundy, 

Mundy, — , mother of Peter Mundy, 
probable date of death of, xiii 

Mundy, • — , sister of Richard Mundy, 
marries Hannibal Vivian, xv 

Mundy, — , uncle of Peter Mundy, 
xiii; engaged in the pilchard busi- 
ness, xiii, 1, 137 

Mundy, Anthony, junior, of Penryn, 
burial of, xv 

Mundy, Anthony, senior, of Penryn, 
merchant, xv 

Mundy, Joan, daughter of Robert 
Mundy, marries George Kest, xiv 

Mundy, John, founder of the Mundy 
family, xiv 

Mundy, Sir John, eighth of the line, 

Mundy, Sir John, Lord Mayor of 
London, family of, xiv 

Mundy, John, fifth son of Sir J. 
Mundy, settles at Rialton Manor, 

Mundy, Peter, senior, grandfather 
of Peter Mundy, xiii; "chantor" 
of Glasney College, xiii, xiv 

Mundy, Peter, birth and parentage 
of, xiii; early days and education 
of, xvi, xvii; goes to Normandy, 
xvii, 2, 7, 13; spends a year in 
Bayonne, xvii, 13; cabin boy to 
Captain Davis, xvii, 13; visits 
Spanish ports, xvii, 14; lives at 
Sanlucar, xvii, xxii, 14 ; learns 
Spanish at Seville, xviii, xx, 14, 
137 '^^ 5; goes to Ayamonte and 
Tavira, xviii, xxii, 14; returns to 
England, xviii, xx, xx 11. 7, 14; 
enters the service of James Wyche, 
xxiii, 14, 160; sails on the Royall 

Merchant to Constantinople, xxiii, 
14; touches at ports in the Medi- 
terranean, xxiii, 15, 16; arrives at 
Constantinople, xxiv, 7, to, 13, 21, 
160, 172, 175, 177; remains at 
Constantinople for three years, 
xxiv, 22 ; death of his master, xxv, 
23 ; lives with Lawrence Greene, 
junior, xxv, xxvi, 23 ; travels over- 
land to England in Pindar's train, 
xxvi-xlix, 1, 7, 10, 13, 41-136; 
takes leave of Pindar, xlix, 136, 
179; goes to Richard Wyche, 136, 
161; goes to Penryn, 137; returns 
to London, 137 «. 3 ; goes to Seville 
with pilchards, 1, 1 37 ; enters Richard 
Wyche's service, 1, 137, 162; posts 
to Spain about the "copper con- 
tract," 1, 138, 139 n. 3, 162; 
returns to London on the Margett, 
li, 141, 162; goes to Colchester, 
143; his master dies, 143, 162; 
goes to Cornwall, lii, 143; goes to 
St Malo and Jersey, lii, 144 ; 
returns to Penryn, 144; petitions 
the East India Company for em- 
ployment, lii, 144; refuses to enter 
Sir Peter Wyche's service, 156, 
163; entertained as under factor 
by the E. I. Co., liii, 144, 145 
n. I ; his salary under Richard 
Wyche and the E. I. Co., 1, lii, liii, 
145 71. I ; his voyages to India, 
China, Holland, Russia, etc., liv, 
Ivii, Iviii, 2, 4 11. 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 ; 
his travels in England and Wales, 
9, 1 1 ; chronological account of his 
career, xv, xvi ; dies intestate, Ixiii; 
his First Relation, 13-24; his Sup- 
plement to his First Relation, 24-40 ; 
his Second Relation, 41-136; his 
Third Relation, 137-145; mileage 
covered by, in his travels, xxv, 
xxix, 1, liv, 10, 24, 136, 145; his 
routes marked on maps in his MS., 
6, 30 n. 2, 84 n. 4, 109 n. 6, 116 
71. 5 ; his additional remarks on 
France and Spain, xviii-xxiii; his 
remarks on Constantinople, xxvi, 
30-40; his description of Turkish 
pastimes and punishments, 55-59; 
his description of Belgrade and 
"Bulgarians," xxxv, Iv, 72-78; his 
route from Valjevo to Spalato diffi- 
cult to trace, xxxvi, xxxvii, xxxviii, 
78 71. 3; his observations on Venice, 
xl-xlii, 90-98 ; his description of 
Paris, xlvii, xlviii, 124-130; his 
route across France compared with 
Symonds', 228 71. 5; his description 



of Valladolid, li, 139-141; his ob- 
servations on goitre, 104, 104 n. 6, 
117; his remarks on Italian vine- 
yards, xliii, 105 ; his quotations from 
other authors, xxvi, 25-27, 27-30, 
146 n. I, 183 n. 3, 187 n. i, 192 
n. 4; his friends and patrons, xiv, 
XV, xxiii, 1, liii, liv, Ivii, Ixiii, 2 ; 
his character and attainments, lii, 
liv, Iv, Ivi, Ivii; fall in the fortunes 
of his family, li ; his title to his 
MS., I ; his Preface, xiii, 2-6; his 
Index, 11; his Appendix, xvi, 
xviii 72. 3, Iviii, lix, 10, 147 n. i ; 
scope and length of his work, xv, 3, 
7-1 1 ; aim of his work, 3-6; illus- 
trations in his MS., Ix, 4; his 
original account of his early 
voyages lost, Ivii, Iviii, 2 ; his re- 
vision of his MS., Iviii, Ixii, 103 
n. 5 ; his intention to re-copy his 
MS., xviii, lix ; history of the Raiul. 
MS. , Ivii-lxiii ; other existing copies 
of the travels of, lix-lxii 

Mundy, Richard, senior, merchant, 
father of Peter Mundy, xiii, Ivii, 
Ixii, 2, 13, 137, 143 n. 7; resides at 
Penryn, xiii ; apprenticed at Totnes, 
xiii ; takes Peter Mundy to Rouen, 
xiii, xvii; trades in pilchards, xiii, 1 ; 
last mention of, in Mundy's MS., 
xiii; probable date of death of, xiv 

Mundy, Richard, third son of John 
Mundy of Rial ton, xiv; his con- 
nection with Peter Mundy discussed, 

Mundy, Richard, great-grandson of 
John Mundy of Rialton, xiv; dies 
unmarried, xiv; his sister marries 
Hannibal Vivian, xiv 

Mundy, Robert, of Penryn, merchant, 
marriage of the daughter of, xiv, xv ; 
burial of, xiv 

Mundy, Thomas, son of Sir John 
Mundy, xiv; Prior of Bodmin, xiv; 
death of, xiv; his connection with 
Peter Mundy, senior, discussed, xiv 

Mundys, the, of Derbyshire and 
Leicestershire, xiv 

Mundys, the, of Penryn, xiii, xiv, 


Mundys, the, of St Colomb Minoi", 

xiv, xxiii 
Murad IV., son of Ahmad, succeeds 

Osman, 21 n. 6, 25, 25 «. 2, 

.S9 "■ 4 
Murad, Thaddeus, an Armenian, 
travels in Pindar's train, 43, 43 n. 4; 
rejoins the party at Chorlu, 48; 
leaves Pindar's train at Belgrade, 

xxxvi, 43 n. 4; returns to Con- 
stantinople, xxxvi, 43 71. 4, 76; 
chooses a wife for his l^rother, 
xxxvi, 43 71. 4, 76 
Murray, Dr James A. H., his Oxfo7-d 
English Dictionary referred to, 
16 71. 8, 27 71. 2, 38 71. 3, 55 7t. 5, 

89 7i. 5, ICO 71. 3, 134 71. I 

Musa Palanka. See Bela Palanka 

Muscovy Company, the. Sir Henry 
Garraway a director of, 14 «. ii; 
Richard Wyche, senior, and his 
family connected with, 159, 161, 
165; rise of, 172 

Mustafa I., imprisonment of, 21 ;?. 4, 
21 71. 6, 22 It. i; appointed as 
Ahmad 's successor, 22 n. i ; acces- 
sion of, xxiv, 21,11 7t. 6; deposition 
of, xxiv, 21, 21 71. 6, 22 7t. I, 178; 
restoration of, 21 7i. 6, 22 n. 1 ; his 
incompetence, 22 ;?. i ; brother of 
Ahmad, 22 w. i; superseded by 
Osman, 22 7i. i; imprisons the 
Baron de Sancy, 43 7t. 1 

Mustafa Pasha, his bridge, 51, 
51 71. 4, 52, 210; refuses to make 
over his bridge to Sulaiman, 52; 
builds and endows a khan at 
Burgas, 212 

Mustafa Pasha Kuprusu, Pindar's 
party halt at, xxviii, xxxi, 51 ; story 
of the bridge at, xxxi, 51, 51 «. 4; 
o:her names for, 51 7i. 4 

Naima, A7mals of, referred to, 65 

71. I, 71 71. I, 75 71. 3 

Narenta, river, xxxviii, 83 71. 4; 
rapidity of, 83 

Naviglio-Grande, canal, boats on 
the, xliii, xliv; mistaken by Mundy 
for a river, 107 «. 2 ; Pindar's 
party cross the, 108 

Naxia, Naxos, island, Caspar Gra- 
tiani made Duke of, 51 

Neretria, Neretna, river. ^V^fNarenta 

Neufchatel, Pindar's party pass, 
xlviii, 132, 132 71. 5; Mundy sees 
the English Channel from, 132 

Neuvy-sur-Loire, Pindar's party 
pass, 121, 121 71. 5; between Cosne 
and Briare, 122 7t. 1 

Nevers, Mundy's description of, 
xlvi, 120, I2r; other descriptions 
of, 121 71. i; bridge at, 120, 121 
71. I ; Symonds' route from Paris to, 
227, 228; Symonds' route to 
Roanne from, 228 71. 5; Symonds' 
expenses at, 235 

Nevett, Richard, travels with Bar- 
grave, 215 



Newgate, reprieved prisoners in, to 

serve as soldiers, 92 n. 5 
Newhaven, original name of, xviii 
n. 4 

Nice. See Nissa 

Nicea, river. See Nissava, river 

Nichols, John, his History of the 
County of Leicester referred to, xiv 
n. 2; his Progresses of King James 
referred to, 179, 179 n. i 

Nissa or Nisch, Pindar halts at, 
xxix, 69 ; roads near, patrolled by 
Janissaries, 68 n. 3, 205; dangers 
in the approach to, 69, 204, 205 ; 
situation of, 6'9, 204 ; castle and 
walls at, 69, 204; other spellings of 
the name, 69 n. 1, 204; neighbour- 
hood of, infested by robbers, 69, 
69 n. 2, 205 ; descriptions of, 
xxxiv, 69 n. 5, 151, 204; district 
on either side of, described, xxxiv, 
70, 204, 205; under the govern- 
ment of Buda, 204 

Nissava, river, bridge over the, 
xxxiv, 69, 69 n. 5; flows into the 
Morava, 204; separates Servia 
from Bulgaria, 69 71. 5, 204 

Nissy, Lac de, 118 «. i 

Norden, John, his Description of 
Cornwall referred to, xvii n. 3, 
xvii n. 6 

Normandy, Mundy's first visit to, 
xviii, ]3, 24; Mundy's second visit 
to, 138" 

Norris, John, supercargo, sails in 
the Royall Mary, 8 

Northamptonshire, compared with 
the district near Bearne, 220 

North Cape, the, Mundy sails to, 11 

North Petherwin, Mundy's uncle 
rector of, xiii, xvii, Ivi 

Norway, Mundy sails along the 
coast of, 1 1 

Notre Dame, cathedral, in Paris, 
xlvii, xlviii, 130, 130 n. i, 223, 
223 n. 4, 226 

Nottingham, Earl of, ratifies a 
treaty between France and Spain, 
139 n. 4 

NouTeau Gnide dii Voyageur referred 
to, 106 n. 4 

Novalese, Pindar's party lodge at, 
xliv, 112; situation of, 112, 112 
n. 2, 1x5 n. 4; character of the 
inhabitants of, 112 n. 2; Symonds 
dines at, 233 

Novara, Pindar's party dine at, xliv, 

Novibazar, 78 n. i 

Novi Khan. See Yeni Khan 

Octavius Caesar, siege of Salona 
by, 147, 147 n. 3 

Oglio, river, Pindar's party cross 
the, xliii, 105 

Oil, obtained from the neighbour- 
hood of Seville, xxii ; exported from 
Ayamonte and Castro Marin, xxiii 

Old Castile, 139, 142 n. i 

Olive trees, abundance of, near 
Seville, xxii; near Spalato, xxxix, 

Ombersley, Worcestershire, home 
of George Sandys, 192 n. 3 

Orestes, son of Agamemnon, founds 
Adrianople, 155; story of, 155 «. 7 

Orge, river, 124 n. 1 

Oria, river, 141 n. 4 

Orient Express Railway, route of 
the, from Constantinople to Bel- 
grade, xxviii, xxix 

Orleans, compared with Sophia, 62 
n. I ; Pindar's party reach, by 
boat, xlvi, 120-122. 227 n. 2; cost 
of boat-hire from Roanne to, 120, 
228; Mundy's description of, 122; 
statue of Joan of Arc at, xlvii, 122, 
122 n. 7; other descriptions of, 
122 n. 7; Mundy's brief stay at, 
xlvii, 123; coaches hired from, to 
Paris, xlvii, 123; road from, to 
Toury described, xlvii, 123, 123 n. 
6 ; execution of two men near, xlvii, 
123; Pindar's route from, to Paris, 
xlvii, 123 w. 3; towns between 
Paris and, walled, 130; Mundy's 
second visit to, 116 ;/. 5 

Orleans, Duke of, his cousin killed, 
124; his castle at Montargis, 227 

Orpheus, Mundy's allusion to, 61 «. 
9; laments Eurydice, 152, T52 n. 
5, 209 ; dismembered by the Thrac- 
ians, 152, 152 n. 5 

Orzi Nuovi, Pindar's party pass, 
xliii, 105; description of the coun- 
try from Venice to, 105 

Orzi Vecchi, Pindar's party lodge at, 
xliii, 105 

Osbaston Hall, Leicestershire, the 
Mundys of, xiv 

Osborne, T., his Collection of 
Voyages referred to, 146 n. 5 

Osman, eldest son of Ahmad, 22, 
22 71. r ; deposes Mustafa, xxiv, 21 
n. 6, 22, 22 71. I, 178; plans to 
change his capital, 22 7i. i; his 
plot frustrated, 22 7i. \ ; makes 
peace with France, 43 71. i ; im- 
prisoned and killed, 22 w. i 
Osman L, insignia conferred on, 

64 71. I 



Ossero, Pindar's party sail to, 88 ; 
situation of, 8S, 88 n. 5 

Ossero, Canal d', xl, 88 n. 6 

Ossero, Monte, 88 n. 5 

Otters, in England, 5 

Ousson, Pindar's party pass, i-zr, 
121 n. 7 

Oxford, Earl of, the, acquires Pin- 
dar's copy of Mundy's early Travels, 

Oxford English Dictionary, the, re- 
ferred to. See Murray, Dr James 
A. H. 

Padua, boat hired for Pindar's party 
from Venice to, xlii, 98; Mundy's 
description of, xlii, 99; Bargrave's 
description of, 99 n. i ; distance 
from Venice to, 99 n. 1 ; university 
at, xlii, 99 11. 2, 99 71. 5, 100, loo 
n. 2; inn at, xlii, 99, 99 «. 3; Hall 
of Audience at, xlii, 99 n. 5 ; other 
descriptions of, 99 w. 5 ; Pindar 
hires caroches from, to Verona, 
xlii, 100; Thomas Humes remains 
at, xlii, loi; distance from, to 
Vicenza. loi «. 2 

Palais d' Orleans. See Luxembourg 

Palangha, a small fort or stockade, 
Mundy's description of a, xxxiv, 
XXXV, 68, 68 n. i ; Des Hayes' 
description of a, 68 n. i, 205; at 
Yagodin, Pindar's party halt at, 
70; description of Hassan Pasha's, 
71, 205; a, at Grotzka, 71; a, at 
Batotschina, 71 n. r; why erected, 
151, 205, 206 

Palanka. See Bela Palanka; Hassan 
Pasha's Palanka 

Pantler, a, appointed for Pindar, 
1 10, 1 10 n. 2 

Papas-cue, Bargrave halts at, 215 

Papasli, Pindar's party dine at, 
xxviii, xxxi, 54 ; Poullet's spelling 
of, 54 n. 8 

Paratjin, Parachin Palanka, Pindar's 
party pass, xxix, xxxiv, 70 ; other 
spellings of the name, 70 n. 4, 204 ; 
Des Hayes halts at, 204 ; inhabit- 
ants of, 204 ; inscriptions on the 
old road between Rashan and, 204 

Parenzo, residence of the Capitano 
of Istria, xli n. i 

Paris, Pindar's party reach, xlvii, 42 
n. 5, 46 n. 3 ; Mundy's route from 
Turin to, xliv-xlvii, 109 11. 3 ; 
Symonds' route from Turin to, 109 
n. 3, 217 11. I ; coaches hired from 
Orleans to, xlvii, 123; road from 

Orleans to, described, xlvii, 123 n. 
6, 130; road from Angerville to, 
described, xlvii, 124; Pindar's 
party lodge in the Rue St Martin 
at, xlvii, 124; Mundy's description 
of, xlvii, xlviii, 124-130; bridges 
in, xlvii, 124, 125; Luxembourg 
palace in, xlvii, 126; Louvre in, 
described, xlvii, 126-128, 224,225; 
the Exchange in, xlvii, 129, 129 n. 
4; coaches hired from, for Calais, 
xlviii, 130 ; Notre Dame at, descrip- 
tion of, xlvii, xlviii, 130, 130 11. i ; 
Mundy's route to Beauvais from, 
xlviii, 131 n. 6; Gainsford's re- 
marks on, 187 ; Symonds' descrip- 
tion of, 217 n. I, 223-227; the 
country between Beaumont and, 
described, 222 ; Symonds' expenses, 
to Turin from, 235 

Parker, Charles, Mundy resides with, 
at Seville, xv, xviii, 14 

Pashas, the, dethrone Mustafa, 22 
n. X. See also s.v. Bashds 

Pastimes in Turkey, Mundy's. 
description of, 58, 59 

Patinno, Senor Pedro, Mundy re- 
sides with, at Sanlucar, xviii, 14 

Patna, Mundy's journey to, 7, 8, lo 

Paul v., pope, canonizes Cardinal 
Boromeo, 106 n. 7 ; creates the 
Duke of Lerma a cardinal, 140 n. 2 

Pausanias, 187 

Payes, Adrian, sues Richard Lane 
for his son's debts, 42 n. 2 

Pazaric or Pasarij, Pindar's party 
reach, xxxviii, 82 ; distance of, 
from Sarajevo, 82 n. 5 ; other 
spellings of the name, 82 n. 5 

Pears, Edwin, his note on Troy, 157 

71. 3 

Pearson, J. B., his Chaplai7is to the 
Leva7it Co7iipa7iy referred to, 23 7t. 

4, 179 71. 4 

Peine fo7-te et dure, history and. 
description of, 5 71. 2 

Penmaenmawr, compared with Mt. 
Cenis, 113 «• 5 

Pennington, Captain, 45 71. 3 

Pennington, William, a member of 
Pindar's train, 43 

Penryn, Mundy's native town, xiii,. 
XV, xvii, Ixi, 13, 24; Mundy's visits 
to, xvi, 1, liv, Ivii, 2, 137, 143, 
144 ; Mundy revises and concludes 
his MS. at, xvi, Iviii, lix ; other 
Mundys in, xiv, xv ; a " free 
Schoole " at, xvii ; Mundy's remarks, 
on, Ixii 

Peons, 8 



Pera, a suburb of Constantinople, 
xxviii, 22 n. 2, 27, 29, 44, 47 n. i, 
48 w. 3, 185, 187, 194, 214; Eng- 
lish and French ambassadors 
reside at, xxv, xxvii, 41, 47 n. 3, 
176, 214; the Levant Company's 
merchants reside at, xxv, 174; 
Galata included in, 190 n. 5 ; 
description of, 190 ; bdshds houses 
at, 191 

Peramees, transit-boats, 38, 196 ; 
description of, 38 n. 2 ; other 
spellings of the name, 38 n. 2, 
196 ; rowed by Egyptians, 196 

Persia, 4, 19 w.- 2 ; William Garra- 
way agent in, liv ; treaty between 
Constantinople and, 65 n. i ; Des 
Hayes' mission to, 199 «. 2 

Persia, Emperor of. See Shah 'Abbas 

Perter Pasha, Burun Kasim enter- 
tained by, 65 «. I 

Peschiera, situation of, xlii, 104, 104 
n. I ; castle at, xlii, 104, 104 11. 2 

Petricevic, 85 71. 2 

Pett, Captain Phineas, his request 
for Downing's lodgings, 170 

Peyton, Sir Henry, commands Eng- 
lish soldiers at Zara, xl, 88 n. 4, 92 
n. 3 ; visits Pindar at Venice, 92 ; 
account of, 92 n. 3 

Pharaon, Rue de. See Ferronerie, 
Rue de la 

Philiba. See Philippopolis 

Philip, of Macedon, builds Philip- 
popolis, 54, 210 

Philip II., King of Spain, invested 
with the Duchy of Milan, 105 n. 
8 ; his daughter marries Charles 
Emanuel of Savoy, no it. 5; re- 
builds the Plaza Mayor at Valla- 
dolid, T40 n. 6 ; born at Valladolid, 
T40 ti. I 

Philip III. of Spain, concludes 
peace with England, 139 n. 4; 
account of the rise and fall of the 
favourite of, 140 n. 2 

Philip IV. of Spain, born at Valla- 
dolid, 139 ;/. 4 

Philipot, John, his Perfect Collection 
of all Knights Batchelaurs referred 
to, 179 n. 1 

Philippic Fields, battles fought on 
the, 153, 2 to; compared with 
Marlborough Downs, 153 ; tumuli 
in the, 153, 154, 154 ;/. i ; location 
of the, 154 ^i- I' '55 

Philippine Is. See Manilas 

Philippopolis, Fihbe, 51 ;?. 4, 71 
n. I ; Pindar's party reach, xxix, 
xxxi, XXXV, 54, 59 ; by whom 

built, 54, 55, 153, 210; situation 
of, 55, 210; descriptions of, xxxii, 
54 71. 9, 210; battles fought near, 
54 n. 9 ; plague at, 59, xxxii ; road 
from Adrianople to, described, 
xxxi, 60, 210; Turkish name for, 
154, 2To; Blount's description of, 


Piastre, 18 n. 3, 26 n. i, 27 n. 2 

Picardy, 138 ; Symonds' description 
of, 219-22 r 

Piedmont, 148 ; under the Duke of 
Savoy, 108, 109 n. 3 ; boundary 
of, xlv, 113, 113 n. r, 233; lan- 
guage of the people of, xlv, 112 n. 
2, 114, 233 ; castles on the frontiers 
of, 233, 234 

Piedmont, Prince of, title of eldest 
son of the Duke of Savoy, 109 n. 

4, 116 n. I 

Pierrefitte, Pindar's party pass 
through, xlviii, 130; distance of, 
from St Denis, 130, 130 n. 6, 131 

71. 6 

Pilau, 37 

Pilchards, Mundy goes to Seville 
with, XV, 1 ; trade in, from Corn- 
wall, xvii, lii, 137; price of, at 
Barcelona, 137 ;«. 6 

Pillars at Constantinople. See 

Pindar, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Ralph Pindar, 134 n. 8; wife of 
Thomas Spike, 134 71. 8 

Pindar, Paul, nephew of Sir Paul 
Pindar, travels with the ex-am- 
bassador, 4r, 175 7t. 2 ; made free 
of the Levant Company, 41 71. 5 

Pindar, Sir Paul, ambassador at 
Constantinople, 10, 14 ;?. 11, 23 «. 

5, 171, 175; succeeds Sir Thos. 
Glover, 175 ; applies for increased 
pay, 175, 176, 178; requests a 
preacher for Constantinople, 1 75 ; 
letters from, to the Levant Com- 
pany, 14 71. II, 22 71. I, 175, 176, 
177 ; desires to resign his post at 
Constantinople, 23 71. 5, 176; the 
Levant Company's opinion of, 176; 
increase of pay granted to, 177; 
complains of the treatment of the 
English by Ahmad, xxv, 177 ; re- 
called by the Levant Company, 
177, 178; is succeeded by Sir John 
Eyre, xxvi, 179; leaves Constan- 
tinople, xxvii, 23, 36, 41, 178 ; his 
journey from Constantinople to 
London, xxvii-xlix, 41-136, 178; 
his train, xxvii, 41, 4?, 43; hires 
waggons for his servants and bag- 



gage, 44 ; his guard to Adrianople, 
xxxiii ; his route to Belgrade, 45 Jt. 
6, 199 n. I ; posts a watch round 
his camp, xxx, 46 ; his lodging- 
place at Adrianople, 49, 49 ;/. 3 ; 
forbids his followers to enter Philip- 
popolis, xxxii, 59 ; orders his party 
to dismount and arm, xxxii, 61 ; 
visits the Viceroy of Rumelia at 
Sophia, xxxiii; a safe conduct 
granted to, 66, 67 ; forbears to "com- 
mandeer" provisions, xxxiv, 67 ; 
rewards the escort from Bela 
Palanka, 69 ; hires a house at 
Belgrade, 72 ; visits the ICazi at 
Belgrade, xxxvi, 72 ; hires horses 
from Belgrade to Spalato, xxxvi ; 
hires a house at Sarajevo, xxxviii, 
81 ; his route to Spalato, xxxviii ; 
his short detention in quarantine, 
xxxix, xl, 87, 88 ; cost of his hired 
house at Venice, xli, 91, 92 ; inter- 
changes visits at Venice, xli, 92, 
93 ; his route across Europe, xlii, 
98-136, 214 n. 4; visits the sons 
of the Earl of Arundel, xlii, 100; 
exchanges visits with the Duke of 
Feria, xliii, 106; his reception at 
Turin, xliv, 109, no; visits the 
family of the Duke of Savoy, xliv, 
no, no n. 6; meets the Duke of 
Savoy on Mt. Cenis, xlv, 113; 
receives a present from the Prince 
of Piedmont, 115, 116; despatches 
his attendants from Lyons, xlvi, 
119; his route from Orleans to 
Paris, xlvii, 123 n. 3; his lodging 
in Paris, xlvii ; journeys from Paris 
to Calais by coach, xlvii, 130 ; is 
entertained by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, xlix, 136 ; is met by 
his kinsmen at Dover, xlix ; Mundy 
takes leave of, xlix, 136; his house 
at Islington, xlix ; the Court com- 
plain of the extravagance of, 178 ; 
his accounts ''considered," 178; 
knighted, 1 79 ; his house in Bishops- 
gate Street Without, xlix, 1, 136 ti. 
3 ; recommends Dominico to the 
Levant Company, 42 n. 5 ; Law- 
rence Greene's case referred to, 44 
n. 6 ; recommends Mundy to the 
E. I. Co., 1 ; a copy of Mundy's 
early voyages left with, xlix, Ivii, 
Iviii, Ix, 2 ; date of death of, 136 n. 
3 ; errors in the biography of, 178, 

Pindar, Ralph, meets his brother at 
Dover, xlix, 134; father of Paul 
Pindar, junior, 134 ji. 7, 175 n. 2; 

entrusted with his brother's money 
matters, 134 11. 7, 175 it. 2 

Pinkerton, John, his Collection of 
Voyages referred to, 146 n. 5. See 
also s.v. Pococke, Richard 

Pirates, Turkish, 16, 171, 176 

Pirot or Sharkoi, Pindar's party 
halt at, xxix, xxxiii, 66 ; the 
Janissaries leave Pindar at, xxxiii, 
xxxiv ; description of, 66 ; other 
spellings of the name, 66 «. 4, 206 ; 
Des Hayes dines at, 206 ; Turks 
retire to, 208 

Pisieux, Pindar's party lodge at, 
xlviii, 131; abbey at, 131 ;/. 6 

Pistacia terebi7ithus, i() n. i 

Pistole, value of a, 223, 223 n, i, 


Pisuerga, river, 140 n. 5 

Plague, the, at Philippopolis, xxxii, 
59 ; at Constantinople, xxiv, 23, 
23 n. 3, 40, 192 

Plataea, battle of, 195 n. 4 

Po, river, Pindar's party cross the, 
109 «. 5 

Pococke, his route from Constan- 
tinople to Adrianople, 45 n. 6 ; 
his Description of the East referred 
to, see notes on pp. 46, 47, 48, 49, 
60; his Travels [Add. MS. 22978) 
referred to, 129 n. 2, 133 n. 4 

Poitiers, 116 n. 5, 128, 128 71. 4 

Poix de Picardy, Pindar's party 
dine at, xlviii, 131; distance of, 
from Abbeville, 220 ; Symonds' 
description of the village and 
neighbourhood of, 220, 221 

Pola, harbour at, xl, xli, 89, 89 n. 4 

Poland, 68 n. 4 ; Mundy's travels 
in, xvi, I ; Bargrave's travels in, 215 

Poll-tax, a, levied on Christians by 
the Turks, 16 n. i, 186 

Polonia. See Poland 

Pompey, his contest with Augustus 
Caesar, 153, 154, 154 n. i 

Pompey's Pillar, Mundy's visit to, 
XXV, 21, 24; situation of, 20, 191 ; 
Lithgow's description of, 20 71. 4 ; 
Plobhouse's description of, 20 7t. 4; 
I'emains of, now existing, 191 ti. 3; 
Sandys' description of, 197 ; a 
lighthouse near, 197 

Pondicherry, Peter Wyche, junior, 
merchant at, 165 

Pondormy. See Pont Remy 

Pont de Beauvoisin, at the boun- 
dary of Savoy, xlvi, 116 71. 5, 118, 
230 ; Pindar awaits his followers 
at, xlvi, 118; Symonds' description 
of, 230 



Pont Neuf, the, in Paris, Mundy's 
description of, xlvii, 125 ; other 
descriptions of, 125 n. 5; pump, 
clock and statue on, 125, 125 n. 
5, 227 

Pont Notre Dame, in Paris, de- 
scription of the, i2,s n. i 

Ponto Grande. See Biyuk Chekmeje 

Ponto Piccolo. See Kuchuk Chek- 

Pont Remy, Pindar's party lodge at, 
xlviii, 131 ; origin of the name, 131 
n. 9, 22C ; bridge at, 221 

Pont St Michel, in Paris, descrip- 
tion of the, 125 n. I 

Porcupine, flesh of the, palatable, 
xxiv, 19, 20 

Portsmouth, Joshua Downing 
commissioner at, 169 

Portugal, Mundy goes to, 14, 24 

Portuguese, the, Mundy's relations 
with, in China, 9 

Posthouse, the, at Aiguebelette, 
118, 118 n. 3; at Bourgoin, 118, 
118 «. 7; at Novalese, 112, 112 «. 
-J, 233 n. 4; at La Verpilliere, xlvi, 
118 ;"at Aiguebelle, 231 

Posting, in France, 138, 139 

Potarzeeke, situation of, 152, 154; 
plain of, 155 

Pougues, country around, woody, 
228; Symonds' expenses at, 235 

PouUet, Le Sieur, his Noimelles 
Relations du Levant referred to, 
see notes on pp. 46, 47, 49, 51, 52, 
54, 57, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 67, 69, 
70, 71, 72, 73. 74' 82, 88; his 
route from Belgrade to Constan- 
tinople, 45 n. 6 

Pourbus, paints the portrait of 
Marie de Medici, xlvii, 127, 127 
11. 4 

Pratique, at Leghorn, 17 ; definition 
of, 17 n. 2; Dallam's account of, 
17 n. 2 ; Pindar's party granted, 
xl, 87 ; Bargrave's difficulty in 
obtaining, 90 n. i 

Preface, Mundy's own, to his Travels, 

Pressing to Death. See Peine 
forte et dure 

Priedieu, Rue, Symonds lodges in 
the, 224 

Prologh Mountains, the, Pindar's 
party cross, xxxix, 83 n. 4, 84 n. i, 
84 n. 7. 85 n. 2 

Propontick Sea. See Marmora, 
Sea of 

Prosor, Pindar's party halt near, 
83 n. 6, 84 n. I 

Protestants, on the banks of the 

Loire, 122 
Prussia, Mundy's travels in, xvi, 

Iviii, I, 6, 9 
Pueblo de los Angelos, Mundy's 

intended voyage to, 6 n. 2 
Puerto de St Adrian, Mundy 

crosses the, li, 14 1 
Punishments for offenders, in 

Turkey, 55, 56, 57 
Punta di Promontore, Pindar's 

party pass the, xl, 89 
Purchas his Pilgrimage, referred to, 

Ivi, 26, 43 n. 2, 51 ;z. r, 62 n. 2 
Purchas his Pilgrinies, referred to, 

see notes on pp. 27, 28, 31, 32, 

3.S. 34> 35> 36. 37> 39' 47> 55- 

56, .^7 
Puttana. See Patna 
Puzentin, King, 33 fi. i 
Pyramid, the Egyptian, in the 

At-maidan, 33, 33 n. 2 

Qarainusal, a Turkish merchantman, 

38 «• 3 
Quarantine, at Spalato, rules as to, 
xxxix, xl, Iv, 86, 87 ; John Clarke 
released from, xl, 87, 91 //. 4 ; 
Bargrave's party in, 90 n. i 
Quarnero, Gulf of, Pindar's party 

cross the, xl, 89, 89 n. i 
Quatre Vents, Les, Symonds lodges 

at, 224 
Queens Arms, at Dover, 218 
Queva, Don Alfonso della, Spanish 

ambassador at Venice, 93 n. 3 
Quicksilver, Mundy takes a con- 
signment of, to Patna, 7 
Quiervansaras. See KhdJis 
Quintal, a weight, xix, xix n. 5 
Qfii-ut cliesme, dried up spring, 
Pindar's party pass the village of, 
xxix, 67 ; why deserted, 67 ; other 
spellings of the name, 67 n. 4; Des 
Hayes halts at, 205 

Rabenett, Thomas, complains of 

Joshua Downing, 169 
Ragusa, 73 n. 4 
Rainbozu, the, 169 
Rajapur, Mundy's voyage to, 10 
Ralegh, Sir Walter, 45 n. 3 ; his 

History of the IVorld referred to, 

Ivi, 19 n. 2, 154 n. I 
Ram, the, at Aiguebelle, 116 
Rama, river, Pindar's party follow 

the, xxxviii, 83, 83 n. 4, 83 n. 5 
Rama, village, the Rama and Narenta 

join at, 83, 83 11. 4 



Ramasser, meaning of the term, 114 

71. I 

Rascia (Novibazar), 78 n. i 
Rashan or Razan, Pindar's party 

lodge in a khan at, xxix, xxxiv, 70; 

Des Hayes halts at, 204 
Rastell, Thomas, President of 

Surat, 7 
Ravaillac, Francois, murders Henri 

IV., 129, 129 n. 1 
Rawlinson MS. A. 315, the only 

complete copy of Mundy's Travels, 

Ivii, Ix ; illustrations in, Ix, 4 ??. i ; 

maps in, Ix, 6 «. i ; dates covered 

by, 10 n. 3 
Rand. MS. A. 414 (Sir Erasmus 

Harby's MS.), 160 n. 5, 163 n. 5 
Rawl. MS. C. 799. See Bargrave, 

Razvl. MS. D. 1 20 ( Travels in 1 648-9) , 

referred to, see notes on pp. 91, 95, 

96, 99, 102, 104, 107, 119, 120, 

122, 129, 131, 133, 134, 138 
Rawl. MS. D. 197. See Engletield, 

Sir Francis 
Rawl. MS. D. 207 {Passage over the 

Alpes), referred to, in w. 4, 112 n. 2, 

113 «. 2 
Rawl. MS. D. 1285 (Travels'm 1633), 

referred to, 129 n. i 
Rawl. MS. D. 1785. See Abdy, Sir 

Ravirlinson, Thomas, becomes pos- 
sessor of the Mundy MS., Ixiii 
R. B., his Epitome of all the Lives of 

the Kings of France^ &c. referred 

to, 125 «. 5, 129 n. 2 
Reichs Dollar, 27 
Rhaetian Alps, 153 n. i 
Rhodes, Blount's Voyage to, 146 
Rhodope, mountains, xxxi, xxxii, 

61 n. 9; connection of the, with 

Orpheus, 152, 152 n. 5, 209; Des 

Hayes' remarks on the, 209 
Rhone, river, irS n. 4; at Lyons, 

119 n. 2, 119 71. 3, 229; w^ater 

mills on the, xlvi, 119, 119 n. 3, 

149 ; rapidity of the, 229 
Rialto, Ponte di, xlii, 28, 91, 97, 97 

n. 5, 189; when built, 91 «. 2; 

description of, 91 n. 2 
Rialton Manor, the Mundys of, xiv, 


Ricardo, an Italian, joins Pindar's 

train at Padua, loi 
Richelieu, Cardinal, Des Hayes 

allied with the enemies of, 199 

n. 1 ; palace of, 224 ; besieges 

Montmelian, 230 
Roanne, Pindar's party post to, from 

Lyons, 120; description of, 120 
n. I, 120 n. 2, 228 ; Pindar over- 
takes his attendants at, xlvi, 120; 
cost of boat-hire from, to Orleans, 
120, 120 n. 3, 228 ; first navigable 
town on the Loire, 120 n, 2 ; 
Pindar's party take a boat from, to 
Orleans, xlvi, 122; boats hired 
from, sold at Orleans, 123, 228 

Robbers, Pindar's precautions a- 
gainst, xxxii; infest the country 
between Philippopolis and Sophia, 
61 ; travellers, how warned of, 61, 
152, 209; among the Balkan Mts., 
61 n. 3, 151, 209; numerous, 
between Ikhtiman and Sophia, 62 ; 
on the road between Sophia and 
Nissa, xxxiii, 66, 205, 206 ; near 
Batotschina, 71 it. i ; punished by 
staking, xxxii, xxxv, xxxvi, 71, 72, 
206 ; near Valjevo, xxxvi, 78, 78 
It. 5, 149; among the Prologh Mts., 
xxxix, 84 

Robbin, a cook, member of Pindar's 
train, 43 

Robson, Charles, his News from 
Aleppo referred to, 17 n. 3, 19 
n. 2 

Rochester, xlix, 135 

Roe, Sir Thomas, ambassador at 
Constantinople, i\ n. 11, 41 «. 3, 
163; Lawrence Greene's case re- 
ferred to, 44 n. 6 ; succeeds Sir 
John Eyre, 181 

Roi, Rue de, Symonds lodges in, 223 

Rokeby, Colonel, Symonds enter- 
tains his captains, 223 

Romanja Planina, Pindar's party 
ascend the, xxxvii, 80 ; other spell- 
ings of the name, 80 n. 4 

Rome, despoiled to adorn Constanti- 
nople, 192 

Rosa Rossa, the, at Turin, 235 

Roshneah. See Rashan 

Rouen, Mundy's first visit to, xiii, 
XV, xvii, xviii, 13, 24; description 
of, xviii, xix, xx ; Mundy's second 
visit to, 116 n. 5; situation of, 
xviii ; bore at, xviii, xix ; great bell 
at, xix 

Roumania, 210; language of, 207; 
how separated from Servia, 209 

Rovigno, 146 n. i, 147 n. i ; Pindar's 
party land at, xli, 8q ; governor of, 
entertains Pindar, xli, xli 7t. i, 89; 
situation and description of, 147 ; 
under the government of Venice, 

Royall Mary, the, Mundy sails to 
England in, xvi, Ivii, 8, 10 




Royall Merchant, the, Mundy sails to 
Constantinople in, xv, xxiii, liii, 
14, 160, 174; passengers in the, 
xxiii; sailing orders of, 14 n. 10, 
166-168; owned by Sir Morris 
Abbot, 15 71. r, 166; freight for 
goods on, 167 ; goods to be carried 
by, 167; charter-party of, 167; 
Joshua Downing commands, 167, 
168; goods prohibited on, 167; 
measures taken for the protection 
of, 168 

Rumelia, 61 n. i, 62 n. 1 ; Viceroy 
of, xxxiii, 62, ,62 ti. 2, 63, 152, 208, 
211 ; Adrianople under the govern- 
ment of, 211 

Rusko Blato, possibly Mundy's 
"great Lake," xxxix, 84 n. 7 

Russia, 191 ; Mundy's travels in, 
xvi, I, 6, 9, ir; Richard Wyche, 
senior, trades to, 161; Des Hayes' 
mission to, 199 n. 2 

Ryalls, 27, 137 n. 6 

Sacra Porta. See Constantinople, 

harbour at 
S. Adrian, grotto of, li, 141, 141 

n. 6, 142, 142 7Z. I 
S. Adrian, Mts. of, H, 141, 142 n. i 
S. Ambrosio, Symonds halts at, 

233 ; description of, 233 
S. Andrea, castle, situation of, 90 «. 2 
S. Andrea, Fort, at entrance to the 

lagoons of Venice, 89 «. 8, 90 ;?. 2 
S. Andrea del Lido, Pindar's party 

enter Venice by, xli, 89, 89 n. 8 
S. Aubin-sur-Loire, Pindar's party 

pass, xlvi, 120, 228;?. 5 
S. Benoit, Pindar's party pass, 122, 

122 n. 3 
St Brice, Pindar's party pass through, 

xlviii, 131, 131 71. 6; Du Verdier's 

name for, 131 w. i 
St Christopher's, in Paris, Symonds 

lodges at, 223 
St Cloud, Symonds' visit to, 224 
St Columb Minor, the Mundys of, 

xiv, XV 
St Denis, Pindar's party pass 

through, xlviii, 130, 131 «. 6; 

Heylyn's description of, 130 7i. 5 ; 

abbey at, 222 ; Symonds visits, 224 
St Denis, Rue, in Paris, 129 «. 2, 

St Dunstans-in-the-East, Richard 

Wyche buried in, 159; monument 

to Richard Wyche in, 159; Lady 

Harby buried in, 163, 164 
St Germain, Fauxbourg, 224, 225 
St Germain, palace, 224 

St Gluvias, no mention of Richard 

Mundy in the registers of, xiv 
St Helena, L, Mundy's arrival at, 9 
St Helier, capital of Jersey, 144, 144 

«• 3 

St Innocents, in Paris, bones in the 
churchyard of, xlvii, xlviii, 129, 
129 7z. 2, 226; reported quality of 
the earth in the yard of, 129, 129 
7Z. 3 ; Symonds' description of, 226; 
the burying-place of strangers, 226 

St Jacque, Rue de, Symonds lodges 
in, 223 

St James's Park, compared with 
the Seraglio at Constantinople, 28, 
r88 ; compared with the gardens of 
the Louvre, 128 «. i 

St Jean de Maurienne, Pindar's 
party lodge at, 115 ; description of, 
xiv, 115 «. 6; a Bishop's See at, 
116, 231; Mundy's commendation 
of, xiv, 117; Symonds' description 
of, 231, 232 

St John Delio. See S. Andrea del 

St John d'Ulloa, Mundy's intended 
voyage to, 6 ; situation of, 6 w. 2 

St Lawrence. See Madagascar 

St Louis, picture of, in the Louvre, 

St Lucas. See Sanlucar de Barra- 

St Malo, Mundy's visit to, xvi, lii, 
143, 144, 145 ; Mundy's description 
of, 143; tide at, 143, 143 7Z. 8, 143 
7Z. 9 ; how guarded, lii, 143, 143 
7t. 10, 144 n. I ; Mundy returns to, 

I44> 145 
St Margaret's Church, Lothbury, 

Sir Hugh Wyche buried in, 158 
S. Maria, a bell in the Giralda at 

Seville, xxi, xxi 7t. 2 
St Mark's, square and tower, at 

Venice, xli, 90, 91, 97, 97 «. 2 
St Martin, Rue de, in Paris, Pindar's 

party lodge in the, xlvii, 124. 124 

n. 8 
St Mary Port, 14 «. i 
St Michael Arckangell. See Arch- 
St Michel, Pindar's party dine at, 

xiv, 115; description of, 115 71. 5, 

S. Nicolo, Fort, at entrance to the 

lagoons of Venice, 89 7i. 8, 90 7i. 2 
St Pablo, Dominican convent of, at 

Valladolid, 140 7t. 3 ; rebuilt by 

Torquemada, 140 «. 3 ; restored 

by the Duke of Lerma, 140, 140 

71. 3 



S. Pietro da Castello, at the entrance 
to the lagoons of Venice, 90 n. 1 

S. Romano, Military Gate, the 
Turks enter Constantinople by the, 

193 71. 1 

St Sebastian, Mundy arrives at, 1, 
li, 139, 139 n. 3, 145; Mundy 
returns to, li, 141 ; route from, to 
Victoria described, 141, 142, 142 
n. I 

St Sophia, mosque of, at Con- 
stantinople, 29, 30, 35, 195; de- 
scription of, 35 n. 3, 185, 185 «. I, 
189, 194; view of Constantinople 
from, 191 ; length and height of, 

St Vincent, Cape, xxiii, 16 

Sdis, a groom, 43 n. 3 

Salisbury, situation of, compared 
with Beauvais, 221 

Salisbury, Cadwallader, the Levant 
Company's chaplain at Constanti- 
nople, 23 71. 4 

Salona, 85 n. 4; siege of, 147 71. 3 ; 
rebuilt, 147 «. 3 

Salt, brought to Belgrade, xxxv, 75; 
whence extracted, 75 «. i 

Salter, Robert, escorts Pindar from 
Constantinople, 45, 47, 47 «. i ; 
made free of the Levant Company, 
45 «. 5 ; owner of the Marga7'et, 

45 «• 5 
Salter, William, Consul at Smyrna, 

45 n. 5, 45 «. 6 
Saltingstall, Elizabeth, marries 

Richard Wyche, senior, 158, 159 
Saltingstall, Sir Richard, Lord 

Mayor of London, his daughter 

marries Richard Wyche, senior, 

158, 159 
Saltpetre, 8 

Sa7narita7t, the, of Dartmouth, 42 «. 2 
Samos, Blount's description of, 157 

«. 4 
Sancerre, situation of, 121, 122, 

122 w. I ; Protestant stronghold at, 

xlvi, 121, 228; description of, 121 

71. 3 

Sancy, Baron de, French ambassador 
at Constantinople, 43 ^- i ; im- 
prisonment of, 43 7t. I 

Sanderson, John, Voyage of. See 
Purchas His Pilgri?nes 

Sandys, Edwin, Archbishop of York, 
father of George Sandys, 192 n. 3 

Sandys, George, his l^avels referred 
to, see notes on pp. 3, 18, 20, 21, 
26, 30, 31, 32, 35, 38, 56, 87, 102; 
Mundy quotes from his work, Ivi, 
lix, 26, 192-198; full title of his 

T7-aveh, 192 «. 3; life and works of, 

192 71. 3 

Sanita, Pindar's certificate of health 
inspected by the, 90 ; officer of the, 
at Venice, grants a pass to Pindar, 

Sanlucar de Barrameda, Mundy 
goes as cabin-boy to, 14, 24 ; 
situation of, xvii, 14 «. i ; Mundy 
lives at, with Mr Parker, xv, xvii, 
xviii, XX ; Duke of Medina Sidonia 
dies at, xx 

Saone, river, at Lyons, xlvi, 119, 
119 7t. 2, 229 

Sa?-a2, 148 ft. 3 

Sarajevo, 83 7t. 5 ; Pindar's party 
reach, xxxvii, 81 ; descriptions of, 
xxxviii, 81, 81 71. 3, 81 7t. 4, 82 «. r, 
82 «. 3 ; people of, xxxviii, Iv, 81, 
148; distance of, from Belgrade, 
81 n. 2; castle at, xxxviii, 81, 81 
71. 5, 148 ; other names for, 81 «. 2 ; 
Blount's remarks on, 81 «. 2, 146, 
148; mosques at, xxxviii, 82 ; float- 
ing mills at, xxxviii, 82, 82 7i. 3 ; 
horses hired at, xxxvii, 82 ; descrip- 
tion of the country beyond, xxxvii, 
82 ; railway from, to Mostar, 
xxxviii, 83 «. 4 ; derivation of the 
name, 148 n. 3; unpopularity of 
Europeans at, xxxvii, 81 ; time 
occupied in the journey from Bel- 
grade to, xxxvii ; difficulty of the 
journey from, to Spalato, xli 

Sardica. See Sophia 

Sardinia, 15 ;z. 7 

Saros, rock-salt obtained from, 75 

7i. I 

Save, river, 68 «. 4, 73, 74, 74 7z. i, 
78 w. 4, 80, 149, 200; flows un- 
mingled with the Danube, xxxv, 
150, 150 71. 2 

Savoy, map of, in Mundy's MS., 
6 71. I, 112 7z. 2, 115 7z. 1, 115 «. 6, 
118 71. 2 ; ambassador from, to 
Venice, xli, 93 ; hostilities between 
Spain and, no 7t. 5 ; boundary of, 
xliv, xlv, 113, 113 7t. I, 1x6 71. 5, 
118, 230,233; Symonds' travels-in, 
217, 230-233 ; bishoprics in, 233 

Savoy, Duke of, his family, xliv ; 
his ambassador at Venice, 93 «. 4 ; 
extent of his territories, 108, 108 
7t. 5 ; absent from Turin on Pindar's 
arrival, 109 ; meets Pindar on Mt. 
Cenis, xlv, 113; his heir, xlv; 
see also s. v. Charles Emanuel. 

Savoyards, language of the, 114, 
114 71. 2, 115, 115 «. I, 230, 231, 
233 ; the, suffer from goitre, 1 1 7 «. 5 



Scanderoon, 146 n. i ; Mundy 
touches at, 15 n. 4, 16, 24, 166, 
167, 174; the seaport of Aleppo, 
xxiv, 19 ; unhealthiness of, xxiv, 
19; situation of, xxiv, 19; wild 
beasts at, 19; Levant Company's 
representative at, 19 n. i ; Dallam's 
description of, 19 «. 1; Robson's 
description of, 19 «. 2 ; location of 
battlefields near, 19 n. 2 

Scio, an English Consul at, i6 «. 4, 
44 71. 6 ; Richard Wyche trades to, 
161; Edward Wyche meets Lady 
Wyche at, 164 ; the Royall 
Merchant bound to, v(>, 166, 167, 

Sclavonia, 146, 147 n. 4 

Scroles, Henry, nephew of Joshua 
Downing, 1 70 

Scroles, Jasper, nephew of Joshua 
Downing, 170 

Scroles, Mrs, sister of Joshua 
Downing, 170 

Scutari, 30, 65 n. i, 191, 194 ; 
situation of, 197; tower at, 197 

Seale, Humphrey, beadle to the 
Levant Company, 42 n. 4 

Seale, Mr, travels in Pindar's train, 42 

Seine, river, bore at the mouth of 
the, xviii, xix ; bridges over the, at 
Paris, xlvii, 124, 125, 125 n. 5 

Selibrea, Selymbria. See Silivri 

Selim L, mosque of, 35 n. 4 ; his 
treasure kept in the Seven Towers, 
185 ; defeat of, by Bayazld H., 212 

Selim IL, 185; injures the Column 
of Serpents, 33 11. i 

Semaroromo Blato, probably 
Mundy's "great lake," xxxix, 84 
n. 7 

Semendria, 201 

Sept Voies, Rue de, Symonds 
lodges in the, 223 

Sequins, 18 w. 3, 166, 177, 186; 
value of, 26 n. 2, 27 ; Venetian, 
value of, 119 n. 6 

Seraglios, at Constantinople, 25, 26, 
27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 35 71. 5, 39 11. I, 
184, 187, 188, 189, 194, 197, 198; 
at Adrianople, xxx, 49, 49 n. 4, 
156, 211 

Serio, river, 106, 106 k. 2 

Serpents, infest Constantinople, 33 
71. I ; Column of, 33, 33 «. i, 185 

Servia, 68 «. 4, 69 71. 5, 201 ; 
Belgrade on the confines of, 199 ; 
the Nissava separates Bulgaria 
from, 204 ; Christians in, 205 ; 
cheapness of provisions in, 205 ; 
compared with Bulgaria, 206 

Servians (Bulgarians), Mundy's de- 
scription of, Iv 

Sestos, castle, on the European side 
of the Dardanelles, 157, 157 n. 2, 
197, 198 

Seven Towers, the, at Constanti- 
nople, 27,29,31, 184, 189; situation 
of, 31 «. 2 ; various descriptions of, 
31 n. 2, 184, 187; Baron de Sancy 
imprisoned in, 43 «. t ; treasure 
guarded in, 184, 185 

Seville, Mundy's visits to, xviii, 14, 
24, 97 n. 4, 145 ; Mundy learns 
Spanish in, xviii, 14 ; Giralda at, 
XX, 97, 137 «. 5 ; Mundy goes to, 
with pilchards, xiii, xv, 1, 137 ; 
Mundy resides with Mr Weaver at, 
XV ; Mundy's description of, xx-xxii ; 
fertility of the surroundings of, xxii ; 
ceremony at the coming of the King 
of Spain into, xxii 

Shah 'Abbas, makes peace with 
Turkey, 65 ; his envoy, 65 it. i 

Shdhi, a coin, 76 11. 4 

Shah Jahan, emperor, 4 «. 3 ; his 
entry into Agra, 8 ; his garden, 8 

Shakespeare, William, his Winter's 
Tale referred to, 18 71. 2 

Shamberly. See Chambery 

Sharkoi. See Pirot 

Shawgurre, Mundy's journey from 
Agra to, 7 

Sherbet, manufacture of, 63, 65 71. 3 

Shirley, Sir Thomas, imprisoned by 
the Turks, 50 n. 2 

Sian, Pindar's party dine at, xliv, 
109; distance of, from Turin, 109 

71. I 

Sicily, 16, 17, 17 71. 3 

Sigismund HL, of Poland, intrigues 
with Caspar Gratiani, 51 7t. 3; his 
forces defeated at Jassy, 51 «■ 3 

Silivri, 34 «. i, 73 «. 4; road from 
Constantinople to, 46 7t. 2 ; Pindar's 
party encamp near, xxviii, xxx, 47; 
descriptions of, 47 71. 3, 156, 212, 
213; other spellings of the name, 
47 71. 3, 156 ; antiquity of, xxx, 
2r3, 215 

Silver Lion, the, at Calais, 133 
n. 4 

Silver mines, on the way to Sarajevo, 

Simois, river, 157 7t. 3 

Sinope, ravaged by Cossacks, 63 

71. I 

Sipahi (spahee), sepoy, 68 «. 3, 203, 
204; a guard of, escort Pindar, 
xxxiii, 67 ; of whom composed, 67 
71. I ; at Adrianople, 211 



Sittingbourne, Pindar's party reach, 
xlix, 135; Symonds passes tlarough, 

Skinners' Company, connection of 
the Wyche family with, 158, 159 

Slade, Captain James, commander of 
the Koyall Mary, 8, 10 

Slomie AISS. referred to, 811, see 
Bell, Richard; 2142, see notes on 
PP- 17. 93> 99. 104> ^25, 127, 128, 
1321 153; 4217) see notes on 
pp. 114, 116, 118; 4223, see 218 
71. 5 

Smith, John, escorts Pindar from 
Constantinople, 45, 46 

Smithfield, compared with the 
At-maidan, 195 

Smolensk, Mundy's intended journey 
to, 6 

Smyrna, xxv, 16, 44 «. 6, 45 n. 5, 
161, 172, 173 

Smyth, his Sailors Word Book re- 
ferred to, 136 71. 2 

Soave, 10 1 71. 4 

Sol, soldi, value of, 92 «. r, 100 7i. 4, 
119, 119 71. 8, 123, 235 

Somerset House, wills at, referred 
to, 158 n. 4, 160 71. t, 162 7t. 2, 
163 71. 3, 164 71. 4, 170 71. I, 179 

7t. 5, 182 71. 2 

Somme, river, 131 w. 9, 138 «. 4 
Soncino, Pindar's party pass, xliii, 
105 ; under Spanish rule, xliii, 105, 

105 71. 6 

Sophia, Sofia, 65, 71 w. i; Pindar's 
party reach, xxix, 62 ; descriptions 
of, xxxiii, 62 «. I, 151, 152, 206, 
207, 208; other names for, 62 71. i, 
■207 ; situation of, xxxii, 63, 207, 
209 ; description of the country from, 
to Nissa, 66, 66 «. 2, 206, 208 ; 
Christian villages in the neighbour- 
hood of, 206 ; climate of, 207, 208 ; 
residence of the Viceroy of Rumelia, 
xxxiii, 208 ; country between 
Philippopolis and, infested by 
robbers, xxxii, 209 

Sorbonne, College, 224 

South Seas, 6 ; places included in 
the term, 5 71. i 

Spain, trade between Cornwall and, 
xvii; Mundy's travels in, 1, li, Ixi, 
I ; ambassador from, to Venice, 
xli, 93 ; territory in Italy, under the 
rule of, 105, 105 71. 6; hostilities 
between Savoy and, i ro 71. 5 ; 
peace concluded between England 
and, 139 71. 4 

Spalato, 49 11. 4, 84 71. I, 85 71. 5, 
91 71. 4, 92 71. 3; pratique observed 

at, 1 7 «. 2 ; cost of horse-hire from 
Sarajevo to, xxxvii, 82 ; situation 
of, 82 71. 4, 86, 86 71. 3, 147; route 
from Sarajevo to, xxxviii, 83 n. 4; 
Mundy's route from, to Turin, 84 
7t. 4, 136; cultivation of the country 
surrounding, xl, 86 ; lazaretto at, 
xxxix, xl, 86 ; derivation of the 
name, 86 71. 3 ; ruins of castles at, 
86, 86 71. 4; Count of, entertains 
Pindar, xl, 88 ; fortification of, 88, 
148; under the Venetians, 147; 
uselessness of the harbour at, 147, 
148 ; tribute paid to the Turks at, 

147, 147 71. 4 

Spanish language, Mundy learns 
the, at Seville, 14 

Spanyi, his painting of Clissa, 85 7t. 4 

Spike family, the, connected with 
the Pindars, 134 «. 8 

Spike, Lawrence, travels in Pindar's 
train, 42 ; recommended as a purser, 
42 71. I ; his connection with Pindar, 
134 7t. 8 

Spike, Thomas, meets Pindar at 
Dover, xlix, 134, 134 «. 8 ; husband 
of Elizabeth Pindar, 134 7t. 8 

Spread Eagle, the, at Orzi Vecchi, 
xliii, 105, 105 71. I 

Srebreniza, site of the ancient silver 
mines, xxxvii, 80 71. 3 

Staking, a punishment for robbers, 
xxxii, XXXV, xxxvi, 55, 71, 71 «. 7, 
206; description of, Iv, Iviii, 55; 
illustration of, 55, 58; various 
accounts of, 55 ti. 4 

Stamboul. See Constantinople 

Stamo, a Greek, member of Pindar's 
train, 44; left at Adrianople, xxx, 
xxxi, 50 

Stampes, Mr, his journey to Con- 
stantinople, 73 71. 4 

Standards, Turkish, ^^, 64 ; origin of 
the, of the seven Horse-tails, 64 «. i 

Staple, Richard, emissary to Murad 
III., 171 

State Papei's, Foreig7i Archives, re- 
ferred to, see notes on pp. xxiii, 
xxvii, 15, 22, 41, 42, 44, 45, 92, 93, 
100, 106, 108, 134, 138, 141, 159, 
163, 164, 166, 175, 176, 177, 178, 
180, 181 

Stow, John, his Su7-vey of Lo7tdon 
referred to, 59 71. i, 159 «. 4 

Stowe AfSS., 180 referred to, 73 «. 4; 
916 referred to, 132 n. 8, 133 n. 5 

Straights, the. See Mediterranean 
Sea, the 

Strasburg, Des Hayes travels to 
Belgrade by way of, 214 «. 4 



Strawberries, abundance of, on the 
way to Sarajevo, xxxvii, 79 

Stringar, Edward, escorts Pindar 
from Constantinople, 44 ; treasurer 
to the Levant Company at Con- 
stantinople, 44 n. I 

Stromboli, I. and Mt., Mundy's 
description of, xxiv, 17, 18; Lith- 
gow's description of, 17 n. 3; 
Robson's description of, 17 11. 3; 
Bell's description of, 17 n. 3 

Struys, John, his Voyages and Travels 
quoted, 17 «. i, 18 ;?. 3, 20 n. 2 

Styria, 68 n. 4 

SuQuraz, a Venetian castle, 85, 85 
n. 5 ; situation of, 85 «. 5 

Sulaiman, Sultan, xxx, 31 n, i, 35 
11. 4, 35 n. 5, 48 n. 3, 62 n. 1 ; the 
Magnificent, his altercation with 
Mustafa Pasha, 52; his conquests 
in Hungary, 52, 52 «. i, 149, I49 
n. 4, 201 ; his mosque at Adrianople, 
156, 211; enlarges the aqueduct at 
Constantinople, 184, 195; mosque 
of, at Constantinople, 189 

Sully, Pindar's party pass, 122; 
description of, 122 n. 2 

Sultans of Turkey. See Grand 

Sumatra, 5 ; Mundy's voyage to, i, 9 

Silinpdreh, red emery stone, 35 ;/. 2 

Surat, Mundy's voyage to, xvi, 7, 
10; events at, during Mundy's stay, 
7 ; Mundy's journey from Agra to, 
8; Mundy's departure from, 8; 
Bernard Wyche a merchant at, 
165; Nathaniel Wyche, President 
of, dies at, liv, 165 

Surendeh, a sage, 33 n. i 

Susa, 1 1 2 n. 2 

Swabia, 201 

Swally, the " Mareene " at, 8 

Sw^anley, Captain Richard, com- 
mander of the yonah, 7 

Sweden, Des Hayes' mission to, 199 
n. 2 

Swinging, in Turkey, how practised, 
58, 59; illustration of, 58 

Switzers, appointed as a body-guard 
for Pindar, no; origin of, ixo 
11. I 

Syces, horsekeepers, grooms, 43 

Symes, Randolph (or Randall), 
accompanies Pindar to Vicenza, 
xlii, 100, loi; employed by the 
Levant Company, xlii, 100 n. 5 

Symonds, Anna, mother of Richard 
Symonds, 218 «. 5 

Symonds, Anne, sister of Richard 
Symonds, 218 «. 5 

Symonds, Edward (or Edmund;, 
father of Richard Symonds, 216 
n. I, 218 «. 5 

Symonds, Edward, brother of 
Richard Symonds, 218 n. 5 

Symonds, John, brother of Richard 
Symonds, 218 n. 5 

Symonds, Richard, his Note-books 
{Hurl. MSS. 943 and 1278) re- 
ferred to, see notes on pp. 105, 109, 
no. III, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 
117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 127, 129, 
130, 131, 132, 134, 135; quotations 
from his note-lDOoks, 217-235; 
contents of his note-books, 217 
ti. i; birth and parentage of, 217 
11. I ; his only published MS., 217 
n. I ; his notes of expenses during 
his travels, 217, 218, 222, 223, 224, 

Talismans, in Constantinople, 33 
n. I, 34 n. 2, 35 n. 2 

Tarare, Pindar's train post to, xlvi, 
119; description of, 119 71. 7, 229; 
cost of horse hire from Lyons to, 
119, 119 ??. 8; Symonds' remarks 
on the country between Roanne 
and, 229 

Tatar Bazarjik, Pindar's party dine 
at, xxix, xxxii, 60 ; Poullet's de- 
scription of, 60 n. 4 ; other spell- 
ings of the name, 60 n. 4 ; Des 
Hayes' description of, 209 ; Khan 
at, 209 

Tdilk-Bazd?-, poultry-market, 35 11. 2 

Taurunum. See Belgrade 

Taurus, mountain, 19 ;^. 2 

Tavernier, J. B., his Collections of 
Travels referred to, 35 n. 5, 36 
ti. I, 64 n. I 

Tavira, Mundy visits, xxii, 14, 24; 
situation of, xxii ;/. 5, 14 n. 5 

Tayfoo, at the mouth of the Canton 
river, 9, 11 

Taylor, Major John, his Travels 
from England to India referred to, 
60 n. 5, 66 n. 4, 69 n. 2, 99 w. 3, 
loi n. 3 

Tea, Thomas Garraway the first re- 
tailer of, 14 n. \\ 

Teodora, a Russian, a member of 
Pindar's train, 43 ; acts as inter- 
preter, 78, 78 n. 1 

Terjinnan, interpreter, 42 n. 5 

Teutamos, Eumenes taken by, 154 
n. I 

Thames, river, xlix 

Thebes, 188 

Theiss, river, 75 n. 3 



Theobalds, Captain Henry, visits 
Pindar at Venice, 92 ; reprieved 
prisoners sent to, as soldiers, 92 

»• 5 

Theodosius, Emperor, 32 n. i, 35 
;/. 2, 48 «. 3 ; sets up a column at 
Constantinople, 195, 195 n. 3 

Thermopylae, Mundy's idea of its 
situation, 61 n. 6; located by 
Blount, 152, 152 71. 6, 153, 154 

71. I 

Thessaly, 146, 151, 152, 152 w. 5, 

154 "■ I 
Thevenot, Monsieur de, his T7-avels 
i7tto the Levant referred to, see 
notes on pp. 21, 31, 32, 33, 37, 38, 

39» 52> 53> 56, 57. 58. 81 
Thieves. See Robbers 
Thomas-Francis, Prince of Ca- 

rignan, son of the Duke of Savoy, 

iro 71. 6 
Thorneton, Captain, Englishman, 

residing at Abbeville, 132 
Thou [tugh), 64 71. I 
Thrace, 146, 152, 152 ;z. 5, 155, 

183, 187, 213 
Three Blackamoors, the, at Ar- 

pajon (Chatres), xlvii, 124 
Three Flower de Luces, the, at 

Avigliana, xliv, in; at Bramant, 

115 ; at Lyons, 119 ; at Toury, 123 
Three Kings, the, at Lanslebourg, 

xlv, 114; at Lyons, 119 7i. 5; at 

Milan, xliii, 106, 106 71. 4; at 

Novara, 108, 108 7i. 3 ; at Vicenza, 

xlii, loi 
Three Mores Heads, the, in 

Paris, 223 
Three Pigeons, the, at Bussoleno, 

xliv, 112 
Tiberiopolis. See Sarajevo 
Tiberius Caesar, rebuilds Salona, 

147 71. 3 
Ticino, river, 107 71. 2 ; Pindar's 

party cross the, xliv, 108 
Tierney, M. A., his History a7id 

A7itiquities of A7-U7idel referred to, 

100 71. I 

Tillart, Pindar's party pass through, 

I3i> 13' n. 5 
Ti77ies Newspaper, the, reference to 

Garraway's coffee-house in, 14 «. 

Tokely, Captain, visits Pindar at 

Venice, 92, 93 
Tondja, river, 156, 156 71. i, 211 
Tonkin, Thomas, his remarks on 

Peter Mundy, xiii, Ixii ; gives the 

name of Mundy's father, Ixii ; states 

that Mundy intended to publish his 

MS., Ixii; gives extracts from 
Mundy's M.S. in his CoUcctio7is for 
the Histo7y of Co7'/rd'all, Ixii 

Top-Khdiia, the, at Constantinople, 
ordnance at, 39, 39 71. 2, 197; 
descriptions of, 39 71. i, 191 

Torquemada, Cardinal Juan, re- 
builds S. Pablo, 140 71. 3 ■ 

Torre di Confini, loi 7t. 4 

Totnes, Mundy's father apprenticed 
at, xiii 

To7ir ill Fra/ice a7id Italy., A, re- 
ferred to, see notes on pp. 99, 107, 
117, 125, 128 

Tournefort, N., his Voyage i7ito the 
Levant referred to, see notes on 
pp. 20, 32, 33, 52, 64 

Tournon, Rue de, in Paris, 126, 

126 71. I 

Toury, Pindar's party lodge at, xlvii, 

123, 123 71. 6 

Tower, The, at Brescia, xliii, 104, 

104 71. 5 
Trajan Gate, the, 6t 71. 2 
Trajan's Column, in Rome, 196 
Transylvania, 68 71. 4 
Trebizond, 191 
Tremogh, Cornwall, residence of 

the Worths, Ixiii 
Triana, a suburb of Seville, xxi, xxi 

71. I 

Trilj, 85 71. 2 

Trimontium. See Adrianople 
Trois Carreaux, Les, at Nevers, 235 
Troy, supposed site of, xxiv, 20, 20 
71. 2, 157; note on the actual site 

of, 157 71. 3 

Truro, xiv 

Turbans, Blount's story of the origin 

of, 153 
Turin, Mundy's route from Spalato 
to, xlii, 84 71. 4 ; capital of Pied- 
mont, xliv, 109, 109 71. 3, 116; 
Pindar's reception at, xliv, xlv, 109, 
no; Coryat's description of, 109 
71. 3; Mundy's route to Paris from, 
109 71. 3; distance of, from Sian, 
109, 109 71. I ; Symonds' descrip- 
tion of, 109 71. 3, 234; French in- 
habitants at, iio;z. 4, 234; Duke's 
gallery at, xliv, in, in 71. 2, in 
71. 3, 234; Pindar's escort from, 
III ; route over Mt. Cenis to, 112 
71. I ; horses hired from, to Lyons, 
xliv, 119; Symonds' journey from 
Dover to, 2 1 7-235 ; country around, 
described, 233, 234; the Duke's 
stable at, 234; "walks" in com- 
pared with those at Calais, 234 ; 
cost of horse hire from Lyons 



to, 235 ; cost of certificate of health 
at, 235 

Turkey, Mundy's travels m, Ixi, i ; 
map of, in Rawlhison MS. A. 315, 
6 n. I, 30 «. 2 ; distances in, how 
reckoned, 136, 136 n. 8; Sandys' 
Travels in, 192 n. 3 ; travelling in, 
the night chosen for, 212; punish- 
ments in, Iv, 55-58 ; amusements 
in, Iv, 58, 59 

Turkey Company. See Levant 

Turkey merchants, 15 ;?. 3, 47 n. r ; 
Sir John Eyre's unpopularity with 
the, 181 

Turkish ensigns, 65 

Turks, the, religion of, 26 ; conduct 
of, at a feast, 37; their usage of 
Christians, Ivii, 67, 67 7i. 3, 67 
n. 5, 68, 68 71. 3, 152, 205, 206; 
take Candia from the Venetians, 
91 n. 6 ; Blount's remarks on, 146 ; 
their attempts on Zara, 147 ; Sir 
John Eyre's unpopularity with, 181; 
destroy the Kerkoporta, 193 n. 2; 
build mosques, khans, bridges, etc. 
as acts of reparation, 212, 213, 

Turpentine Tree, the, 29, 189 

Tuscany, Duke of, presents a statue 
of Henri IV. to Paris, 125, 125 
n. 5 

Uscocs, the, piracies of, xxxvii, 81 

n. 6 
Usundji, river, xxxi 
Utrecht, treaty of, gives Milan to 

Austria, 105 n. 8 
Uzeda, son of the Duke of Lerma, 

supplants his father, 140 n. 2 
Uzunjova or Usunchobi, Pindar's 

party dine at, xxviii, xxxi, 54 ; 

other spellings of the name, 54 «. i 

Valdogosto, 88 ;?. 5 
Valentinian, Emperor, builds the 
aqueduct at Constantinople, 48 w. 

3'. 195 

Valjevo, Pindar's party encamp near, 
xxxvi, 78 ; men staked near, 78 ; 
Artzf of, sends a guard to Pindar, 
78 ; Blount's remarks on, 78 Jt. 3, 
149; description of the country 
from, to Sarajevo, 78-80, 148, 149 

Valladolid, Mundy attends the 
Chancery Court at, xvi, li, 139, 
145 ; Mundy's description of, li, 
^39' 139 '^' 4) 140; rise of, in im- 
portance, 139 ;z. 5, 140 7i. 1 ; other 
names for, 140 «. i ; the Duke of 

Lerma buried at, li, 140, 140 «. 3 ; 
chief buildings at, li, 140, 140 n. 6, 
141, 141 n. I ; Mundy stays four 
months at, li, 141, 162; salt evapo- 
rated near, 142 

Valtellina, contest for the, 153, 153 
n. I ; situation of the, 153 n. i ; 
neutrality of the, assured, 153 «. i ; 
murder of Protestants in the, 153 
n. I 

J^e^a, an open plain, xxi n. 5 

Vega de Sevilla, fertility of the, 
xxi, xxii 

Venetian Arms, the, at Lonato, 
xlii, 103 

Venetians, the, their quarrel with 
the Bosnians, xxxvii, 81, 81 «. 6; 
watch-towers erected by, xxxix, 87; 
Su9uraz taken from, 85 ; Spalato 
under the rule of, 85, 86, 147 

Venice, part of Dalmatia under the 
rule of, xxxix, 85, 86 ; John Clarke 
hires a house for Pindar at, xl, xli, 
87, 91 ; sanitary laws of, xli, 87 
n. I, 90 «. I ; Zara under the rule 
of, 88 7Z. 3, 148 ; Pindar's party 
reach, xli, 89, 136, 214 n. 4; 
arsenal at, xli, 89 n. 6, 93-97, 97 
n. I ; castles at entrance to, xli, 90 
ft. 2 ; natural defences of, go n. 2 ; 
Coryat's description of, 91 ti. i ; 
Bargrave's description of, 91 n. i ; 
nobility at, xlii, 91, 91 n. 5; Eng- 
lish soldiers at, xl, 92, 92 n. 3, 92 
7t. 6, 93, 93 7Z. 2 ; ambassadors at, 
xli, 93 ; ceremonies at, on Ascen- 
sion Day, xli, 95, 96 «. i ; bridges 
at, xlii, 28, 97, 97 71. 5, 97 K. 6 ; 
gondolas at, xlii, 97, 98 ; St Mark's 
Square and Tower at, xli, 97, 97 
7z. 2 ; Mundy's description of, xli, 
xlii, 98 ; Pindar's party leave, 
xlviii, 1, 98 ; Randolph Symes re- 
turns to, 101 ; post-road from, to 
Milan, loi ;z. 4; description of 
the country from, to Orzi Nuovi, 
xliii, 105 ; extent of the territories 
of, 105, 105 «. 7, 106 ; Blount's 
voyage to, 146 

Venice, Doge of, his marriage to the 
Adriatic, xli, 95, 96 71. r 

Venice, Gulf of, Pindar's party cross 
the, xli, 89, 89 7i. 7 

Vera Cruz, 6 7i. 2 

Vercelli, siege of, xliv, Iv, 108, 108 
71. 6, no 71. 5 ; under the Duke of 
Savoy, xliv, 108, 108 ?i. 5 ; taken 
by the Spaniards, 108, ro8 7z. 6 ; 
surrendered to Savoy, 108 «. 6; 
re-taken by the Spaniards, 108 w. 6 



Vermilion, Mundy takes a consign- 
ment of, to Patna, 8 

Verona, caroches hired to, from 
Padua, xlii, 100 ; water-mills at, 
72 n. 4; amphitheatre at, xlii, lix, 
loi, 102, 102 n. I, 102 11. 1, 103, 
103 71. 4; inns at, loi, loi n. 5; 
distance from Vicenza to, loi n. 6; 
description of, loi, 102 n. i 

Viana. See Avigliana 

Vicenza, Pindar's train lodge at, 
xlii, loi ; distance from Padua to, 
101 n. 2 ; inns at, loi, loi 11. 1 

Victor Amadeus, Prince of Pied- 
mont, marries Christine of France, 
xlv, Iv, no 71. 4 ; heir of the Duke 
of Savoy, no «. 6; sends a pre- 
sent to Pindar, 116, ri6 w. i 

Vienna, Sulaiman the Great desires 
the subjugation of, 195 ; Des Hayes 
travels via, to Belgrade, 214 «. 4 

Villa Nuova, Pindar's party dine at, 
xlii, roi ; situation of, loi 7Z. 4 

Villiano. See Avigliana 

Vilna, Mundy's intended journey 
to, 6 

Vincentio. See Castello, Vincentio 

Vineyards, in Northern Italy, 
Mundy's description of, xliii, 105 ; 
Symonds' description of, in France 
and Italy, 105 Jt. 4, 229, 233, 234 

Vitri, kills the marechal d'Ancre, 

129 71. I 

Vittoria, Mundy's visit to, 1, li, 139, 
139 «. 2, 139 71. 3, 141 ; George 
Wyche imprisoned at, 1, li, 139, 
139 n. 3 

Vivian, Charles, passenger on the 
Roy all Merchant, xxiii, 15 ; a mem- 
ber of the East India Co., 15 w. 2 ; 

=. son of Hannibal Vivian, xxiii ; 
apprenticed to Sir Morris Abbot, 
xxiii 71. 4 ; made free of the Levant 
Company, xxiii 7t. 4 

Vivian, Hannibal, of Trelewarrein, 
father of Roger and Charles Vivian, 

Vivian, Hannibal, son of Hannibal 
Vivian, senior, xv ; marries Richard 
Mundy's sister, xv ; his brothers 
sail to Constantinople with Peter 
Mundy, xv 

Vivian, Roger, passenger on the 
Roy all Merchant, xxiii, 15 ; a mem- 
ber of the Levant Company, 15 
71. 1 ; son of Hannibal Vivian, 
xxiii; travels with Sir Thomas 
Abdy, xxiii 7i. 4 

Vivians, the, connected with the 
Mundys, xv, xxiii 

Viziers, at Constantinople, their 

duties, 36 7t. 4 
Vologda, Mundy's intended journey 

to, 6 
Vrekli, Edward Wyche buried at, 

Vulcan, I., 17 «. 3 
Vulcanello, I., 17 «. 3 
Vulteius, besieged in Salona, 147 

Wadmore, J. F., his Account of the 
Company of Ski7iners referred to, 

159 71. I 

Waggons, hired from Constanti- 
nople, xxvii, 44 ; discharged at 
Belgrade, xxxvi, 72 ; hired from 
Dover to Gravesend, xlix 

Wake, Sir Isaac, English ambassador 
at Turin, xliv, 109, 109 n. 7 ; his 
reception of Pindar, xliv, 109 ; 
knighted, 109 71. 7 ; escorts Pindar 
from Turin, xliv, in 

Wales, Mundy's travels in, xvi, 9, 11 

Wallachia, 201 

W^alpole, Horace, Lord, his A7iec- 
dotes of Pai7iti72g referred to, 217 

71. I 

Wanley, Humphrey, his description 
of Hai-l. MS. 2286, Ix, Ixi 

Wardeman, Joachim, his ship taken 
by Mainwaring, 92 7i. 5 

W^ater-mills, at Lyons, 119, 119 
71. 3, 149; at Belgrade, 73, 119, 
119 71. 3, 149; at Sarajevo, 82; 
on the Loire, 122 

Watts, Thomas, master of the Expe- 
dition, 7 

Weaver, George, Mundy lives with, 
at Sanlucar, xvii, xx 71. 4, 14 

Westminster Abbey, a church in 
Beauvais compared with, 221 

Westminster Hall, compared with 
the Hall of Audience at Padua, 99 

71. 5 

Whetenall, Lady Catherine, her 
journey from Brussels to Italy, 106 
71. 7 

W^hite Lion, the, at Lyons, 119 
71. 5 

White Sea, the, Mundy's voyage to, 

Wiccia, a province of Mercia, the 
name Wyche derived from, 158 

W^iche, James. See Wyche, James 

Wiches, Old English name for salt- 
pits, 158 

Wilkinson, Sir J. Gardner, his 
Dalmatia and Mo7ite77egro referred 
to, 81 ti. 6, 85 71. 4, 85 71. 5, 86 
71. 4 



Willbraham, Thomas, factor, 8 

Williams, John, Abel Guilliams ap- 
prenticed to, xxvii n. 3 

Wilson, Mr, Master-attendant, in- 
competence of, 169 

Wilson, Anthony, travels in Pindar's 
train, 41 ; made free of the Levant 
Company, 41 n. 7; leaves and re- 
joins Pindar's party, 44, 48 ; allows 
Thaddeus Murad to return to Con- 
stantinople, xxxvi, 76; accompanies 
Mundy in Paris, xlvii, 124 

Winchester, Mundy's visit to, xvi 

Winge, Captain, joins Pindar's train 
at Padua, loi, -loi 11. i 

Withers, Robert, his account of re- 
ception of ambassadors at Constanti- 
nople, 36 n. 4 

Withers, Robert, travels in Pindar's 
train, 42 

Wolstanholme, Sir John, case of 
Lane v. Payes referred to, 42 
n. 2 

Women's Court, the. See Avret- 

Woodhouse, William, escorts Pin- 
dar from Constantinople, 44 ; made 
free of the Levant Company, 44 
H. 3 

Woolwich, Captain Downing in- 
spector of cordage at, 168 

World, the, map of in Mundy's MS., 
in. 1,6 n. I 

Worth family, the, possessors of 
the Mundy MS., Ixiii; Mundy's 
connection with, discussed, Ixiii 

Worth, Dorothy, widow of John 
Worth, junior, Ixiii 

Worth, John, junior, of Tremogh, 

Wotton, Sir Henry, English am- 
bassador at Venice, 108 n. 6 

Wyche family, the, Mundy's con- 
nection with, xxvi, liii, 14 11. g, 
T56 71. 7; account of, 158-165; 
originally settled in Worcestershire, 
158; derivation of the name, 158; 
genealogical table oi, facing p. 158 

Wyche, Abigail, 5th daughter of 
Richard Wyche, senior, 159 ; pre- 
deceases her father, 160 

Wyche, Abigail, daughter of Richard 
Wyche, junior, 161 

Wyche, Anne, 4th daughter of 
Richard Wyche, senior, 159, 164; 
legacy from her father to, 160 ; 
marries Mr Charleton, 164 

Wyche, Bernard, grandson of Sir 
Peter Wyche, 165; merchant in the 
East India Co.'s service, 165 

Wyche, Sir Cyril, great grandson of 
Sir Peter Wyche, 163 ; becomes a 
baronet, 163; title extinct on the 
death of, 165 

W^yche, Daniel, 3rd son of Richard 
Wyche, senior, 159; predeceases 
his father, 160 

Wyche, Dorothy, wife of Henry 
Wyche, 164 

W^yche, Edward, 8th son of Richard 
Wyche, senior, 14 n. 9, 159, 160, 
161 n. 2; known by Mundy, liv ; 
escorts Pindar from Constantinople, 
45, 47, 47 n. I, 164; merchant at 
Constantinople, 164 ; made free of 
the Levant Company, 164 ; returns 
to Constantinople, 164, 165 ; goes 
to Scio, 164; dies, 161 w. 2, 164, 
164 n. 4 

Wyche, Elizabeth {nk Saltingstall), 
wife of Richard Wyche, senior, 
160, 161; death of, 161; will of, 

W^yche, EHzabeth, 2nd daughter 
of Richard Wyche, senior, 159, 
160, 161, 163; marries Job Harby, 
163 ; death of, 163 ; where buried, 
163; bequests of, 164 

Wyche, George, 4th son of Richard 
Wyche, senior, 14 n. 9, 159, 160, 
161 ; Mundy's acquaintance with, 
liv; imprisoned at Vittoria, li, 139, 
139 n. 3, 162, 165; brother of 
Richard Wyche, 139; legacy to, 
162, 163, 164 

Wyche, George, grandson of Sir 
Peter Wyche, 165; a merchant at 
Pondicherry, 165 

Wyche, Henry, 1 1 th son of Richard 
Wyche, senior, 159, 160, 164, 165; 
Mundy acquainted with, liv; mar- 
ries Dorothy — , 164; family of, 164 

Wyche, Sir Hugh, mercer. Lord 
Mayor of London, 158; buried in 
Lothbury, 158; will of, 158; an- 
cestor of Richard Wyche, senior, 


Wyche, Jacob, brother of Richard 
Wyche, senior, 158; member of 
the Skinners' Company, 158 ; will 
of, 162 

Wyche, James, Mundy takes service 
under, xv, xxiii, liii, liv, 10, 14; 
7th son of Richard Wyche, senior, 
xxiii, 14 n. 9, 159; goes to Con- 
stantinople on the Roy all Merchant, 
xxiii, XXV, 14, 160, 175 ; dies of 
small-pox, XXV, 23, 136, 160, 165 

Wyche, James, a Director of the 
East India Company, 160 



Wyche, Jane, daughter of Henry 

Wyche, 164 
Wyche, Jeane, daughter of Richard 

Wyche, junior, 161 
Wyche, JuHus, 9th son of Richard 

Wyche, senior, 159, t6o, 164, 165; 

Mundy acquainted with, Uv ; will 

of, 162, 163, J 64, 164 n. 4 
Wyche, Lady Jane {nee Meredith), 

wife of Sir Peter Wyche, 163 ; 

joins her hushand at Constantinople, 

Wyche, Mary, 3rd daughter of 

Richard Wyche, senior, 159; pre- 
deceases her father, 160 
Wyche, Nathaniel, 12th son of 

Richard Wyche, senior, 159, 160, 

164 ; Mundy acquainted with, liv ; 
a director of the East India Co., 
164, 165 ; president of Surat, liv, 

165 ; dies at Surat, liv, 165 
Wyche, Sir Peter, 6th son of Richard 

Wyche, senior, 159, 160; his diplo- 
matic post in Spain, 163 ; knighted, 
163 ; ambassador at Constantinople, 
156, 163, 165; Blount's visit to, 
156; offers employment to Mundy, 
liv, 156 n. 7 ; marriage and family 
of, 163, 163 n. 4 

Wyche, Sir Peter, junior, son of Sir 
Peter Wyche, 163 

Wyche, Peter, grandson of Sir Peter 
Wyche, 165 ; a merchant at Cam- 
brai, 165 

Wyche, Rebecca, 6th daughter of 
Richard Wyche, senior, 159, 160, 

164, 165 

Wyche, Richard, father of Sir Hugh 
Wyche, 158 

Wyche, Richard, of Davenham, 
father of Richard Wyche, senior, 

Wyche, Richard, senior, a London 
merchant, 14 «. 9; known to 
Mundy, liv ; son of Richard Wyche, 
of Davenham, 158; marries Eliza- 
beth Saltingstall, 158, 159; family 
of, liv, 158, 159, 160; member of 
the Skinners' Co., 158, 159; con- 
nected with the East India Co., 
159; director of the Levant Co., 
xxiii, 159 ; member of the Muscovy 
Co., 159, 161 ; death and burial of, 
159; will of, liii, 160; inventory 
of the effects of, 160, 161 

Wyche, Richard, junior, eldest son 
of Richard Wyche, senior, 14 «. 9, 
159, 160, 161, 165; member of the 
Levant Co., 161 ; Mundy stays 
with, in Mincing Lane, 136, 16 r ; 

Mundy enters his service, 1, liii, liv, 
i37> 138 n. 2, 156 71. 7, 162; 
brother of James Wyche, 137 n. 7 ; 
executor to his father's will, 161 ; 
sends Mundy to Spain, 1, lii, 138, 
161, 162 ; sends Mundy to Col- 
chester, 143; illness and death 
of, li, 143, 162; family of, 162; 
bequests to the children of, 164 

Wyche, Richard, eldest son of 
Richard Wyche, junior, provided 
for by his grandmother, 161, 162 ; 
serves the East India Co. at 
Bantam, 1 62 

Wyche, Samuel, 5th son of Richard 
Wyche, senior, 159; predeceases 
his father, 160 

Wyche, Susanna, eldest daughter of 
Richard Wyche, senior, 159, 160, 

Wyche, Thomas, 2nd son of Richard 
Wyche, senior, 159, 160, 161, 162; 
Mundy acquainted with, liv; made 
free of the Levant Company, 159, 
162; goes to "Muscovy," 165 

Wyche, Thomas, of Alderley, nephew 
of Jacob Wyche, 162 

Wyche, WiUiam, loth son of Richard 
Wyche, senior, 1 59 ; predeceases 
his father, 160 

Wyche, William, nephew of Richard 
Wyche, senior, 160 

Wyche, William, son of Henry 
Wyche, 164 

Xaral, place planted with the cistus 
shrub, xxii n. 1 

Xarall de Sevilla, Mundy's descrip- 
tion of the, xxii 

Xerxes, his encounter with Leonidas, 
152 n. 6; musters his army on 
the plain of Adrianople, 156; his 
bridge over the Hellespont, 157, 
157 n. 2 

Xio, See Scio 

Yadra, river. See Jadar 

Yagodin or Jagodina, Pindar's 

party halt at, xxix, xxxiv, 70, 70 

n. 7 ; 2l palangha at, xxxiv, 71 «. i ; 

description of, 70 n. 7, 203 ; Des 

Hayes halts at, 203 
Yard, John, factor in the East India 

Co.'s service, 7 
Yedi Kule. See Seven Towers, the 
Yelkeeoy, Pindar's party pass 

through, 61 ; location and modem 

name of, discussed, 60 n. 5 
Yengheekeoy. See Yeni Khan 



Yengi cheri, new soldiery, janissaries, 

43 «• 2 

Yengi kyuy, the new village, 60 
n. 5 

Yeni Khan or Novi Khan, Pindar's 
party halt at, xxix, xxxii, 60; various 
spellings of the name, 60 71. 5 ; on 
the borders of Roumania, 209 

Yriarte, Charles, his Les Bords de 
r Adriatique referred to, 85 n. 4, 
86 n. 3 ; his Venise referred to, 95 
n. I 

Yteeman. S^£ Ikhtiman 

2ante, the Royall Merchant sails to, 
16, 166, 168; earthquakes at, 18 
«. 3, 19; Lithgow's description of, 
17 n. 3 ; currants produced at, 
xxiv, 18, 18 w. 3 ; no corn grown 
at, xxiv, 18, 18 «. 3 ; subject to 
Venice, 18 n. 3, 19; Sandys' de- 
scription of, 18 «. 3 ; Struys' de- 
scription of, 18 «. 3 

Zara, Pindar's party sail past, xl, 88 ; 
a garrison of English soldiers at, 
xl, 88, 88 n. 3, 92 n. 3, 93 n. 2, 
147 ; description of, 88 n. 3, 147, 
147 n. 2 ; coveted by the Turks, 

Zarekeeoy. See Pirot 

Zaribrod, Mundy's halting-place, 
xxix, 66, 66 «. 3 ; country around, 
infested with robbers, xxxiii ; Pin- 
dar's uncomfortable lodging at, 
xxxiii, 66 ; inhabitants of, flee on 
Des Hayes' arrival, 206, 206 n. 4 

Zechin, zecchino. See Sequins 

Ziani, Sebastiano, Doge of Venice, 
96 n. I 

Zindana, tower, at Belgrade, de- 
vised for the execution of criminals, 
151 ; compared with the Gemonia 
in Rome, 151, 151 n. i 

Zodiac, signs of the, on the roof of 
the Louvre, 126 

Zrni Lug, possibly Mundy's " great 
Lake," 84 ;/. 7 


p. xxxix. For Clyssa read Clissa. 

p. ^ n. 5. For Penrhyn read Penryn. 

p. 26 ti. 6. For ist ed. 1615 read 7th ed. 1673. 

p. 32 n. 2. For the corrections of the errors in this note, see p. 193 n. 2^ 

p. 33 n. 2. For Constantine read Theodosius. 

p. 80 n. 4. For Roiiten in Bosnia, read Reisen in Bosnien. 

pp. 85 n. 4 and 88 n. 3. For De Bauveau read De Beauveau. 

p. 105 n. I. For Orzivechi read Orzivecchi. 

p. 109 n. 4. For Charles Emanuel II. read Charles Emanuel I. 

pp. 126 n. 3, 127 n. 4 and 128 n. 4. For Marie de Medicis read Marie- 
de Medici. 

p. 129 n. 2. For Add. MS. 22078 read Add. MS. 22gj8. 
p. 162. For George, third son of Richard Wyche, read George,, 

fourth son of Richard Wyche. 

Caiuirttrge : 



Date Due 

. MAY 1 ^ % 













Library Bureau Cat. No. 1137 

3 5002 02024 7867 

Mundy, Peler 

The travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and 

G 161 .H2 17 

Mundy, Peter, fl. 1600-1667, 

The "travels of Peter Mundy 
In Europe and Asia, 1608-